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SAU   see Standard Advertising Unit. 

SFX   see sound effects and special effects. 

SIC   see Standard Industrial Classification. 

SMRB   see Simmons Market Research Bureau

SMSA   see Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. 

SRDS   see Standard Rate and Data Service. 

S-shaped response curve   a model of the relationship between advertising expenditures and sales, in which initial advertising outlays have little effect on sales but, with increased expenditures, there are incremental increases in sales -- up to a point where continued increases in advertising dollars have diminishing effects; the initial period of flat sales, followed by a period of increased sales and then a leveling off produces an “S”-shaped response function when plotted on a grid with advertising expenditures on the “x” axis and sales on the “y” axis. See concave response curve.  

safety risk   see physical risk. 

sale   a promotional offer of a temporary reduction in a product’s retail price. 

sale advertising   retail advertising that focuses on merchandise that is being offered at reduced prices; an attempt to get a fast response to generate store traffic and move certain products. Sometimes referred to as direct-action advertising. 

sales aids   collateral promotional materials designed to help the personal selling effort achieve greater effectiveness; e.g., sales literature, demonstration kits, audio-visual materials. Can also refer to merchandising activities at the retail level. 

sales analysis   the use of sales figures to measure and evaluate marketing and promotion performance; accomplished with a detailed investigation of the company’s sales records. 

sales area test   see test marketing. 

sales audit   measurement and examination of a product’s movement through retail stores. 

sales contest   a trade sales promotion tool used as an incentive for an organization’s sales force or for the dealers; specific objectives and criteria vary, but generally involve factors such as sales volume, profit, new accounts or customers, or other considerations important to the company (and to the participants).  

sales control   all efforts directed at measuring and evaluating sales performance on a regular periodic basis for the purpose of monitoring progress toward sales objectives, and taking action as required to keep results on track.  

sales decline stage   see decline stage. 

sales effect of advertising   the extent to which advertising results in increased sales of a product or service; see communications effect of advertising, sales response function and advertising response curve. 

sales effectiveness test   a measurement and analysis of advertising and promotion activities and programs relative to the sales levels achieved. 

sales force  all individuals directly involved with the an organization’s personal sales efforts and interacting with potential buyers, including those who are engaged in actual selling as well as non-selling activities such as missionary and customer-servicing efforts. 

sales force composite   see composite of sales force opinion. 

sales forecast   an estimate of expected future sales for a specified period of time for a specific marketing plan; e.g., a one-year sales projection that becomes a goal for the marketing and promotion effort. Several different methods are used, often in combination. See composite of sales force opinion, expert opinion, jury of executive opinion, survey of buying intention, test marketing, market potential, and sales potential. 

sales growth price objective   setting price at a level that allows the company to achieve a specified dollar or unit sales level; see target return, profit maximization, market share, and meeting competition price objectives.  

sales incentive   any of a variety of means used by an organization to stimulate the efforts of the sales force; e.g., a contest, premium, gift, travel, or other inducement aimed at generating greater productivity by the sales force; a short-term inducement, over and above the compensation plan and the other incentives in place on a regular basis. 

sales letter   in direct mail, a missive whose purpose is to do the selling job for the advertiser, by generating acceptance of an idea, prompting an inquiry, or stimulating an order; the most common type of direct mail. 

sales management   the planning, organizing, implementing, evaluating and controlling of the sales effort, including activities such as recruiting, supervising, motivating, and compensating the sales force in a way that fosters achievement of goals. 

sales manager   the governor and chief administrator of an organization’s sales department and personal selling efforts. 

sales objectives   goals and targets for the sales effort, stated in volume, profit, market share, or other basis; also refers to advertising or promotion objectives that are stated in terms of a particular level of sales to be achieved in a certain period of time, say, a specific campaign. 

sales potential   an estimate of a particular firm’s portion of the market potential; see market potential and sales forecast.  

sales presentation   a sales representative’s persuasive delivery of an offering to prospective buyers. 

sales promotion   promotional marketing activities and programs (other than advertising, direct marketing, public relations) involving a wide range of limited-time inducements designed to stimulate relatively quick consumer action and dealer or sales force support and effectiveness, as well as to add value to the firm’s offering; aim is typically for immediate or short-term results. See consumer sales promotion and trade sales promotion. 

sales promotion agency   a firm that specializes in handling the sales promotion activities and programs of organizations.  

sales promotion fallacy   that a marketer must always provide some sort of a deal to attract and keep customers. 

sales promotion trap   a situation resulting from many competitors making extensive use of a continuous stream of sales promotion activities, thereby forcing any one competitor to offer similar inducements just to keep up. 

sales quota   see quota. 

sales representative   the individual who, via face-to-face contact, attempts to inform, persuade, or assist the target audience to take a particular action that has commercial significance to the seller; in advertising media sales, the person acting on behalf of a media vehicle to sell advertising time or space to advertisers on a national basis or in cities other than where the media vehicle is located. See media rep and rep firm. 

sales response function   the pattern and level of sales that result from different levels of advertising or promotional activity; see advertising response curve and sales effect of advertising. 

sales support   nonselling activities designed to promote sales; e.g., service personnel who assist with the installation of equipment or customer service personnel who provide instructions on use of equipment or after-sale maintenance service. 

sales territory   the geographic boundaries of a sales representative’s duties and responsibilities. 

sales test   a method of measuring the success or effectiveness of an advertising campaign or individual advertisements comprising the campaign. 

salient beliefs   the relatively few beliefs held by an individual that are the most important determinants of his or her attitudes and which greatly influence product purchase behavior. 

salting   regarding a list used for direct marketing purposes, a technique for tracking a list buyer’s or user’s use of the list to make sure the list-use agreement is adhered to and the list is not used in violation of that agreement; involves placing a decoy or dummy name on the list to be able to track it for possible violation of the agreement between list provider and list user. Also called seeding.  

same-store sales   a statistic commonly used by retail chains to compare sales of stores that have been open for at least one year. By comparing a particular store's performance to a given week or month in the previous year permits more accurate measurement of business trends. Also known as comparable-store sales, identical-store sales, and like-store sales.

sample   in marketing and advertising research, a representative portion of a target population used by researchers in their activities, such as determining the effectiveness of a particular copy approach or execution format for planning advertising; in sales promotion, refers to a free trial size (or actual size) of a product. See sampling program and census. 

sample book   a collection of representative examples of the work of an advertising agency or an individual, such as a copywriter or a layout specialist; if used by an individual in the job-search process, may contain actual as well as speculative work. Sometimes referred to as a portfolio.    

sample frame   in survey research, the universe from which potential individuals or households are selected for inclusion in the survey; see sample unit. 

sample package   in direct marketing, a replica of a direct-mail package that is to be mailed to a particular list; submitted by the list user to the list owner for approval prior to commitment for one-time use of the list. See list owner, list user and one-time use. 

