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TAB   see Traffic Audit Bureau of Media Measurement

TAT   see Thematic Apperception Test. 

TAP   see total audience plan. 

TNS   see Taylor Nelson Sofres. 

TOMA   see top-of-mind awareness. 

TRPs   see target rating  points. 

TSA   see total survey area. 

TVB   see Television Advertising Bureau. 

TVHH   see television households. 

tab   see tabloid newspaper. 

table display allowance   in trade promotion, a payment by a manufacturer to a retailer to display or highlight a product on a separate auxiliary table. 

tabloid newspaper   a less-than-standard-size newspaper, measuring approximately 14 inches deep by 10½ inches wide, with five columns; as opposed to standard-size (broadsheet) newspaper, which measures about 22 inches deep by 13½ inches wide, with six columns. For advertising purposes, a full page measures 70 column inches (14 x 5). See broadsheet. 

tachistoscope   in marketing and advertising research, a device that regulates a respondent’s exposure time to a particular stimulus, such as the amount of time an individual sees a television commercial or a billboard; used to help study learning, attention, and perceptual processes. 

tactics   the very specific actions a marketer or advertiser employs in the short-term to achieve goals. 

tag   in television or radio advertising, a local retailer’s message at the end of an advertiser’s commercial; generally to indicate where the advertised product can be bought. The broadcast equivalent of a dealer imprint or dealer tie-in for print advertising. See dealer imprint and dealer tie-in. 

tag line   see slogan. 

tail-light poster   an advertising sign mounted below the rear window on the outside of a bus or rapid transit vehicle; measures approximately 21” high x 72” wide. Also called a rear-end display or tail-light display. See exterior bus, headlight poster, queen-size poster, and king-size poster.  

take-one   a mail reply card, coupon, or other promotional literature attached to an advertisement, or as a free-standing unit; often a request for further information. Also called a tear-off

talent    the people or cast who perform in a television commercial; includes news anchors, reporters, sports people, weather forecasters, as well as musicians and off-camera announcers. 

talent cost   the expenditure for the people or cast who perform in a television commercial, including residuals. See residual and session fee. 

talent payment   see residual, talent cost, and session fee.     

target audience   see target market. 

target cost-per-thousand (target CPM)   see cost-per-thousand—target audience

target market   the specific individuals, market segment, or customer group that is the focus or objective of an advertiser’s promotion plan and campaign efforts; the individuals the company or organization has decided to go after and who are the object of the advertiser’s message or other promotional effort. A result of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness in terms of sales volume, profitability, accessibility, and actionability. 

target marketing   the process of planning, designing, and implementing a marketing mix that is tailored to the needs of a specific customer group or market segment, rather than the entire market; evaluating the attractiveness of each market segment and then selecting one or more to enter with a specific and customized marketing program(s). 

target rating points (TRPs)   the number of individuals in the advertiser’s primary target
   audience the media or media vehicle will reach and the number of times; essentially the
   same as gross rating point (GRP), provided the audience demographics are stated, i.e.,
   represents an adjustment of a media vehicle’s rating to take into account only those
   individuals who match the target audience sought by the advertiser. See gross rating
   points (GRPs)
.
 

target return price objective   setting price at a level to achieve a specific profit plateau; see profit maximization, sales growth, market share, meeting competition price objectives.  

target segment   the particular group of individuals that is the focus of an advertiser’s attention; i.e., the prime prospects for a particular campaign. A sub-group of a larger segment, e.g., women 35-54 who play golf at least twice a week. See target audience and target market. 

targetcasting   see narrowcasting. 

targeting   identifying, evaluating, prioritizing, and selecting the specific audience(s) that will be the focus of the marketer’s communications program. 

task method   see objective-and-task method. 

taste   a general term referring to consumer preferences. 

taxi-top   a two-sided advertising sign mounted on a taxicab’s roof or a single-sided sign attached to the rear or side of the taxicab; also referred to as a taxi-display.  

