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VALS   see Values and Lifestyles System. 

VMS   see vertical marketing system. 

VNR   see video news release. 

VNU   see VNU Media Measurement & Information Group.    

VO   see voice-over. 

VPVH   see viewers per viewing household. 

VSP   see vendor support program.

validity   in marketing, advertising and promotion research, the ability of a measurement instrument to actually measure what it is intended to measure; e.g., the ability of a given questionnaire to accurately measure a target audienceís awareness of an advertiserís brand before and after a particular advertising campaign. See reliability. 

value   see customer value.  

value pricing   a strategy of offering competitive-quality products at relatively low prices in the hope of attracting high customer volume; not to be confused with value-based pricing. 

value proposition   a formal statement of the benefits a brand delivers to consumers in the target market; generally, the entire set of qualities of a product or service that makes it capable of providing need-satisfying benefits to the consumer or user. The essence of the advertising and promotion backing the product or service. 

value-added   the market value of a firmís output minus the value of the inputs the firm has purchased from others to produce its final product; e.g., what the wholesaler adds to a product by virtue of buying it from a manufacturer and then reselling it to a retailer. 

value-added reseller   an intermediary, such as a retailer, who performs some activity or operation on a product to increase its value between receipt from the manufacturer or distributor and sale to the consumer; e.g., assembly of a lawnmower. 

value-based pricing   setting a productís or serviceís price on the basis of the consumerís perception of value, as opposed to the marketerís cost of the product or service; not to be confused with value pricing. 

value-delivery network   see supply chain. 

values   the various expressions of words and actions that define what an individual considers important; guidelines by which people live their lives.  

Values and Lifestyles System (VALS)   a classification scheme for segmenting consumer markets into groups based on psychographics, i.e., values, attitudes, and lifestyles; defines eight segments of adult consumers who have different attitudes and exhibit distinctive behavior and decision-making patterns. Segments include: Actualizers, Fulfilleds, Believers, Achievers, Strivers, Experiencers, Makers, and Strugglers. Used to help predict consumer behavior regarding media and products. Developed at Stanford Research Institute. See psychographic segmentation. 

variable commission   see sliding rate (scale). 

variable costs   costs that vary directly with the quantity produced or sold; see fixed costs. 

variable message sign   an electronic mobile billboard whose message changes at periodic intervals; e.g., a roadside sign alerting drivers to the latest road conditions, with an advertising message promoting a local radio station appearing at regular intervals, such as every 20 minutes. Use is regulated by individual states and municipalities.  

variable rate   see sliding rate (scale). 

varied media mix   a media strategy of spreading an advertiserís media budget over a wide range of media, as opposed to putting all dollars into just one or very few media classes; see concentrated media mix. 

variety seekers   see brand switchers. 

variety seeking   see brand switching. 

vehicle   the particular means within a media class or media subclass by which the advertiserís message is delivered to the target audience, i.e., a specific magazine, newspaper, or television program; e.g., Good Housekeeping, The Washington Post, or 60 Minutes. See media vehicle. 

vehicle option source effect   in comparing one advertising medium against another or one advertising media vehicle against another vehicle, the difference of one option vs. another in terms of the impact on the same individual; the ability of one media option to have a greater impact on a person than another media option.  

vendor   an organization that provides products or services to another organization. 

vendor analysis   a formal performance appraisal of a marketerís suppliers. 

vendor support program (VSP)   an advertising and promotion program initiated by a retailer and offered by the retailer to a manufacturer (i.e., vendor) to get it to participate in the campaign and to pay a portion of the media cost; retailer and local media generally cooperate by jointly planning and designing the campaign proposal. In contrast to cooperative advertising, which is initiated by the manufacturer. See cooperative advertising.    

venue   the specific site at which an event takes place and the location where the advertiser engages in its sponsorship or other marketing and promotion activities associated with the event; see venue marketing.  

venue marketing   an advertising and promotion strategy in which a sponsor establishes a link to a physical site, such as a stadium, arena, amusement park, auditorium, or other such site; involves signage, displays, exhibits and other means of exposing a company and its products at the site.   