sample size   in survey research, the number of individuals or households selected for inclusion in the research; must be of a size appropriate to allow accurate judgments to be made about the larger population. 

sample unit   in marketing and advertising research, the specific individual or household selected to be a part of the study; see sample frame. 

sampling   the process of selecting and then obtaining information from a comparatively small number of people who are representative of the larger population, so that information collected can be used to make judgments about the total population represented by the chosen respondents.  

sampling error   in survey research, the discrepancy between the results obtained in a survey and the results that would have been obtained had a complete study of the entire population been undertaken; see non-response error.  

sampling plan   in marketing and advertising research, the entire set of instructions governing the selection of respondents for a research project; see research design and research methodology. 

sampling program   a sales promotion activity of distributing free trial sizes (or actual sizes) of a product to the target audience, with the underlying notion that “the best advertising for the product is the product itself”; main purpose is to gain trial. Used in new product introductions, as well as to rejuvenate sales of existing products or to tap a new market segment. Samples can be distributed directly to the household via mail or other delivery or it can be done as an in-store promotion. 

sandwich board   an advertising sign consisting of two boards suspended over an individual’s shoulders by means of straps, with one board hanging in front, the other in back; the person walks a route carrying the advertising. 

sans serif   in print advertising, type that has no small lines that appear at the ends of the main strokes in a type font, as appear in a serif typeface; see serif. 

satellite   see communications satellite. 

satellite station   in broadcasting, a station located in a fringe reception area that serves to boost the range of the main station’s signal; smaller-market stations that carry the same programming as a larger nearby station, thereby extending geographical coverage. Often used to form a “network” of stations to give a large region the opportunity to hear the broadcast of a baseball team’s games, i.e, radio broadcasts of the Boston Red Sox throughout New England, though the flagship station itself reaches only a limited area. See parent station. 

satellite television   see direct broadcast satellite (DBS). 

saturation   a media scheduling pattern that combines extensive reach and high frequency in an attempt to gain maximum coverage and impact over a given period of time; i.e., advertising weight far heavier and beyond the normal scheduling intensity of an advertiser. See advertising weight. 

saturation plan   see total audience plan (TAP). 

saturation showing   in outdoor or transit advertising, a showing of maximum intensity that, with repeat exposures taken into consideration, achieves even  greater exposure than a 100 showing indicates; see 100 showing.  

scanner   an electronic device that reads the universal product code (UPC) on product packages at the checkout counter at retail stores. 

scanner data   data recorded for all transactions in a store, including product name, price, size, flavor, and particular variety; also includes information relative to advertising and promotion activity for the product at the time of purchase, such as point-of-purchase displays. See single-source data. 

SCANTRACK   an industry standard for scanner-based marketing and sales information on product movement and merchandising, in which comprehensive data are gathered weekly from an enormous sample of retail stores in major markets throughout the U.S. Provides basic tracking information at multiple levels ranging from category-level total U.S. sales volume to single-item performance in one specific market. Monitors performance trends and evaluates price and promotion effectiveness by tracking and forecasting non-promoted as well as promotional product movement. A single-source data system. A product of A.C. Nielsen. See A.C. Nielsen and single-source data. 

Scarborough data   see Scarborough Research. 

Scarborough Research   a provider of syndicated local-market consumer data, covering most of the major DMAs in the US; compiles comprehensive data on local-market consumer shopping behavior, product use and consumption, media usage, psychographics (lifestyles), and demographics.  

scatter market   in broadcast television, the collection of unsold advertising dates, times, and programs available for purchase after the upfront, or pre-season, buying period; see upfront market.  

scatter plan   in television or radio advertising, the placement of commercials during a wide range of dates and times on several different programs over a given period of time; essentially, the notion of scheduling commercials on a random basis.  

schedule   a list of the media and media vehicles to be used in an advertising campaign and the manner in which the advertising is programmed over time, including the specific dates, times, issues, pages, and other particulars; see media flowchart and media schedule. 

scheduling   the process of determining a media schedule; see continuous scheduling, flighting, pulsing, and media scheduling. 

scrambled merchandising   a retailer’s practice of carrying an extremely wide range of different and unrelated product lines. 

scratch track   in the television commercial creation process, a musical score that used only a piano and substitute vocalist (even pre-recorded) to give a rough approximation of what the sound may be like in the finished commercial; may be used in an animatic, photomatic, or other rough version of the commercial. 

screamer   in print advertising, a large-type boldface headline.    

screener   see gatekeeper. 

script   a detailed written description of the video and/or audio content of a television or radio commercial.  

search   the investigation of electronic databases; see search engine. 

search consultant   see agency search consultant. 

search engine   on the Internet, a computer-system software tool that permits Internet users to find links to Web sites and information of interest to them, by typing a keyword to start the search; a means used to find Web sites of interest to the Internet user. Examples: Google,Yahoo!, Lycos, AltaVista, HotBot, Webcrawler, Excite. See keyword. 

seasonal disount   a price reduction offered to consumers an incentive to purchase or make a commitment to purchase a product or service outside its normal or busiest season. 

second cover (2C)   the inside front cover of a magazine, for which a premium advertising rate is paid. 

secondary audience   in print media, individuals who read a particular publication, but who are not subscribers or purchasers of the publication; i.e., pass-along readership.  

secondary data   already-existing data that have been collected for a purpose other than the specific research effort presently being undertaken; includes both internal secondary data and external secondary data. See primary data, internal secondary data, and external secondary data. 

secondary demand   see selective demand. 

secondary demand advertising   see selective demand advertising. 

secondary group   a group characterized by relatively infrequent interpersonal contact; generally less influential than a primary group in shaping an individual’s behavior. Example: a professional association. See primary group, formal group, informal group, and reference group.  

secondary listening area   the outlying or fringe area in which a television’s or radio’s transmission signal fades out or has static; see primary listening area. 

secondary market   see secondary target market.    

secondary readership   the number of individuals who read a given issue of a particular publication in addition to the publication’s subscribers and newsstand buyers; also called pass-along readership. 

secondary target market   individuals, households, or market segment that a marketer considers worthy of its attention as an attractive opportunity for sales and profit, but not at the level of another more attractive opportunity; while the emphasis is on the primary target market, some part of the marketing and promotion program is intended to extend and be appealing to another consumer group. For example, a marketer of cameras may see avid amateur photographers as its primary target market for a particular campaign, but may design the campaign in a way that it hopes to attract the occasional photographer, perhaps by media selection, slightly-altered appeals, a different model of camera, or other means. See target market, target marketing, and primary target market.   

sectional magazine   a publication whose distribution (i.e., total circulation) covers only a particular geographical region of the United States, rather than the entire country; not the same as a regional edition. Also called a regional magazine. See regional edition. 

seeding   see salting. 

segment   see market segment. 