Taylor Nelson Sofres   a leading worldwide provider of an enormous range and depth of marketing and advertising information, based on continuous and custom research programs, and market analysis; parent of Competitive Media Reporting (CMR). 

team selling   two or more sales representatives who combine efforts and work together to sell a particular account. 

tear pad   the pad of coupons or literature sheets from which the consumer can tear off one for himself or herself, i.e., the pad containing a take-one. See take-one. 

tear-off   see take-one. 

tearsheet   the entire page of a publication on which an advertisement appeared, torn from the newspaper, for example, and sent to the advertising agency and advertiser as proof that the advertisement appeared as scheduled and in the exact detail as expected; a proof of performance. The print equivalent of affidavit of performance. Also called advertiser’s copy or checking copy. 

teaser campaign   advertising, promotion, or publicity done in advance of a campaign or event, to arouse curiosity among the target audience; typically done without showing the product. 

technical specialist   an individual who assists an order-getting sales representative by providing specialized technical expertise during the selling process; see sales support and support salespeople. 

telecommunications   the transmission of information between or among different locations, including voice, image, graphics, video, and data; service is offered by a telecommunications carrier directly to the public for a fee.    

Telecommunications Act   a law passed in 1996 provided major changes in the laws pertaining to cable TV, the Internet, and telecommunications; the basic intent was to promote competition by industry de-regulation. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for determining the rules and policies and to enforce the law. 

telecommunications carrier   any provider of telecommunications services; e.g., a cable TV network, a local telephone company, or an Internet web site. 

telemarketing   a direct marketing activity that involves using the telephone to market and sell products and services directly to customers; includes both initiating calls and receiving orders from buyers. See inbound telemarketing and outbound telemarketing. 

telephone coincidental   a research technique used to determine viewership of television programs by making telephone calls while programs are in progress; usually used to determine viewership of a particular program. A method employed by Nielsen Media Research, along with its People Meter, set-tuning meter, and TV diary. See Nielsen Media Research, diary method, metered markets, overnight ratings, People Meter, set-tuning meter, and sweeps. 

telephone interview   a survey method of data collection using the telephone to contact and then question respondents. 

television   an advertising medium combining visual images and accompanying sounds that are transmitted from a location by electromagnetic waves, and ultimately received by a television set. 

Television Bureau of Advertising (TVB)   a trade association of the broadcast television industry.    

television dayparts   see dayparts. 

television households (TVHH)   the number of households with one or more television sets; may pertain to the entire U.S. or to DMAs on a market-by-market basis. 

television network   see network. 

television syndication   see syndication program

tell-all copy   in trade magazines, advertising copy that provides every bit of information the reader needs to make a buying decision. 

temporary display   a display such as a point-of-purchase display designed for short-term use, usually two months or less; also called in-out display.

:10   designation for a ten-second television or radio commercial announcement. 

tent card   a small display card carrying an advertising message, folded and set up so the message is visible on both side of the “tent”; e.g., an 8½” x 11” heavy stock card, so when folded and placed upright, each side is 4” high x 11” wide, with the advertiser’s message seen on both sides. Often placed on a counter.  

terminal poster   any of a variety of posters (one-sheet and two-sheet), signs, or displays, including floor displays, electronic signs, island displays or showcases, dioramas, and commuter clocks that carry advertisers’ messages in bus, subway, train, and airline terminals; see one-sheet poster, two-sheet poster, commuter clock, diorama, and island display. 

testimonial format   in advertising, a creative execution format (a type of endorsement) in which a spokesperson (sometimes a celebrity) in an advertising message makes a statement about a product based on personal use of and experience with the product; must be based on actual use of the product, as opposed to an endorsement, which may or not be based on actual use. Examples: a magazine advertisement in which the chief mechanic for a professional auto racing team explains why his racing automobiles get only Quaker State motor oil, a commercial featuring a local sports star telling why a particular bank is the one he uses, a commercial showing Annika Sorenstam and why she uses only Callaway golf clubs, or a Weight Watchers advertisement showing a satisfied user. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, and comparison formats. Also see endorsement.  

