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WWW   see World Wide Web

wait order   in newspaper advertising, an advertisement (already in possession of the publisher) that is ready to run, upon notice from the advertiser as to the exact date for insertion; an order or request to hold an advertisement until a later date before running it. 

wallscape   in outdoor advertising, advertising located on the exterior wall or surface of a building; the advertising display is painted or is self-adhesive vinyl. Sometimes referred to as a wall mural or urban wallscape. 

wants   consumer needs that a formed by one’s personality, culture, and the surrounding environment in which he or she lives; the specific way in which a consumer satisfies needs. See need.     

warmth monitor   in advertising research, a testing technique used to measure the consumer’s emotional reactions to advertising, ranging from a complete absence of warmth or emotion to truly emotional; accomplished by the respondent manipulating a computer joystick to track emotions during the viewing of a television commercial, listening to a radio commercial, or, less frequently, reading of a print advertisement, as well as by having the respondent use a pencil to mark on a sheet of paper his or her emotions along a horizontal plane with variations according to the vertical scale of emotions from top to bottom (similar to a polygraph needle or an EKG reading).  

Warranty Act   see Magnusson-Moss Product Warranty Act. 

waste audience   that part of a television or radio audience who are not legitimate prospects or in the target market for an advertiser’s product; also refers to the station’s signal going to areas where the advertiser’s product is not available. See waste circulation. 

waste coverage   see waste audience and waste circulation. 

waste circulation   that portion of a publication’s audience who are not legitimate prospects or in the target market for an advertiser’s product; also refers to a publication’s distribution into areas where the advertiser’s product is not available. See waste audience.  

wave   in tracking or ongoing research studies, each separate survey; also may refer to each period of advertising in a flighting pattern of media scheduling. See tracking and flighting.  

wave posting   in out-of-home advertising, a series of posters in a succession of areas within a particular market; often done to call attention to an advertiser’s special promotions in that market. 

wave scheduling   see flighting. 

wearout   the amount of time or the point at which an advertising message or a particular promotional activity or program loses its effectiveness; e.g., excessive repetition or overexposure causes annoyance, negative reaction, indifference, or non-attention on the part of the target audience. The decline in advertising’s or promotion’s power to positively influence purchase or other behavior. The diminished effectiveness of advertising over time. Also called decay.

Web  see World Wide Web. 

Web content   all the text, information, and graphics on a Web site. 

Web design firm   a company that specializes in planning, developing, and executing Web sites for organizations and individuals desiring a presence on the Internet. 

Web marketing   see on-line marketing. 

Web page   on a Web site, a single document (i.e., file) that may take up several screens, requiring scrolling to view the entire page; sometimes refers to the content that appears on a single screen.  

Web site   a specific location, i.e., address, on the World Wide Web; often used interchangeably with homepage and Web page. 

Webcasting   broadcasting information on a Web site; e.g., radio programming or nearly instantaneous play-by-play accounts of a baseball or football game.  

Webmaster   the designer or manager of a Web site, who is responsible for the content, functionality, and maintenance of the site. 

Weber’s Law   a principle that seeks to explain the relationship between the size of a stimulus and the amount by which the stimulus must be increased or decreased for an individual to “just notice a difference;” a psychological law that attempts to quantify the minimum amount of change in a stimulus needed to produce a “just noticeable difference” in a person’s mind. Much depends, of course, on the size of the stimulus in its initial state (e. g., the price level prior to a change). Can be expressed mathematically. Helps to shed light on questions related to how much must a product’s price be lowered (or raised) for the consumer to just notice the price change or how many brands must a retailer add (or subtract) for the consumer to just notice there has been an increase (or decrease) in the store’s assortment. In essence, whether it is a price change, a change in product attributes, or some other change, there is a threshold below which consumers do not recognize a difference and above which they do, and it really depends on the starting point and the magnitude of the change relative to that starting point. Named after E.H. Weber, a 19th century experimental psychologist. 

weekly   a magazine or newspaper published once a week, as opposed to a daily, monthly, bi-weekly, or bi-monthly  publishing schedule.    

weight   see advertising weight.  

weighted cost-per-thousand   see cost-per-thousand—target audience. 