segment sponsorship   see partial sponsorship. 

segmentation   see market segmentation. 

selective attention   the phenomenon by which individuals screen out certain stimuli and focus on others; the processing of just a few ads among the many encountered. Something of a defense mechanism, since people are exposed to a large amount of stimuli in their daily lives. Strongly suggests why the advertiser must be clever in finding approaches to increase the likelihood of its message getting noticed. See selective comprehension, selective distortion, selective exposure, and selective retention, and selective perception. 

selective binding   a publishing process that allows any issue of a magazine to be custom-designed for small groups of potential customers, with editorial content and advertising matching the interests of the specific target audience. 

selective comprehension   the way in which the consumer interprets the advertiser’s message; based on a variety of factors, such as the individual’s attitudes, motives, or previous experience. A particular interpretation of the information in an advertiser’s message often is to support the individual’s existing beliefs. See selective attention, selective distortion, selective exposure, selective retention, and selective perception. 

selective demand   the demand for a specific brand within a product category; e.g., the demand for Sony digital cameras, GE microwave ovens, or Benjamin Moore house paint; Also called secondary demand. See primary demand. 

selective demand advertising   an advertising message aimed at promoting and stimulating demand for a specific brand in a product category, e.g., stimulating demand for Black & Decker power tools, Tropicana orange juice, or Panasonic video tape recorders; also called secondary demand advertising. See primary demand advertising.  

selective distortion   the phenomenon by which individuals tend to interpret information in a manner that will support their pre-existing views; helps to explain why some messages are not received in the way or with the meaning  intended by the advertiser or marketer. See perception, selective attention, selective comprehension, selective exposure, selective retention, and selective perception. 

selective distribution   a distribution intensity approach in which the advertiser uses a limited number of retail outlets for its product, fewer than would be used for intensive distribution (all available outlets) and more than for exclusive distribution (one or extremely few outlets); only those retailers that are most compatible with the advertiser, its philosophy, and its approach to marketing, advertising, and promotion are used. See intensive distribution and exclusive distribution. 

selective exposure   the process whereby an individual chooses whether or not to be exposed to a stimulus such as an advertiser’s message; for example, changing the television channel during a commercial break or rapidly turning a magazine page containing an advertisement. See perception, selective attention, selective comprehension, selective distortion, selective retention, and selective perception. 

selective magazine   see special-interest magazine. 

selective marketing   see differentiated marketing. 

selective perception   essentially an individual’s defense mechanism, whereby he or she filters the large number of marketing stimuli competing for attention; the filtering process determines what stimuli are received and how they are interpreted. A process by which individuals screen out some ideas, information, and messages, but take in or retain others which they then interpret according to their personal experience, self-concept, attitudes, beliefs, and other factors. A process by which individuals give greater awareness to stimuli (e.g., advertising, a point-of-purchase display, a coupon, an infomercial) that are relevant to their needs and interests. See perception, selective attention, selective comprehension, selective distortion, selective exposure, and selective retention. 

selective retention   the idea that consumers do not remember all the information they receive from an advertiser, even though they may have noticed and absorbed that information; the phenomenon by which individuals tend to retain information that is consistent with and supports their existing beliefs and attitudes. See perception, selective attention, selective comprehension, selective distortion, selective exposure, and selective perception. 

selectivity   an advertising medium’s ability to reach a specific target audience. 

self-concept   see self-image. 

self-image   the way people perceive themselves, in terms of who they are and who they want to be; see ideal self. 

self-expressive benefits   the emotional gain consumers perceive will be theirs by purchasing and using a product or brand they believe will enhance their standing or image with other people or groups they consider important, such as a reference group. 

self-liquidating premium   a sales promotion technique in which a premium is offered to consumers for a fee that covers the cost of the premium plus handling costs; the advertiser breaks even, making no profit on the offer. 

self-mailer   in direct mail, promotional material that is delivered without an envelope; e.g., a brochure or sales literature that is folded and stapled or taped. 

self-regulation   the practice by which members of the advertising industry supervise, govern, and control their own members, programs, and activities so as to avoid outside interference such as government; voluntary self-governance by members of the advertising industry, including advertisers, advertising agencies, the media, trade associations, and businesses. See federal regulation, state regulation, local regulation and in-house regulation. Also see, for example, Better Business Bureau (BBB), Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB), National Advertising Division (NAD) and Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU), plus various industry trade associations and organizations. 

sell-in   the process of getting the advertiser’s product through the distribution channel to the retailer in advance of a particular promotion campaign; to make sure the product is available in sufficient quantities for a forthcoming campaign. 

selling agent   an agent middleman (does not take title to the goods) that assumes the entire marketing job for the manufacturer, not just selling; has considerable flexibility and latitude in virtually every phase of the marketing program. See manufacturers’ representative. 

selling premise   the rationale underlying a particular advertising message; see copy platform.  

selling samples   small versions of a product or, sometimes, the regular product, given by the sales force to the trade to acquaint them with a new product that is soon to be distributed; also refers to the sample given to the trade as part of the selling process in the attempt to land a new account.  

selling up   the practice of convincing the consumer to purchase a more expensive product  than the one that first captured his or her interest. 

sell-off   selling advertising time or space that previously had been sold but will not be used by the buyer; also refers to the last-minute sale of still-available time or space.  

sell-off period   in sales promotion, the beginning-to-end duration of a special deal or whatever particular form taken by the sales promotion effort; the time period during which a product is sold as a special deal.    

sell-through   a promotional effort aimed at increasing the rate at which an advertiser’s product is sold at the retail level; not to be confused with a sell-in, or getting the product to the retailer in advance of a campaign. See sell-in. 

sell-through quantity   the quantity of merchandise needed for the entire duration of a particular sales promotion program, such as a consumer deal, coupon program, premium offer, or point-of-purchase display. 

semantic differential scale   a research technique using a scale that lists several sets of bipolar adjectives (or opposites), and on which a respondent rates a particular object, such as a company, a specific product, or a firm’s advertising along a continuum between the bipolar adjectives; a rating scale with polar adjectives or phrases on each end of the scale, providing seven interval spaces, for example, for a respondent to rate a particular object or topic. An overall company, product, or promotion profile can be generated from results. Example: research asking respondents to rate a particular company’s advertising on several bases, shown on a scale with polar opposites such as effective-ineffective, lively-dull, believable-not believable, likable-not likable, and informative-not informative. Also called an Osgood Scale.   

sender   the originator of an advertising or promotional message; see encoding

sentence completion test   in qualitative advertising research, a projective technique in which the respondent is given incomplete sentences and asked to complete the thought for each one; e.g., “People who buy season tickets to professional football games are…,” “Going on a cruise is…,” “Membership in a country club is…,” “Taking pictures with a digital camera is…,” “People who buy a Lexus….” See word association test, story completion test, cartoon method, third-person method, and picture response test, as well as qualitative research and projective research techniques. 