test market   a specific city or geographic marketing area that serves as the region in which a market test is done; see test marketing

test market spot   in television advertising research, a spot commercial used only in a particular test market(s) for purposes of determining its effectiveness; i.e., test marketing a television commercial. 

test marketing   conducting an advertising, sales promotion, or other promotion test in a limited geographical area (i.e., a select number of representative markets), and measuring results; or placing a new product into a similarly limited geographical area, and measuring performance to determine the likely success in the larger scale or national market – all under a proposed marketing plan, including the marketing communications portion of that plan; testing a product’s and a marketing program’s performance in a small-scale reproduction of the large scale market. Can be used to help develop a sales forecast, especially for new products or an established product entering a new territory or one using a new distribution channel. Also is the seventh stage of the new-product development process. Often called a sales area test. See new-product development process, idea generation, idea screening, concept testing, market evaluation, product development, marketing plan, and commercialization. 

test market simulation   see simulated test market. 

test store   a retail store used to collect data on product movement, store buying procedures, consumer buying habits, advertising, promotion, and merchandising practices, and other data; generally, several stores considered representative are used for such measurements. 

text   the words used to tell an advertisement’s or a commercial’s story; does not include headlines, illustrations, or any element other than the basic copy; See body copy.    

text matter   see editorial matter. 

theater advertising   an advertiser-sponsored commercial message delivered on the screen of a movie theater. 

theater test   in advertising research, a method of pretesting television commercials; respondents view the commercials in a theater or other location set up to resemble a theater and indicate their approval or disapproval of the commercials shown, sometimes by using electronic devices; usually, respondents are invited to preview a pilot television program, complete with commercials, and then are subjected to questions about the program and the advertising. See pretesting. 

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)   see cartoon method and picture response test. 

theme   the major selling idea that is the central premise of a marketing communications campaign. 

theme line   see slogan. 

theory of cognitive dissonance   see cognitive dissonance. 

third cover (3C)   the inside back cover of a magazine, for which a premium advertising rate is paid. 

third-party endorsement   a reputable source’s blessing for a product, service, idea, or company where the source has no personal interest in the success or failure of the object of the promotional effort; e.g., the Good Housekeeping magazine seal of approval for a household cleaning product or the American Dental Association backing an electric toothbrush.   

third-person method   in qualitative advertising research, a projective technique in which the respondent is asked to comment about someone else, such as a neighbor or friend, as to why the other person might, for example, go on a cruise, buy a luxury automobile, enroll children in an exclusive private school, join a health and fitness club, or engage in another behavior or action; a respondent may be shown a shopping list and asked to describe the person who goes shopping with that list. Designed to elicit attitudes and opinions the respondent may hold, but would not admit to as one’s own. See word association test, sentence completion test, story completion test, and picture response test, as well as qualitative research and projective research techniques. 

:30    designation for a thirty-second television or radio commercial. 

30-sheet poster   an outdoor advertising sign measuring 12’ high x 25’ wide, with a 10’ 5” x 22’ 8” live copy area; the most basic outdoor advertising sign, it is printed on the paper and then mounted to the structure by hand. About half the size of a traditional permanent bulletin. See outdoor bulletin, out-of-home media, outdoor poster, 8-sheet poster, 24-sheet poster, permanent bulletin, and poster panel. 

thought listing   in advertising research, having consumers articulate whatever thoughts come to mind upon seeing an advertisement or commercial. 

three-hit theory   a theory on optimum advertising frequency put forth by researcher Herbert Krugman, suggesting that three exposures are needed to make an effective impression on a consumer, i.e., to induce learning. Subject to considerable debate among advertising researchers and practitioners. 

three-point layout   in print advertising, an advertisement with three featured elements that dominate the ad; e.g., a headline, a logo, and an illustration. 

through-the-book method   in print media research, a method of determining an individual’s magazine readership by examining his or her reading of various articles in a particular magazine; an aided recognition research technique to determine a particular magazine’s audience, because respondents are allowed to view a test issue of the publication and then asked which articles or items they found most interesting -- and those who indicate previous exposure and interest are counted as part of that magazine’s audience.  