venue survey   see event survey. 

verified data   data that is guaranteed accurate and truthful by an information or auditing service, such as the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC); for example, see guaranteed rate base and non-guaranteed rate base. Also see Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC). 

vertical rectangle ad   see rectangle ad. 

vertical audit   see functional audit. 

vertical buy   buying advertising time or space in several different vehicles in the same media class, such as buying space in several magazines or buying time on several radio stations; in contrast to a horizontal buy, or buying advertising time or space in several different media classes (e.g., television, radio, magazines, and outdoor) to achieve maximum reach or exposure. See horizontal buy. 

vertical cooperative advertising   a joint advertising effort between a manufacturer and a retailer or distributor, in which the advertising cost is shared, usually on a 50-50 basis, when the dealer features the manufacturerís brand in the advertising; the manufacturer usually provides the finished advertisement or commercial, with the retailer inserting its name and location. See cooperative advertising and horizontal cooperative advertising. Also see cooperative advertising kit. 

vertical cume   in television or radio, the total number of different people tuned to successive broadcast programs on a particular station or network; see horizontal cume and cumulative audience. 

vertical half-page   in print advertising, an advertisement that occupies one-half the width and the entire height of a page in a periodical; see horizontal half-page. 

vertical marketing system (VMS)   a distribution channel arrangement in which all parties, i.e., manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, operate as a unified and coordinated network or system; parties may be bound together by one channel member owning all the others, by contractual agreement, or by virtue of one channel member having such compelling size and power as to get agreement from all others to cooperate. See corporate VMS, contractual VMS, administered VMS, conventional marketing system, horizontal marketing system, and hybrid marketing system.  

vertical publication   a trade magazine or paper editorially designed for individuals who perform a variety of functions in a specific industry; covers virtually every aspect and topic of interest and importance to those in that industry; e.g., Supermarket News, Modern Tire Dealer, Candy Industry, Beverage Industry, Sporting Goods Business. See horizontal publication.     

vertical saturation (rotation)   in television or radio advertising, scheduling multiple commercials throughout a single day, on the same or different channels or stations, and usually in several dayparts; designed to reach a maximum number of individuals or households in a short time span, often in conjunction with an event or a special sale. See horizontal saturation and dayparts. 

very high frequency (VHF)   in television, channels 2-13; generally, the signal of such a channel has a greater range or coverage area than an ultra high frequency (UHF) channel. Assigned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). See ultra high frequency (UHF).  

video   the visual or picture portion of a television commercial or program; i.e., the action, on-screen copy, visual effects. See audio. 

video advertising   an advertising message that is part of a videotape, such as a movie rental, sports highlights, or free demo tape for home fitness equipment. 

video billboard   a large-scale video display, especially those seen at both outdoor and indoor sports and entertainment venues. 

video news release (VNR)   a videotape produced by an advertiser to deliver a public relations message such as a news story or some feature story, and sent to television stations for airing; the television equivalent of a press release sent to print publications. 

view   in Internet advertising, when an advertisement is downloaded by the user; also called an ad impression or ad view. 

viewer   an individual watching television. 

viewer profile   the demographic and psychographic characteristics of a televisionís or stationís audience. 

viewers per viewing household (VPVH)   the number of persons viewing television at a particular time in households where the television set is on; typically reported on a ďper 1000 viewing householdsĒ basis.  

viewing area   in television, the geographical area receiving a particular stationís signal. 

vignette commercial   a television commercial that consists of a sequence of separate brief scenes, incidents and situations, as opposed to a smooth, coherent, seamless narrative; e.g., one scene showing a mother on a telephone with her child, whereupon the scene abruptly shifts to the mother cheering for her child playing softball and, finally, the two of them at an ice cream shop on the way home Ė all within 30 seconds. 

vinyl wrap   see bus wrap. 