separation   in television and radio advertising, the time period between airing of commercials of competitors; a station’s promise to an advertiser that no competitor’s product will be advertised within a particular time period of the advertiser’s commercial; sometimes applies to print advertising and the amount of space (i.e., number of pages) between competitors’ advertisements. Often called product protection or competitive separation. See competitive separation and commercial protection.  

sequence   the particular order in which an individual reads or views the several elements as they are arranged in an advertisement; e.g., eye movement in looking over an advertisement, going from headline, to graphic, to body copy, to tagline. 

serif   in print advertising, the small lines that appear at the ends of the main strokes in a type font, as opposed to a sans serif typeface; see sans serif. 

server   on the Internet, the software program that makes it possible for a user’s computer to “talk” with it and exchange information with it. 

services   intangible benefit-producing activities that are offered for sale to consumers, but which do not provide the consumer with ownership; e.g., banking, travel, movie theaters, home repair, health care. Also refers to the benefits accompanying a physical product, such as a repair contract for a home appliance or computer. 

service mark   the same as a trademark, except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product; a name or a symbol for a service, as opposed to a tangible good; see trademark, certification mark, and Lanham Act. 

services advertising   advertising messages promoting services, as opposed to products; see nonproduct advertising and product advertising. 

services marketing   all the activities and processes relating to the marketing of  services or something intangible, as opposed to a physical object or tangible good; see service, product marketing, and product.  

service wholesaler   a merchant wholesaler (takes title to the goods) that provides all the functions normally associated with wholesaling; also called full-function wholesaler and full-service wholesaler. See middleman functions and limited-function wholesaler. 

session fee   compensation paid by an advertiser to performers for a television or radio commercial shooting session; see residual and talent cost.  

setback   in outdoor billboard advertising, the distance between the line of travel and the center of the poster, i.e., the distance from the area where the traffic flows to the advertising structure. 

set shoot   in television commercial production, filming the commercial at a studio or other site specifically designed and constructed to be the setting for the commercial; see location shoot and production stage.

sets-in-use   technically, the number of television sets or radios that are turned on, or in use, at any given time; popular usage, though, refers to the percentage of households that have a television set or radio turned on at any given time. See households using radio (HUR) and households using television (HUT).  

set-tuning meter   an electronic device used to measure how television programs perform in specific markets throughout the United States, i.e., local television markets; located in 55 of the largest television markets in the country, these approximately 18,000 meters provide the tuning status of household television sets (set on/set off, channel, time). Results attained from these meters provide the basis for overnight ratings. Tuning status data are supplemented by diary information collected from separate samples of homes in these markets. Especially important during the sweeps months of November, February, May, and July. Not to be confused with the People Meter, which measures audiences to programs that reach the entire nation. See diary method, metered markets, overnight ratings, People Meter, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

17.65 percent   see production add-on and markup charge. 

75 showing   in outdoor advertising, an expression indicating that 75 percent of a given market's population will be reached (i.e., will have the opportunity to see) a particular advertiser's message by virtue of the number and placement of an advertiser's billboard panels in the market, in a 30-day period; see outdoor advertising, showing, 25 showing, 50 showing, and 100 showing.

shadow shopping   see mystery shopper studies. 

share   the percentage of those television sets or radios in use that are tuned to a given program during a specified time period; also called program share. Example: in a given geographic market and at a particular time of the day, if 400,000 television households have their television sets turned on and 88,000 of those households with their sets on at that time are watching a specific program, that program is said to have a 22 share. See program share, rating and sets-in-use.   

share of audience   see share. 

share of market   a given brand’s percentage of total sales in a product category. 

share of mind   the percentage of a particular population or audience who indicate awareness of or preference for a specific brand within a product category; the extent to which a particular brand is thought of within the context of a specific product category. Also referred to as brand association. 

share of space   the percentage of the retail space for each brand carried by a store. 

share of voice   a brand’s share of the total advertising expenditures for a product category; calculated by dividing brand spending by total category spending. May be the percentage of all promotion, not just advertising, in a specific product category that is spent by a particular brand. 

share point   a share of the audience or the market, with each share equal to one percent of the total; see rating point. 

shared identification   in television, a station’s identification (I.D.) during a commercia, with the call letters superimposed on the television screen; also called a shared I.D. 

shared mailing   see cooperative mailing. 

shelf card   a display card on a retail store shelf. 

shelf display   the arrangement of goods on a retail shelf. 

shelf talker   on a retail store shelf, a sign with an advertising message that hangs over the shelf’s edge. 

shelter magazine   a periodical whose editorial content focuses on the home, including decorating, maintenance, improvement ideas, and a variety of other domestic matters; e.g., Better Homes & Gardens. 

Sherman Antitrust Act   an 1890 act designed to prohibit monopolies and to assure free competition, in opposition to the concentration of economic power in large corporations; see Clayton Antitrust Act. 

shipper display   a specially-designed shipping carton that, when opened, is formed into a display unit for the product, complete with signage. 

shock-effect advertising   intentionally-controversial advertising; also called simply shock advertising.  

shoehorning   inserting or cramming additional copy into an existing advertisement or commercial where, at first glance, there is little or no room for it; often a last-minute move and always one that must be done very carefully. 

shoot   see production stage. 

shop   see advertising agency. 

shopper   see shopping newspaper. 

shoppers network/programs   in television, cable networks and individual programs that feature sales presentations, demonstrations, and product offerings available for immediate purchase from home via direct-response such as telephoning an order.

shopping arcade  see shopping mall.

shopping center   see shopping mall.

shopping mall   a large collection of retail stores representing a wide variety of merchandise and services; stores are usually connected by walkways for easy access.   

shopping plaza   see strip mall.   

shopping products   products for which consumers typically make comparisons among different brands or versions before buying in the belief the end result will be worth the effort; comparison criteria include product features, brand image, price, service, warranty, store reputation, and other factors the consumer thinks relevant in making the right buying decision. See homogeneous shopping products, heterogeneous shopping products, consumer products classification system, convenience products, specialty products, and unsought products.    

shopping newspaper   a free publication, usually a weekly, containing mostly advertising and distributed to households or available to shoppers at the point-of-purchase; may contain a small amount of editorial matter. Also called a shopper. 

short list   the finalists in an advertiser’s search for a new advertising agency. 

short rate   an advertising rate charged by a media vehicle to an advertiser that does not use the entire amount of space or time it contracted for over a given period of time; the rate is determined by the difference between the standard rate for the actual amount of space or time used and the discounted or lower contract rate negotiated at the start. The difference between the earned rate and the contract rate. Essentially a penalty fee paid by the advertiser for not fulfilling the space or time requirements set forth in the contract. See contract rate and earned rate. 

show producer   see trade show producer. 