throwback ads   see retro ads. 

thumbnail (sketch)   the first draft of an advertising layout, in the creative phase of the advertising design process, i.e., a very rough drawing or sketch of the advertisement without attention to detail; usually done in a much smaller size than the actual advertisement and represents the first step in turning an idea into an advertisement. See layout development process, rough layout, comprehensive, and mechanical. 

tie-in   see tie-in promotion. 

tie-in advertising   an advertisement promoting more than one product or brand, sometimes involving more than one advertiser; also refers to a manufacturer’s advertisement that mentions local dealers (not cooperative advertising). Can also refer to an advertisement that makes reference to another advertisement in the same publication. See dealer tie-in and tie-in promotion. 

tie-in promotion   a cooperative or joint promotion of two or more different advertisers’ products under a common theme; usually, consumers are given an incentive to purchase both products. In contrast to a promotion featuring two or more brands of the same advertiser, i.e., a group promotion. Example: Toro and Scotts joining together for a “Get Ready for Summer” promotion, featuring Toro brand lawnmowers and Scotts brand fertilizers. Also called a joint promotion, partership promotion, or cross-promotion. See group promotion.  

till forbid (TF)   an instruction from an advertiser to a newspaper to continue running a particular advertisement until further notice to stop. 

time   in broadcast media, that part of a program that is available for advertising. 

time bank   in television advertising, a media buying service’s inventory of time available for sale to advertisers and agencies; see space bank.    

time buyer   an individual at an advertising agency or a media buying organization who is responsible for purchasing advertising time in television or radio for clients; the broadcast equivalent of a space buyer. See space buyer and media buyer. 

time charge   the cost of advertising time on a given television or radio network or station. 

time contract   a formal agreement between an advertiser and a television or radio network or station, in which the advertiser is guaranteed a particular rate for a given period, based on the amount of time the advertiser expects to use; see short rate. 

time discount   a reduction in the cost of a network’s or a station’s  advertising time given to the advertiser, based on the amount of television or radio time purchased during a specified period. 

time schedule   a listing of all the television and radio time to be used in a campaign, including the station, network, program, the name of the commercial, and the date, daypart, position, length, and cost of each commercial.   

time sheet  a form used to detail advertising agency personnel’s use of their time in servicing an account; may sometimes refer to a form detailing all aspects of a broadcast media buy. 

time shifting   in television, when viewers videotape a program and watch it at another more convenient time.

time slot   a specific time period available for television or radio commercial. 

time utility   the benefits to a consumer from the marketer making a product or service available when the consumer wants it; see utility, possession utility, form utility,  and place utility.    

time-loss risk   in consumer decision making, the chance the product will require significant time for maintenance; see risk-taking, performance risk, financial risk, physical risk, and social risk. 

time-period rating   in television or radio, the rating for a particular time interval, such as every 15 minutes during the broadcast of a feature-length movie or a football game; as opposed to the rating for a full program. See program rating. 

time-sensitive ad   a broadcast commercial or print advertisement that must be run on or by a particular date, and which essentially has an expiration date; e.g., commercials or advertisements focusing on a particular holiday, a special store sale, Opening Day at the ballpark, a golf championship event, the New York marathon, or other event. 

time-spent-listening   in radio audience research, an estimate of the number of quarter-hours the average person spends listening to the radio or a particular station during a specified time period; see average quarter-hour audience, average quarter-hour rating, and average quarter-hour share. 

time-spent-viewing   in television audience research, an estimate of the number of quarter-hours the average person spends listening to the radio or a particular station during a specified time period; see average quarter-hour audience, average quarter-hour rating, and average quarter-hour share. 

tip-in   an advertiser’s preprinted advertisement submitted to a magazine to be glued into the binding of the publication; usually a response device and on   heavier stock. 

tip-on   an advertiser’s preprinted card that is inserted into a magazine by means of gluing one edge of the card onto an advertisement; usually a response device. See tip-in

title sponsor   the sponsor that has its name incorporated into the name of the sponsored property; e.g., the Jiffy Lube 300, Pepsi 400, Goody’s Headache Powder 500, or Coca-Cola 600 – all of which are on the NASCAR auto racing schedule. Not to be confused with sole sponsor. See primary sponsor, associate sponsor, presenting sponsor, naming rights, right of first refusal, sponsor, and property.