Wheeler-Lea Amendment   passed in 1938 as an amendment to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act; amendment says: “Unfair methods of competition in commerce and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerce are hereby declared unlawful.” Made deceptive and misleading advertising illegal. The amendment gives the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) the power to act whenever there is evidence of injury to the public, whether or not there is injury to a competitor. Among other things, the amendment also gave the FTC power to issue cease-and-desist orders and levy fines on violators of the law. See Federal Trade Commission (FTC), Federal Trade Commission Act, and cease-and-desist order. 

white space   the space in a print advertisement that does not contain any text, illustrations, or graphics; the blank space in and around the individual elements of an advertisement. An important advertising design factor. 

wholesaling   all the activities involved in selling and marketing to retailers and users (e.g., industrial, institutional, or commercial) other than final consumers.    

wholesaler   a middleman who buys, handles, or otherwise facilitates the flow of manufacturers’ goods to retailers and other dealers for resale or to organizational users; does not sell in any appreciable amount to final consumers. See middleman, service wholesaler, limited-function wholesaler, and retailer. 

wide skyscraper ad   see skyscraper ad. 

width of assortment   see product assortment width. 

widow   in print advertising, when the last line of a copy paragraph has only one or two words and the line is left standing conspicuously alone; generally speaking, something to be avoided. 

wiki   a website whose content can be created and edited by anyone; an online collaborative encyclopedia to which anyone may contribute information by either creating content or editing existing content.

window advertising   advertising attached to a store window. 

window display   in retail merchandising, a display placed in a store’s window to attract the attention of passers-by in the hope they will be sufficiently interested to enter the store. 

window streamer  see window advertising. 

wipe   a optical technique for making a transition between scenes in a television commercial; one picture disappears on the screen as another takes its place. The transition can be done in a horizontal, vertical, or roatating (clockwise or counter-clockwise) motion.  

wireless communications   communications over airwaves, e.g., satellites, cellular technology, as opposed to cables or telephone lines; such communications transmissions include voice, video, data, and images. 

within-vehicle duplication   a particular audience’s exposure to the same advertisement or commercial in the same media vehicle, usually at different times, although the duplication may be the same execution repeated during the same program or even in the same publication; e.g., the same commercial aired in the first quarter of a college football game, again just before halftime, and maybe yet again during the fourth quarter of the game. See across-vehicle duplication. 

word association test   in qualitative advertising research, a projective technique in which a person responds with a word or phrase that immediately pops into mind upon seeing or hearing a particular word or list of words, a brand name, logo, or slogan; e.g., the word or phrase that first occurs to the respondent upon seeing the McDonald’s logo or the “Diamonds are forever” slogan. See sentence completion test, story completion test, cartoon method, third-person method, and picture response test, as well as qualitative research and projective research techniques. 

word-of-mouth advertising   informal communications about an advertiser’s product or service between one individual and another, e.g., friends, family, co-workers; as opposed to communications between an advertiser and an individual or target audience. Sometimes referred to as viral marketing, though such usage is usually limited to the Internet version. 

work flowchart   a diagram charting the sequence of key activities in a project, such as an advertising or promotion campaign; for example, in scheduling a direct mail program, another promotional program, or an advertising research project, taking the launch date, broadcast date, event kickoff date, mailing date, or other key deadline date, and working back to determine when each project activity must be completed to make sure of meeting the final deadline. The result is a work flowchart. Also called a reverse timetable or reverse work flowchart, describing the process. See campaign flowchart and media flowchart. 

work print   the first version of a television commercial filmed and assembled with no special effects, titles, music, or the like, permitting any changes to be made; essentially a rough of a television commercial. See rushes and rough  

work sample library   a collection of the advertising and other promotion work created by an agency, especially for the purpose of showing prospective clients the capabilities of the agency; agency search consultants maintain a library for use in assisting clients in the selection of a new advertising agency. See agency search consultant. 

working the territory   coined by advertising legend Paul Harper, a term to describe the
    notion that effective advertising depends on the creators acquiring a thorough knowledge
    of the target customers and the conditions of use for the product; prerequisites for
    advertising messages that truly connect with the audience include talking with the product
    users, observation, asking questions, and listening, i.e., doing the homework and the

World Wide Web  a system or service that allows an individual with a personal computer and a modem to navigate the Internet; a global system comprising the entire collection of Internet sites and pages that can be read and interacted with by computer. See Internet. 

wraparound commercial    in television or radio advertising, a commercial sandwiched between noncommercial material, such as a sports trivia question and the answer; e.g., Question: What is the given name of Atlanta Braves player “Chipper” Jones? followed by a :30 for AFLAC, and then the answer: Larry Wayne Jones.