showing   in outdoor advertising, the total number of panels in a buy; most commonly, specified in terms of a #100 showing, #75 showing, #50 showing, or #25 showing, with the numbers relating directly to the percent of a market’s population. For example, in a market whose population is 800,000 people, a #50 showing will deliver 400,000 daily exposures (i.e., 50 percent of the market’s population). The showing size (e.g., 100, 75) does not indicate the number of poster panels used. In transit advertising, the term refers to the collection of car cards in the vehicles of a transit line system, with a rating based on the percent of the transit line’s vehicles having a car card. See full showing, half run, half showing, and riding the showing. Also see gross rating point (GRP) and target rating point (TRP). 

showrooming   a phenomenon whereby bargain-hunting consumers browse and study products in retail stores, and then purchase them online at lower prices.

side position   in transit advertising, placement of a car-card above the windows on a vehicle’s sides; also, placement of advertising posters on the exterior sides of a bus or other transit vehicle. 

sign   any structure used to display information about a product, service, or whatever the client is promoting; see out-of-home advertising, outdoor advertising, bulletin, point-of-purchase advertising, and poster. 

signage   in sponsorship marketing, the banners, billboards, electronic messages, and other fixed-position messages identifying sponsors that are displayed on the site of the sponsored property. 

signature   the name of the advertiser, usually appearing at the end of a commercial or the bottom of an advertisement; often used together with the advertiser’s logo. 

signature cut   see logo. 

Silver Anvil Awards   annual awards given by the Public Relations Society of America in recognition of public relations programs that meet the highest standards of performance by incorporating sound research, planning, execution, and measures of appraisal. 

Simmons data   see Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB). 

Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB)   a multimedia research company with an enormous database of more than 8,000 brands in over 400 product categories, statistics on all media, and extremely detailed data on consumer lifestyles, demographics, product purchasing habits, use and consumption, media use, and other aspects of shopping behavior; provides syndicated and custom research.  

simple random sample   in survey research for marketing and advertising, a type of probability sample that employs a method of choosing respondents in which each individual in a given population has an equal chance of being selected; see probability sample, stratified random sample, cluster sample, non-probability sample, and survey method. 

simulated test market   in marketing and advertising research, an experiment in which selected participants are observed or questioned about their attitudes, opinions, and thoughts toward the product or advertising or whatever is being tested; also referred to as a laboratory test or test market simulation. See field test and experiment method. 

simulcast   a simultaneous broadcast of one radio or television station’s by another station. 

single target market approach   after identifying and evaluating market segments, selecting one as the target segment and then designing a marketing mix for that specific market; see multiple target market approach. 

single-copy sales   a magazine's sales through retail store outlets, as opposed to home-delivered; also called newsstand sales. See subscription sales.

single-rate card   a media rate card containing one rate for all advertisers, on a per-insertion basis, with no rate differences according to time, position, or volume of advertising. 

single-source data   data collected on the product purchase behavior and media habits of a single household or family or an individual; data accumulated by monitoring a specific consumer group’s (such as a family or household) exposure to advertising and promotion efforts and then tracking the group’s decision making and purchase behavior over time (e.g., professional women 35-44 with a household of 3+ and a household income of $80,000 or more). A technique that has come about with increasingly sophisticated research methods and advances in information technology such as scanners. See tracking, BehaviorScan, InfoScan, and SCANTRACK. 

single-source tracking measures   through the use of devices that record television viewing habits, along with grocery store scanning technology, individual consumers are monitored as to the brands they purchase, their exposure to advertising, and their use of sales promotion offers such as coupons; an approach to posttesting advertising messages. 

single-source tracking services   research firms that collect and analyze individual consumers’ data on brands purchased and media exposure, in addition to complete demographic data; see single-source data, BehaviorScan, InfoScan, and SCANTRACK. 

situational determinants   factors associated with the setting in which a product or service is to be used that influence a consumer’s product and brand choice. 

situation analysis   in the promotion planning process, the investigation and evaluation of the factors that influence the development of a promotion strategy; includes exploration and analysis of internal and external capabilities and resources, previous promotion programs, the product’s relative strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities, buyer behavior, competition, and the environment. See internal analysis and external analysis. 

:60   designation for a sixty-second television or radio commercial. 

sizzle   the pleasure, stimulation, and excitement generated by advertising or other
    marketing activity.

skewing   in allocating advertising effort, putting extra weight or activity toward a particular
    market segment; see geographical weighting.

skimming price policy   in new-product pricing, when the marketer sets a high initial
    price, expecting to capitalize on the inelastic demand for the product, i.e., where the
    consumer is not price-sensitive in buying the product; future price cuts are aimed at the
    more price-sensitive segments of the market. Often, an effective way to segment the
    market based on price-sensitivity. See penetration price policy, introductory price
    dealing, elastic demand, and inelastic demand.

skyscraper ad   in Internet advertising, a vertical ad shape with 120 x 600 dimensions
    (width x height, in pixels); a wide skyscraper ad = 160 x 600 dimensions. See pixels,
 banner ad, rectangle ad, and square pop-up ad.

skywriting   an advertising message delivered in the sky by a specially-equipped small
    airplane that discharges smoke to form the message; see aerial advertising.

slice-of-life format   in advertising, a creative execution format that presents a realistic enactment of a common everyday-life situation featuring typical people, often appearing as a “mini-drama” when combined with a problem-solution format; e.g., a commercial in which a person observes new siding being installed on the house next-door and engages in conversation with the homeowner or two people enjoying a homemade sandwich and chatting about food storage bags while watching a kids’ baseball game. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

slick   a print advertisement proof made on glossy paper and suitable for reproduction; e.g., a camera-ready advertisement supplied by a manufacturer to a retailer in a cooperative advertising program. Also may refer to a slick magazine. 

slick magazine   a magazine printed on glossy paper stock; sometime referred to as a slick publication. 

sliding commission   see sliding rate (scale). 

sliding rate (scale)   for time or space in a media vehicle, an advertising rate that decreases as the amount of time or space used by an advertiser in that vehicle increases within a specified period of time; may also refer to the advertising agency’s compensation plan that calls for the agency commission to decrease with an increase in the amount of time or space bought on behalf of an advertiser. See negotiated commission. Also see agency compensation method, agency commission, fee method, commission method, combination method, and performance-based method.  

slogan   an advertiser’s statement, phrase, or theme presented in memorable words to provide continuity or linkage between the different advertisements and commercials in an advertising or promotion campaign; i.e., something of a positioning statement. Conveys the image, identity, and position of a brand or organization. Gets people to remember and associate. Comes from the Gaelic “slugh gairm,” meaning “battle cry.” Also called a tag line or a theme line. 