TiVo   see digital video recorder (DVR).   

tombstone advertisement   a small advertisement containing only the most basic straightforward facts about a product or store, with no selling copy; often used to announce a stock offering to meet legal requirements.  

tone   the look, feel, and character of a commercial or advertisement, as reflected in its mood, style, or personality; e.g., energetic, serious, bold, sophisticated, romantic, happy, old-fashioned, warm, and others. 

top-down approach to budgeting   a procedure for establishing the marketing communications or individual promotion element budget, such as advertising; a dollar amount is established at the executive level and given to the individual departments, such as advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, or public relations. See affordable method, arbitrary method, competitive parity method, percentage-of-sales method and build-up approach to budgeting.   

top-end display   in transit advertising, a car card advertisement over the door, on the inside of the vehicle; also called an over-door display. 

top-of-mind awareness (TOMA)   the advertiser, brand, or campaign that a respondent mentions as coming to mind first, when questioned in an advertising research study on awareness; see share of mind. 

topper   a small permanent advertising piece placed on top of a cash register at a retail checkout area; may also refer to a taxi-top advertising sign. See taxi-top. 

top-spin   see spin. 

total audience   generally, the total number of unduplicated readers; in television, the total number of homes reached by a particular program; as determined by the number of homes viewing any five-minute portion of that program. 

total audience plan (TAP)   in radio and television advertising, a package of spot commercials giving the advertiser a set number of spots in each of the station’s dayparts or time classifications; such a schedule allows the advertiser to reach all of the station’s listeners or viewers in the particular time periods chosen for the plan. Also referred to as an impact plan or a saturation plan.  

total bus   in transit advertising, the purchase by a single advertiser of all the exterior advertising space on a bus or other transit vehicle; i.e., exclusive use of the advertising space on the outside of a bus or other transit vehicle. See exterior bus. 

total circulation   the number of copies of a publication that are distributed via subscriber sales, newsstand purchases, and as free copies. 

total cost   the sum of total fixed costs and total variable costs; see fixed costs and variable costs. 

total impression   the overall mark or effect left on the audience by an advertisement or commercial; used in determining misleading or deceptive advertising. 

total impressions   see gross impressions. 

total listenership   the radio version of total audience; see total audience.  

total net paid   see net paid.  

total readership   the sum of a publication’s circulation and its pass-along readership. 

total survey area (TSA)   in measuring television and radio audiences, the geographic area consisting of a metro area and additional counties in which a significant amount of viewing or listening is to stations that originate in the metro area; often, the outlying areas are part of an adjacent metro area or Designated Market Area (DMA).  

total viewership   see total audience.     

total weight   the sum of all target audience exposures to the media vehicles in a media plan, including duplications; see gross impressions. 

tracking   popular method of monitoring the performance of an advertising campaign over time by means of periodic surveys (called waves) among the target audience; a study is generally done prior to the advertising campaign to serve as a benchmark or comparison basis for how well the campaign is meeting its objectives. Permits measurement of the effectiveness of an advertising campaign as reflected by changes over time in awareness, attitudes, sales, or other dimensions. Also permits analysis and reassessment of copy and media strategies, as well as mid-campaign corrections. See benchmark study and wave. 

trade   see trade market. 

trade advertising   advertising directed to intermediaries (e.g., wholesalers, distributors, retailers) that buy or handle an advertiser’s products for resale to customers; purpose is to stimulate intermediaries’ buying for inventory and then sale to the ultimate customer.  

trade allowance   a price reduction or other promotional incentive offered by an advertiser to a retailer or dealer for support given to the advertiser’s product or promotion campaign such as displaying merchandise, featuring the brand in advertising, or some other extra push for the product; see trade deal and allowances  

trade area   the geographical region in which a particular advertiser’s product is sold. 