viral marketing   use of social networks to spread awareness or action for a product, idea, or other element the marketer wants to pass on from website to website or user to user. In Internet advertising, another name for word-of-mouth advertising, whereby consumers are encouraged to communicate with one another about the merits of a particular product or a particular issue, especially via e-mail and the social media or re-directing information to another party; goal is to expand the reach of the message. See word-of-mouth advertising. Also see stealth marketing, lean-over marketing, under-the-radar marketing, and social media.  

viral video  content on a video clip that achieves wide dissemination and popularity by means of media sharing on the Internet through means such as e-mail, instant messaging, and blogs.

virtual advertising  see virtual placement process and virtual signage. 

virtual mall   on the Internet, a group of several storefronts, allowing the user to click on any one to gain access to a particular site on the mall; the gateway to retail stores on the Internet. 

virtual placement process   digital placement or insertion of products, brand names, logos, and other advertising images in scenes of television programs; e.g., a Coke machine in a police station, a Maxwell House coffee can on the counter of a staff lunch room at a hospital, a Valvoline motor oil can on the infield of a motorsports speedway, or a Sony brand name  on the backstop behind home plate during a game telecast. A nontraditional way to reach consumers. Payment is separate from what advertisers pay to run spots during commercial breaks. Also called digital insertion system, live-video insertion system, and sponsored imagery. Sometimes referred to as product placement, though the virtual placement process involves putting a product or image into a scene by digital technology (i.e., inserting a product, logo, or image onto the television screen where no actual product is at the scene). Also called virtual advertising. 

virtual signage   in event marketing, electronic insertion of an advertiserís name, logo, or very brief message during a television broadcast, even though the sign cannot seen at the event (because it is not there); e.g., a sign on the backstop behind home plate during a baseball game telecast or a sign at the scorerís table of a basketball game. Part of the broader virtual placement process. Also referred to as virtual advertising. See virtual placement  process and rotational signage. 

visit   on the Internet, when a user calls up a particular web site; see unique audience. 

visitor survey   see event survey. 

visualization   in the creation of advertising, the process of putting together all elements of the advertising into oneís mind to form a concept or picture of what the advertising should say and how it should appear; also called conceptualization. 

visuals  all the pictures and non-verbal elements of an advertisement. 

VNU Media Measurement & Information Group   a premier provider of information for a broad range of marketing organizations involved in the media and entertainment industries, including television and radio broadcasters, advertisers, agencies, media planners, music companies, publishers, motion-picture studios, distributors and exhibitors, and the Internet industry; the parent of Nielsen Media Research. See Nielsen Media Research. 

voice   see share of voice.

voice-of-the-customer   the collective thoughts and actions of consumers or users, as expressed by their making known a position of a particular issue or by specific purchase or marketplace behavior.

voice-of-the-customer research   seeking the attitudes and opinions of consumers or users, whether by formal or informal market research techniques.

voice-over (VO)   refers to an individualís voice being heard in a television commercial without the person being seen on camera; also known as an off-screen announcer and as off-camera. Considerably less expensive than if the individual appears on camera.  

voice-pitch analysis (VOPAN)   in advertising research, a physiological method of pre-testing in which a respondentís comments about an advertisement or commercial are subjected to computer analysis to detect changes in voice pitch as the respondent describes his or her reaction to different parts of the execution; different voice pitches that occur throughout the commercial reflect different emotional levels experienced by the consumer and, hence, the ability of the execution to have impact. See physiological testing measures. 

Voice Trak   an advertising research service that provides comprehensive data on local-market advertising media spending activity throughout the US; especially useful for media planning, budget allocation, and evaluating advertising results. 

volume discount   a discount offered by a media vehicle to an advertiser, based on the amount of space or time purchased by the advertiser during a specified period of time; see space discount and time discount. 

volume merchandising allowance   a merchandising allowance (e.g., free merchandise or direct payment) whose magnitude is based on the extent or number of displays, in-store promotions, or other activities provided by the dealer on behalf of the advertiser; the greater the activity, the more the allowance. See merchandising allowance

voluntary regulation   see self-regulation.