slotting allowance   a fee charged by retailers to manufacturers for the shelf space, or slot, occupied by a new product; the fee can be a direct cash payment or in free merchandise. Considered part of trade sales promotion. Also called a slotting fee or a stocking allowance

sneak-in   in television and radio advertising, bringing music in at a low volume, gradually increasing it to the desired level; done for effect and to prevent the audience from being distracted from the commercial’s message. 

snipe   an adhesive patch or vinyl sheet that is affixed to an outdoor poster subsequent to the poster going up; e.g., a sheet bearing the local advertiser’s name, address, and telephone number (e.g., a dealer imprint) or, more commonly, a patch that is pasted over an existing portion of a poster to make a correction in the copy or to change information such as price or to announce the final days of an offer. Sometimes referred to as an overlay. See dealer imprint

social class   a person’s standing in the social hierarchy; e.g., upper class, middle class, or lower class. Reasonably similar groupings of people based on shared lifestyles, values, interests, behaviors, and other characteristics. One of the variables used in market segmentation.  

social influences   in consumer behavior, the interpersonal elements and relations that affect an individual’s buying process; i.e., the way in which an individual interacts with other people, such as family, friends, opinion leaders, reference groups, and others. See psychological influences.  

social marketing   marketing communications programs aimed at creating and maintaining positive attitudes toward significant social issues, such as conservation of natural resources, responsible drinking, a drug-free environment, or recycling.  

social media  electronic communications by which users share information, ideas, and experiences with others; any of a variety of technology by which people can create, publish, and disseminate content to share with others in a social environment. The output may be in the form of text, video, audio, or multimedia. User-created online messaging via publishing, conversing, or sharing content. See social network.

social network/site   an online environment (i.e, website) for people to communicate with others. Notable examples include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, MySpace, GooglePlus+, and YouTube. See social media.

social responsibility   for a marketer or advertiser, the obligation to operate and act in the public interest as determined by what society believes is right, and generally improve the well-being of the people. 

social risk   in consumer decision making, the chance the product purchased  will not meet with the approval of friends or relatives; see risk-taking, performance risk, financial risk, physical risk, and time-loss risk. 

soft goods   see non-durable goods. 

soft-sell advertising   an advertising style in which the message uses a low-key approach to communicating, as opposed to being bold, direct, fast-paced, aggressive and, often, intimidating; see hard-sell advertising

sole sponsor   when a company is the exclusive, i.e., the only sponsor of a property.  

sound effects (SFX)   in television and radio advertising, the audio that accompanies the picture and/or spoken words in a commercial to add a particular feeling to the advertising; e.g., the sound of a crowd at a ballgame, the roar of an automobile engine, the howling wind, or the sound of a golf ball falling into the cup. A type of special effects (SFX), which actually encompasses a broader range of activity. See special effects (SFX). 

source   the originator of a promotional message who creates the message and sends it through a channel to the receiver; e.g., an advertiser. See encoding. 

source credibility   the extent to which an audience believes an advertiser’s  message, an occurrence governed by the audience’s perception of the sender’s expertise, trustworthiness, accuracy, and objectivity.  

source effect   the impact a message has by virtue of the power, attractiveness, and credibility of the sender of the message. 

space   in print media, that part of a publication or surface (in outdoor or transit) that is available for advertising; on the Internet, the location on a Web site page in which an advertisement can be placed. 

space bank   in print advertising, a media buying service’s inventory of space available for sale to advertisers and agencies; see time bank. 

space buyer   an individual at an advertising agency or a media buying organization who is responsible for purchasing advertising space in print media for clients; the space equivalent of a time buyer. See time buyer and media buyer. 

space charge   the cost of advertising space in a given print media vehicle. 

space contract   a formal agreement between an advertiser and a print media vehicle, in which the vehicle guarantees the advertiser a particular rate for a given period of time, based on the amount of space the advertiser expects to use; see short rate. 

space discount   a reduction in the cost of a print media vehicle’s advertising space given to the advertiser, based on the amount of space purchased in a specified period of time. 

space order   in print advertising, an advertiser’s formal agreement or commitment to use advertising space in a particular publication such as a specific issue of a magazine; also called an insertion order. See insertion order. 

space position value (SPV)   in outdoor advertising, a measure of the suitability or effectiveness of a poster panel location; typically based on factors such as length of approach with visibility, travel speed, panel angle to the road, and adjacency to other panels. See rated structure. 

space schedule   a listing of all the print advertising space to be used in a campaign, including the media vehicle, the name of the advertisement, and the date, size, position, and cost of each ad. 

spec advertising   see speculative presentation. 

special effects (SFX)   in television or radio advertising, visual and/or audio effects that are beyond the normal or the usual; see sound effects. 

special event   a particular occasion that is noteworthy or distinctive by its specific purpose or cause, and which provides a venue for an advertiser to deliver its message to a focused and targeted audience; e.g., a music festival, a 10K foot race for a specific charitable cause, or a Little League baseball game to benefit local police and firefighters. See sponsorship. 

special-interest magazine   a publication whose editorial content focuses on a particular activity or subject and is aimed toward devotees of that activity or interest: e.g., Runner’s World, Skiing, Car and Driver, Golf Digest, Popular Photography. Also called an enthusiast publication, niche magazine, or custom magazine. See niche media.

special-interest marketing   see diversity marketing. 

specialty advertising   a sales promotion tool in which useful items such as caps, pens, and coffee mugs are imprinted with an advertiser’s name, logo, message, slogan, or other promotional words and given away as goodwill and a reminder of the advertiser’s name; commonly referred to as promotional products marketing. See advertising promotional products. 

Specialty Advertising Association International   the trade association representing the interests of specialty advertising practitioners; dedicated to promoting the highest standards of excellence and integrity in the specialty advertising industry, and promoting the use of specialty advertising as an integral part of promotion programs. 

specialty products   products, especially a particular brand, that the consumer feels compelled to have and is habitually willing to make a special effort to locate and buy; the consumer insists on having the product for its unique or distinctive attributes. See consumer products classification system, convenience products, shopping products, and unsought products.      

specifications   formal guidelines, instructions, rules, and requirements that must be met in dealing with a particular organization or party; e.g., an magazine advertisement submitted to a particular media vehicle is subject to certain requirements as to the precise form in which it is handed over to the publication or a billboard advertisement must meet certain dimensional requirements.  

spectacular   a very large, elaborate, built-to-order outdoor advertising sign with embellishments such as lights, brilliant color, movement, action, and other special mechanical and electrical devices and effects; placed in prime high-traffic areas, it has the highest unit cost of all outdoor signs. Larger than the standard bulletin, which is 14’ x 48’. See bulletin, permanent bulletin and rotary bulletin  

speculative pitch  see speculative presentation. 

speculative presentation   presentation of advertising and promotion ideas or even an entire marketing communications campaign plan to a prospective client, without the client sharing in the costs associated with the preparation and presentation of the campaign’s elements and executions; sometimes involves elaborate plans and high costs to the agency. A high-risk attempt to win an account. Also called a speculative pitch.  

specs   see specifications. 

spiffs   see push money (PM)

spill-in   when a television signal from outside the area penetrates a local market area; within a given market, the viewership of television stations that originates outside that market and expressed as a percent of the total viewing done within the market that is receiving signals. 

spill-out   when a television signal goes beyond its own market area to another station’s market; the portion of a television station’s total audience that falls outside the originating station’s market and generally expressed as a percent  (total viewership to station WWKK = 4 people. Station WWKK spill-out = one-fourth=25% spill-out). 

spillover media   see spill-in and spill-out. 

spin   a public relations phenomenon in which there is an attempt to shape news in the media so it receives extensive coverage; also refers to a situation where an advertising campaign is so notable that it generates considerable follow-on publicity in the media. Also called top-spin or over-spin. 