trade association   an organization representing the firms in a particular industry, acting on their behalf on important matters, doing industry research, disseminating newsletters, periodicals, and other items of current interest to the members, organizing meetings, trade shows, and a variety of other activities for the better of the industry and its members; see Encyclopedia of Associations. 

trade book   see trade publication. 

trade channel   the distribution network and organizations a producer uses to get its product or service to the ultimate consumer or user; see marketing channel.  

trade character   a representation of a person, animal, or other being that is personified and used to identify a company or its product; exclusive use is guaranteed only if registered as a trademark.  

trade contest   a sales promotion tool used by a marketer to encourage performance by members of the distribution channel; participants compete for prizes or money, with entries judged on the basis of performance, such as opening new accounts or achieving the highest level of sales during the contest period.  

trade customers   see organizational buyers. 

trade deal   any of a variety of sales promotion inducements offered to encourage dealers to stock and merchandise the manufacturer’s products; e.g., special discounts, free merchandise, cash. See trade allowance and consumer deal. 

trade discount   a price reduction offered to a retailer or other intermediary for the functions performed in the movement of goods from manufacturer to consumer or user; also called a functional discount. 

trade incentives   a general term referring to a wide range of incentives given to retailers and/or their salespeople to perform certain tasks and provide extra push for an advertiser’s product; see trade allowance and trade deal. 

trade journal   see trade publication. 

trade magazine   see trade publication. 

trade market   the distributors, wholesalers, retailers, or other manufacturers or organizations in the advertiser’s marketing efforts; as opposed to the consumer market. Also referred to as the business market or organizational market. See business market, consumer market, and organizational market. 

trade name   the legal name under which an organization does business; not the name of a specific product. 

trade paper   see trade publication. 

trade promotion   see trade sales promotion. 

trade publication   a specialized business print publication aimed at retailers, wholesalers, distributors and other intermediaries who buy and sell for resale and other individuals who in some way are involved with the movement of goods through distribution channels; editorial matter (and advertising) is directed toward a specific industry, profession, or occupation. Also referred to as a business publication, business or trade book, business or trade journal, business or trade magazine, and business or trade paper. See horizontal publication and vertical publication.  

Trade Regulation Rules (TRRs)   industry-by-industry rules established by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) that provide definitions of what advertising practices are considered unfair; see Industry Guides and Trade Regulation Rules.    

trade sales promotion   sales promotion activities and techniques directed to intermediaries, such as wholesalers and retailers; aimed at stimulating the dealers to carry an advertiser’s product, improve the reseller’s merchandising program, get resellers to market the advertiser’s products more effectively, and otherwise to gain support and participation in the advertiser’s promotional efforts.  Part of a push strategy. See consumer sales promotion, push strategy, and sales promotion. 

trade show   an industry-specific exhibition at which manufacturers, dealers, existing and potential buyers, industry members, media representatives, and other interested parties assemble for displays, demonstrations, dialogue, checking out state-of-the-art developments, making contacts, engaging in sales transactions, and conducting other business; especially important in business-to-business marketing. Considered a trade sales promotion activity.  See trade sales promotion. 

trade show producer   an organization that organizes and manages trade shows. 

trademark   a legally-protected brand name, brand mark, or trade character (or some combination), registered with the government and reserved for exclusive use by its owner; i.e., words, names, initials, symbols, or designs that identify a product from a specific firm and that firm only. Legal definition: “Any word, name, symbol, device or any combination thereof adopted by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others.” See Lanham Act, Trademark Law Revision Act, Federal Trademark Dilution Act, service mark, and certification mark  

Trademark Law Revision Act   a federal act, passed in 1988, that permits civil action against an advertiser who “misrepresents the nature, characteristics, qualities, or geographical origin of his or her or another person’s goods, services, or commercial activities”; i.e., prohibits false claims an advertiser makes about its product, as well as false claims made about another’s product, with civil action allowed in either case. See Lanham Act and Federal Trademark Dilution Act. 

