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UPC   see Universal Product Code

URL   see Uniform Resource Locator. 

USP   see Unique Selling Proposition. 

ultra high frequency (UHF)   in television, channels 14-83; generally, the signal of such a channel has a more limited range or coverage area than a very high frequency (VHF) channel. Assigned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).  See very high frequency (VHF).  

unaided recall   in measuring and evaluating advertising and other promotion elements, a research technique in which the respondent is questioned about what they remember about something, with no verbal or visual clues provided by the interviewer to aid the respondent in his or her recollection of the facts; for example, in determining an individual’s recall of a particular television commercial, no information that would help the respondent remember the specific commercial is provided by the interviewer (that is, no information beyond what it takes to ascertain whether the person watched the program on which the commercial appeared). Researcher might ask: “What advertising do you recall seeing on TV last night?” See aided recall. 

unbundling   the practice by which a client takes media planning/buying away from the brand agencies that handle creative and gives it to a third party devoted exclusively to media planning/buying. Consolidation of the entire media responsibility for a company’s products in one firm, separate and apart from the company’s advertising agency(s) that handles creative for the products.  

uncontrollables   those elements and factors affecting the marketing program over which the marketing manager has little or no command or control, and to which the marketing mix must adapt and adjust; e.g., social, psychological, cultural, economic, governmental, and competitive factors. Though the marketer may attempt to influence the factors with a particular marketing strategy, they are “given” at the time the marketing mix is designed. See controllables and marketing mix. 

undercover marketing   see under-the-radar marketing and stealth marketing.

under-delivery   when a media vehicle delivers fewer than the promised number of impressions in a particular campaign or time period; see make-good. 

under-the-radar marketing   promotion techniques by which a marketer hires an individual(s) who then is strategically placed among people as they are going about their usual activities, for the sole purpose of spreading the word about a product or service in the attempt to get the people talking or at least thinking about it; may involve two company “agents” engaged in conversation about a product within earshot of a group of people or placing an appliance carton, a shoebox, or a digital camera box with the company logo in clear view in the lobby of an apartment or office building (paying the attendant to make sure it stays there for a period of time). Similar to lean-over marketing, but involves techniques beyond conversation. A questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Also called stealth marketing, undercover marketing, lean-over marketing, viral marketing, and word-of-mouth advertising.   

undifferentiated marketing   a marketing strategy whereby a firm or organization pursues the whole market with one product and one marketing program, choosing not to recognize different market segments; also called mass marketing. See concentrated marketing and differentiated marketing. 

unduplicated audience   the total number of different individuals exposed to the media carrying an advertiser’s message; may refer to a particular medium, media vehicle, or entire campaign. See reach and cumulative audience. 

unearned discount   that part of an advertising rate discount an advertiser fails to qualify for by not using the amount of space or time contracted for over a specified period of time; it is charged back to the advertiser. See short rate.   

unfair advertising   legally defined as “acts or practices that cause or are likely to cause substantial injury to consumers, which is not reasonably avoidable by consumers themselves and not outweighed by the countervailing benefits to consumers or competition.”   

Unfair Trade Practices Act   a federal law protecting consumers and businesses from a wide range of false, misleading, and deceptive practices; most states have adopted the law or have their own similar laws. Banned practices include any misrepresentation of goods or services such as claiming to have the approval or endorsement of a group when there is none, claiming certain ingredients, characteristics or benefits that are non-existent, advertising that disparages the competition, and a host of other unfair practices that create confusion and misunderstanding. 

unforced-rating scale   in marketing and advertising research, a scale on which a neutral or “no opinion” choice is allowed; see forced-rating scale. 

Uniform Product Code (UPC)   the set of lines appearing on all packaged consumer goods, to specifically identify the product and to facilitate checkout pricing, inventory, and other marketing procedures. 

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)   the Internet address and access description for a Web site; stands for Uniform Resource Locator. The actual link to a Web site, fully written out, as in http://www.babsonbaseball.com. Essentially the same as domain name, though there is the difference that the domain name is simply the babsonbaseball.com portion of the URL. See domain name.  

unilluminated panel   see non-illuminated panel. 

unipole   see monopole. 

unique audience   on the Internet, the number of different individuals visiting a Web site or viewing a banner or other type of advertisement, often cited on a per-day basis; identification of visitors relies on user registration, tracking technology, or other recognition system. Also called unique visitors or unique users or just plain visitors or users.  

unique selling proposition (USP)   a promise in an advertising message that the
    particular product being advertised will provide a specific, relevant, distinctive (“unique”)
    benefit to the consumer; a term coined by advertising legend, Rosser Reeves.
 

unique user   see unique audience. 

unique visitor   see unique audience. 

unit   a single advertisement or commercial; e.g., a full-page, a two-page spread, a :30, or a :60, or a single poster panel or painted bulletin or any out-of-home advertising display. 