SPINdex   an index score of the extent of editorial coverage of issues, topics, products, and other marketing-related matters by major media outlets in five categories – network television, daily newspapers, newsweekly magazines, trade magazines, and wire services. A service of Medialink Research. 

splash page   in Internet advertising, a preliminary page that precedes the regular home page of a web site, usually promoting a particular site feature or providing advertising. Also referred to as an interstitial. 

split commercial   see piggyback. 

split run   placing two or more versions of an advertisement in alternate copies of the same newspaper or magazine issue or, in the case of geographical editions, the different versions of the advertisement may be placed in different regional or metro editions; depending on the various editions offered by the publisher, can be achieved using a geographic split or a demographic split. Also, there can be a subscription/newsstand sales split or an every-other-copy split, called an A/B split. See split-run test, demographic split-run, geographic split-run, subscription/newsstand split-run, and A/B split.  

split :30   a thirty-second (:30) television commercial in which the same advertiser promotes two different products with two different messages; e.g., the :30 is broken into two :15s, or a :20 and a :10. 

split-cable testing   in advertising research, a technique by which two or more groups or separate samples of subscriber households in a cable television system are exposed to different commercials; by monitoring the purchases of the different receivers of the commercials, the advertiser can make a judgment as to the effectiveness of each commercial. Can also determine best commercials as to recall and persuasion effects via a follow-up telephone survey, e.g., day-after-recall method. See BehaviorScan and day-after-recall. 

split-list experiment   in direct marketing, a type of effectiveness-testing in which two or more versions of a direct mail piece or package are sent to different individuals on a mailing list; segment A gets ad or package A and segment B gets ad or package B. Used to determine which version generates the best response. The direct mail version of split-run and split-cable testing. 

split-run test   for purposes of measuring the effectiveness of advertisements, placement of two or more different versions of an ad in alternate copies of the same publication (newspaper or magazine) on the same day or in the same edition; record is kept of coupon returns, inquiries, trial orders, or whatever direct response action is requested in the ads. See split run, demographic split-run, geographic split-run, subscription/newsstand split-run, and A/B split. 

spokesperson format   in advertising, a creative execution format featuring an individual who speaks on behalf of an advertiser or its product; the person may be a celebrity, expert, authority figure, created character, or a typical consumer. If the spokesperson is a user of the product and is speaking from actual experience, he or she is providing a testimonial. All testimonials come from spokespersons, but not all spokespersons provide testimonials. All of them are endorsements. For example, a commercial featuring a garage mechanic recommending Fram oil filters, an advertisement with a veterinarian recommending a certain Alpo product for older dogs, a commercial with Reba McIntire speaking on the importance of finishing high school, or a commercial in which Dale Earnhardt, Jr. pushes Goodyear tires. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, testimonial, and comparison formats. Also see endorsement. 

sponsor   an entity such as a company or a product that pays a property (e.g., a cultural event, an entertainment tour, a festival, a sporting event or series, a sports team) for the right to advertise and promote itself in association with the property; also refers to an advertiser who pays for commercial time on television or radio. See title sponsor, primary sponsor, associate sponsor, presenting sponsor, naming rights, right of first refusal, sponsorship, and property.   

sponsor identification   the brief mention of the advertisers on a particular television or radio program, prior to and/or after the program segment in which particular sponsor’s commercial appears. 

sponsored imagery   see virtual placement process.  

sponsored search  see paid search.

Sponsors Report   comprehensive documentation of sponsor exposure during nationally-televised sports and special events, by means of electronically monitoring and tabulating in-focus exposure time; contains data on each individual sponsor. In evaluating sponsorship impact, a value is derived by combining the exact visual time and sponsor mentions during a telecast and comparing it to the broadcaster’s non-discounted rate per :30 commercial, i.e., what the combined in-focus exposure time and sponsor mentions would have cost the sponsor to purchase commercial time on the telecast. A service of Joyce Julius & Associates. See in-focus exposure time, NTIV Analysis, and Joyce Julius & Associates. 

sponsorship   the practice whereby a company or a product (i.e, sponsor) pays a property (e.g., a cultural event, an entertainment tour, a festival, a sporting event or series, a sports team) for the right to advertise and promote itself in association with the property; in television or radio advertising, when an advertiser takes over the entire responsibility for producing a program and is the sole exclusive advertiser on that show; may also refer to when one advertiser purchases only a part of a television or radio program, along with another advertiser. Often a big part of a company’s efforts at relationship marketing. See co-sponsorship and relationship marketing. 

sponsorship fee   payment made by a company to a property for some level of sponsorship rights; usually refers to actual cash payment, though may refer to products or services given in lieu of cash; see in-kind sponsorship deal. 

sponsorship marketing   all the activities and processes that go into a marketer’s sponsorship program; see sponsorship and relationship marketing. 

sponsorship property   see property.

sports marketing   the practice by which a company links itself to or sponsors a sports team, league, or competition.  

spot   a television or radio time slot designated for a commercial; the television or radio advertising time that is purchased directly from a local station (i.e., on a market-by-market basis), as opposed to a national network. When a national advertiser buys time on a local station, it is a national spot, though usually referred to a simply a spot. When a local advertiser buys time on a local station, it is a local spot, though usually referred to as local radio or local television. 

spot advertising   television or radio advertising done by national or local advertisers on individual stations in which the commercial time is purchased directly from each local station; see local spot and national spot. 

spot announcement   an advertiser’s commercial message that runs between  television or radio programs; time is purchased directly from individual stations, and placement ranges from a national to a local basis. Also, popular usage makes reference to any advertising in which the commercial time is bought from a local station and, therefore, the commercial itself becomes a spot announcement or spot. 

spot load  in radio advertising, the number of commercials in a specific commercial break.

spot radio   radio time purchased by national advertisers from individual local stations for airing commercials.

spot schedule   a listing of all spot television or spot radio advertising time to be used in a campaign, including the individual station, program, name of the commercial, and the date, daypart, position, length, and cost of each commercial in the schedule. 

spot television   broadcast or cable television time purchased by national advertisers from individual local stations for airing commercials; see local spot and national spot. 

spotted map   in out-of-home advertising, a map of a specific market which shows, by means of dots drawn in or pinned on, the location of advertising structures available and/or already bought; i.e., the locations of the outdoor units comprising an outdoor advertising campaign. Also called a location map.

spread   in print advertising, an advertisement that is printed across two facing pages of a publication; also called a double-truck, two-page spread or double- spread. See double-truck and two-page spread. Also see two pages facing. 