trademark protection   see trademark, Trademark Law Revision Act, Lanham Act, and Federal Trademark Dilution Act. 

trading area   a geographical region in which the residents make the majority of their purchases; usually one or more counties surrounding a central metropolitan market. 

traditional marketing system   see conventional marketing system. 

traditional media   the advertising media that have been used over the longest period of time; the commonly-used broadcast, print, and out-of-home media (such as billboard or transit) that typically account for the bulk of the media budget. See alternative media, nontraditional media, support media, and unmeasured media.  

traffic   a measure of the volume of individual visits to (i.e., “hits”) a web site. See hit.  

traffic audit   in out-of-home advertising, an independent third-party verification of the circulation in a particular market. 

Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB)   a trade association of the outdoor advertising industry, serving outdoor plants and media owners, advertisers, and advertising agencies; performs independent standardized measurements of outdoor audience size via traffic counts according to national procedures approved by the buyers and sellers of outdoor advertising. Also provides demographic data.   

traffic count   in out-of-home advertising, the total number of vehicles and pedestrians passing a particular poster location or any out-of-home advertising unit during a specified period of time; volume and direction of traffic going past an outdoor location at various times of the day; may refer to the number of potential customers or people who pass by a particular store display during a specified time period. See Daily Effective Circulation (DEC), hand count, official count, and counting station. 

traffic department   the section of an advertising agency that schedules and coordinates all phases in the creation and production of advertising, ensuring that all tasks and projects keep on schedule from beginning to end. 

traffic flow map   a map for a particular market area that indicates the volume and direction of traffic on the streets in that market, by different times and days over a specified period of time; used to help determine outdoor advertising locations.  

traffic manager   an individual in an advertising agency responsible for directing the traffic department activities involved in scheduling and tracking advertising as it is being produced; the agency person who controls the flow of work throughout the production process. See traffic department.  

traffic-builder   any of a wide variety of promotional activities designed to attract and increase the number of individuals visiting a retail store. 

trailer   a promotional announcement immediately following a television or radio program, promoting a forthcoming program on that same station; a commercial added at the end of a program or another commercial; a filmed commercial shown before the feature movie in a theater  (generally longer and more elaborate than a television commercial). See tag.  

trailer test   in advertising research, consumer awareness, preference, and attitude studies that are conducted in mobile trailers that are moved from one location to another during the course of the research study; typically set up for business in shopping center parking lots, with shoppers screened and invited into the trailer to view television commercials and answer questions. 

transient rate   a basic, one-time advertising with no discounts; see open rate. 

transit advertising   out-of-home advertising messages placed on the inside or outside of public transportation vehicles such as buses, trains, subways, taxis, and airplanes; also includes advertising posters placed at station, terminal, platform, and shelter locations. May refer to mobile advertising signage such as those on trucks.  

transit poster   in transit advertising, a poster attached to the exterior of a bus or commuter train; also refers to posters at stations. 

transit shelter advertising   see transit advertising. 

transit spectacular   in transit advertising, a single advertiser purchasing all space on one or both sides of a public transit vehicle’s interior or exterior; see total bus. 

transition time   see fringe. 

transportation   the physical movement of products from one party or place to another through the distribution channel.  

transportation advertising   see transit advertising. 

traveling display   a promotional display that moves from one location to another; also refers to the advertising on the exterior of buses and other transit vehicles. See mobile billboard and rolling billboard

tray pack   a cardboard carton which, when its top is removed, becomes a display unit that fits conveniently on a store shelf. 

trial   first-time use of a product by a consumer, especially that resulting from a sales promotion tool such as sampling or a coupon; often the main objective of a consumer sales promotion program.  

trial offer   a sales promotion technique in which a product is made available to a consumer for use on a trial basis, in the hope it will lead to purchase; often used for expensive items where there is significant financial or other type of risk, e.g., golf clubs or a riding lawn mower. 

trial size   a smaller-than-regular size package of a product, often given away free in a sampling program to introduce a product to a consumer. 