U.S. Department of Commerce   the cabinet-level executive department of the federal government dealing with all aspects of business, economics, and trade; its work and jurisdiction encompasses many bureaus and agencies including, among several others, the Census Bureau, Patent and Trademark Office, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Economics and Statistics Administration, Economic Development Administration, Bureau of Industry and Security, International Trade Association, National Telecommunications & Information Administration, and the National Institute of Standards & Technology. 

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office   the federal agency, under the U.S. Department of Commerce, that has jurisdiction over all patents, trademarks, brand marks, and service marks; supervises and controls the application, registration, and protective standards and guidelines, including the way they may be used by marketers and advertisers. 

U.S. Postal Service   the federal authority that regulates and controls advertising and promotional practices, messages, and communications that use the postal system. 

unit-of-sales method   in advertising budgeting, allocating a specific dollar amount of advertising for each unit of product expected to be sold during the budget period; a top-down approach to budgeting. see affordable method, arbitrary method, competitive parity method, objective-and-task method, and percentage-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and top-down approach to budgeting. 

unit-pricing   putting a product’s price-per-ounce (or other meaningful quantity) next to or on the item itself; a legal requirement for every item in a store in some states.  

unity   in advertising design and layout, the principle that all components and elements of an advertising execution should be uniform or related to one another to achieve full impact, or synergistic effect; see balance, contrast, emphasis, flow, gaze motion, and harmony. 

universal coupon   a single coupon redeemable on the consumer’s choice of the particular manufacturer’s brands; e.g., a coupon issued by a cereal manufacturer and redeemable on any one of the manufacturer’s brands featured on the coupon. 

universe   in marketing and advertising research, the entire population of individuals or organizations that make up the target for a particular research project; the entire group being studied. Also referred to as the research population. 

unload   to sell merchandise extremely quickly by offering any of a several incentive-laden promotional inducements to consumers; i.e., to move products off retail shelves at a fast pace in a short time. 

unmeasured media   refers to advertising expenditures in media that are not regularly and formally monitored, but for which estimates are made as to advertising spending; includes direct mail, sales promotion, cooperative advertising, couponing, catalogs, business and farm publications, special events, and other support media for advertising. Expenditures are published annually by Advertising Age in its100 Leading National Advertisers issue, as well as at periodic intervals throughout the year. Sometimes referred to as alternative media or nontraditional media. See measured media and support media. 

unpaid distribution   in the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) reports for print advertising, the circulation or distribution of copies for trade shows and conventions, as well those used as checking copies and promotion copies for advertisers and agencies; see checking copy and promotion copy. 

unsought products   consumer products for which the potential customer does not yet have a need or want, or knowledge they even exist; see new unsought products, regularly unsought products, consumer products classification system, convenience products, shopping products, and specialty products.    

unstructured questions   see open-end questions. 

untapped market   a particular market segment with an existing but as-yet unfulfilled need,
    either because the product does not exist or because current products do not fully satisfy
    the need; represents a marketing opportunity; a market waiting for a product to come
    along. 
 

unusable diaries   diaries, when returned to Aribitron or Nielsen, are judged to be
    unusable according to the established criteria; see diary and diary method.
 

unwired network   see wireless communications.    

up-front buying   the purchase of network television program advertising time at the initial offering by the networks or when the season schedule is first announced, usually several months in advance of the programs on which the advertising time will be used by the advertiser; e.g., buying advertising time in the spring for programs that will begin airing in the fall season. Also applies to the purchase of cable television and syndicated television time. See upfront market. 

up-front market   the buying period for network television advertising time that occurs well in advance of an upcoming television season, when advertisers and networks make commitments for large blocks of commercial time; also applies to cable television and syndicated television time. See upfront buying. 

upmarket   that portion of the market for premium and luxury products and brands; e.g., very high-end automobiles, apparel, jewelry, or china. 

upscale   a descriptive term for an individual or group located at the higher end of the socio-economic ranking; see downscale. 

up-selling   in the inbound telemarketing process, an attempt by the person handling the transaction to sell additional merchandise to the caller; see inbound telemarketing. 

urban panel   in out-of-home advertising, an above-ground panel located at the entrance to a subway station; see panel. 

urban wallscape   see wallscape. 

usage data   facts that describe consumer purchasing habits and consumption patterns for a particular product or brand; see usage rate and user profile. 

usage rate   the extent to which consumers use or consume a particular product; typically categorized as heavy, medium, light, and non-usage. A common market segmentation variable. See behavioristic segmentation and market segmentation. 

usage-and-attitude studies   research that aims to describe users, as well as non-users, of a product along with their attitudes toward the product. 

use positioning   see positioning by use. 

user   the individual or organization that actually uses or consumes the product; in Internet advertising, the number of different people visiting a particular web site. 

user positioning   see positioning by user. 

user profile   a description of the buying habits and the demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioral characteristics of individuals who use a particular product or brand; see consumer profile

user status   a behavioristic segmentation variable that breaks consumers into categories such as non-users, ex-users, potential users, first-time users, or regular users; see behavioristic segmentation. 

utility   the need-satisfying power of a product or service; the satisfaction and pleasure an
     individual gets from having or using the product or service; See utility, form utility,
    possession utility, place utility,
and time utility.