trial stage   the fourth stage of the adoption process, in which the consumer actually buys and/or uses the product to help form a judgment on whether to adopt or reject it; see adoption process, awareness stage, interest stage, evaluation stage, and adoption stage  

trivision board   in outdoor advertising, a “motorized” billboard sign that uses moving slatted panels to rotate its surface and which has three different advertising messages, each appearing at about 8-second or 10-second intervals before rotating to the next execution; can be programmed to rotate at virtually any interval and in any order. May be one advertiser with three different products and executions or three different advertisers each with its own message. Sometimes called a post-turn.  

truckside advertising   an advertising sign placed on the side of an over-the-road truck; a “billboard-style” advertising medium. See mobile billboard. 

trustworthiness   a combination of the honesty, credibility, reliability, and integrity of the communications source; an essential component for effective communications. 

turnover   in radio or television advertising, the frequency with which a particular program’s audience changes over a period of time; see audience turnover and audience flow. 

TV market   the geographical area over which a particular television station’s signal carries; the number and description of households that receive a particular television station’s programming. 

TV usage   total television viewership; see households using television (HUT) and persons using television (PUT). 

:20   designation for a twenty-second television or radio commercial. 

25 showing   in outdoor advertising, an expression indicating that 25 percent of a given market's population will be reached (i.e., will have the opportunity to see) a particular advertising message by virtue of the number and placement of an advertiser's billboard panels in the market, in a 30-day period; see outdoor advertising, showing 50 showing, 75 showing, and 100 showing.

24-sheet poster   in outdoor advertising, a standard billboard unit, with a copy area of 8’8” high and 19’6” wide; see outdoor bulletin, out-of-home media, outdoor poster, 8-sheet poster, 30-sheet poster, permanent bulletin, and poster panel. 

twin pack   in consumer sales promotion, a specially-designed unit, containing two packages of the same product, sold at a special price below what the two units would cost if purchased separately; see bonus pack. 

two pages facing   in print advertising, anytime there are two pages of advertising opposite each other with no printing or editorial matter between them in the gutter position; each page has an advertisement for a different product or contains different executions for the same product. Not to be confused with two-page spread. See two-page spread. 

two-page spread   in print advertising, a single advertisement that is spread out horizontally across two facing pages in a publication; not to be confused with a center spread, which occupies two facing pages at the exact middle in a publication. Also called double-page spread, double spread and double truck. See center spread. Also see two pages facing. 

two-sheet poster   an advertising poster or sign, measuring approximately 46” high x 60” wide, especially common in rapid transit train and subway station platforms in downtown business and shopping districts; see one-sheet poster and terminal poster. 

two-sided message   an advertising, sales, or other promotion message that presents both favorable and unfavorable aspects of an advertiser’s product, citing advantages and limitations; see one-sided message

Type I error   in survey research, the occurrence whereby the survey reveals a statistically significant result, when in fact it is not so; a situation that grows out of the fact that a survey does not include all individuals or objects in the population of interest to the researcher. See Type II error.  

Type II error   in survey research, the occurrence whereby the survey reveals a result that is not statistically significant, when in fact it is; a situation that grows out of the fact that a survey does not include all individuals or objects in the population of interest to the researcher. See Type I error. 

type family   a group of related type styles and designs (i.e., typefaces), with variations in width, boldness, and other properties; also called a type group. 

type font   a complete assortment of any one specific size and style of a particular typeface; the entire array of lowercase letters, capital letters, numbers, and punctuation marks in any one typeface, which is unique in design from all others. For example, Arial, Bookman Old Style, or Times New Roman. See typeface.   

type group   see type family. 

type style   see typeface. 

typeface   the basic design and style of a letter of type; includes classes such as roman, text, italic, gothic, and script. 

typography   a process and an art of determining the best typefaces for a given advertising or promotion message and arranging the letters and words for maximum effectiveness and impact; involves the style, arrangement, and appearance of the advertising copy. A major design element, carefully selected for aesthetics, readability, and setting the tone for the advertising message.