SQAD (Service Quality Analytics Data)   an industry leader in providing, via its Media Market Guide, comprehensive media data for advertisers, agencies, media buying services, TV and radio stations, TV program syndicators, magazines, newspapers, out-of-home organizations, and others; information includes cost-per-point (CPP) and cost-per-thousand (CPM) data for network and spot television and radio, broken down by :30 and :60 spots on a market-by-market (DMA) and daypart-specific basis, all updated monthly, plus key data on other major media. 

square pop-up ad   in Internet advertising, an ad shape with 250 x 250 dimensions (width x height, in pixels); see pixels, banner ad, skyscraper ad, rectangle ad, and pop-up advertising. 

SRDS Business Publication Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on trade publications, including advertising rates, closing dates, production specifications, contact information, and links to on-line media kits; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Canadian Advertising Rates & Data   a directory that provides comprehensive information on a broad range of Canadian media, demographics, and advertising rates; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). 

SRDS Community Publication Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on local weeklies and shoppers newspapers, including advertising rates, closing dates, production specifications, and contact information; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Consumer Magazine Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on domestic and international consumer magazines, including advertising rate, closing dates, production specifications, contact information, and links to on-line media kits; also identifies links to magazine Web sites and audit statements on readership for each magazine. See Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Direct Marketing List Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on mailing list rentals, including list sources, selections, and costs; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Hispanic Media and Market Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on the demographics of the Hispanic market and how to reach them; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Interactive Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on on-line advertising vehicles, including advertising rates, contact information, usage, audience profiles, and links to Web sites and audit statements for each site; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS International Media Guides   a directory that provides comprehensive information on newspapers, consumer magazines, and business publications in over 200 countries, including advertising rates, contact information, and production specifications; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Mexican Audiovisual Rates & Data   a directory that provides comprehensive information on Mexican television and radio stations; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). 

SRDS Mexican Print Media Rates & Data   a directory that provides comprehensive information on consumer and business magazines and newspapers, as well as outdoor and transit media; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). 

SRDS Newspaper Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on daily newspapers, newspaper groups, ethnic newspapers, college newspapers, comics, and newspaper-distributed magazines, including advertising rates, closing dates, production specifications, and contact information; also includes links to on-line media kits and newspaper Web sites that give additional readership information. See Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Out-of-Home Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on a vast range of out-of-home media (21 media categories, including outdoor, stadium, hotel, bus shelter, transit, shopping mall, airport, college campus, event, and others), including advertising rates, closing dates, production specifications, contact information, and links to Web sites; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Print Media Production Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on production specifications and deadlines for consumer as well as business magazines and newspapers; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).

SRDS Radio Advertising Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on AM and FM commercial radio stations, including format, demographics, and contact information; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). 

SRDS Technology Media Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on media targeted to the high-tech industry, including advertising rates, closing dates, production specifications, and contact information; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).


SRDS TV & Cable Source   a directory that provides comprehensive information on broadcast, cable, and syndicated television stations and networks throughout the entire country; see Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). 

stacked panels   in out-of-home advertising, structures with facings built on top of each other; also call deck panels. See premiere square.  

stadium signage   billboards or other displays at a sports venue; may be referred to as arena signage. 

staggered schedule   several advertisements scheduled in two or more periodicals in an alternating pattern; e.g., four different ads scheduled in four separate periodicals, with each ad appearing in each periodical once every four weeks on a set schedule over a period of time.  

stakeholders   the different groups of people in whom a company or organization has a special interest by virtue of the relationship each group has with the firm; e.g., customers, employees, suppliers, public interest groups, government agencies, stockholders, financial institutions, and the media. Also referred to as publics. 

Standard Advertising Unit (SAU)    an industry-wide system for standardizing newspaper advertising sizes and page dimensions, so that advertisements will be sized in columns and inches (rather than agate lines) and one mechanical will be accepted by all newspapers; broadsheet newspapers can take 56 different sizes of ads and tabloid newspapers can take 33. Designed by the American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA). See broadsheet, column inch, agate line, mechanical, and tabloid. 

standard art   see stock art. 

standard deviation   a statistical measure denoting the extent of variation within a sample. 

Standard Directory of Advertisers   an advertising industry guide with a comprehensive database containing detailed profiles of approximately 24,000 U.S. and international advertisers, each of which spends more than $200,000 annually on advertising; each listing includes advertising expenditures by specific medium, the advertiser’s current agency, annual sales, brand name information, number of employees, addresses and telephone numbers, web site, key personnel, contact information, and other key data. One of the Red Books. 

Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies   an advertising industry guide with a comprehensive database containing approximately 13,5000 U.S. and international advertising agencies, each of which has detailed information on the accounts currently being served, fields of specialization, breakdown of billings by specific media, number of employees, addresses and telephone numbers, web site, key personnel, contact information, and other key information. One of the Red Books. 

Standard Directory of International Advertisers & Agencies   an advertising industry guide with a comprehensive database on international advertisers and agencies; see Standard Directory of Advertisers and Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies. One of the Red Books. 

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)   until replaced by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), for many years, the coding system, using numbers, to classify business establishments according to the primary end product manufactured or service provided; developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget. See North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). 

standard magazine   typically measures approximately 10½ inches deep by 8 inches wide, although there are several variations. 

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)   no longer used; see Metropolitan Area (MA), Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA).   

Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)   a service that publishes a wide range of data, such as circulation figures, advertising rates, advertising specifications, and contact information for virtually all media that accept advertising; e.g., consumer magazines, radio, TV & cable, newspapers, business publications, interactive, direct marketing, out-of-home, and others. Service includes volumes for international media and market-specific media (e.g., Hispanic media and markets). See individual listings under SRDS. 

standardized structure   in outdoor advertising, a structures such as a panel or a bulletin that is built to the specifications of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). Also called a standardized unit. 

standardized unit   see standardized structure. 

Standards of Practice   a comprehensive set of fundamental principles advanced by the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and designed to serve as a model for the highest level of ethical conduct of advertising agencies; a code of conduct that governs the responsibilities and obligations of advertising agencies to their clients, the public, the media, and to their counterparts in the advertising world. See American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), Creative Code, and Guidelines for Comparative Advertising. 

standard-size newspaper   see broadsheet. 

stand-by space   magazine advertising space purchased by an advertiser at a discount, with the agreement that the magazine will run the advertisement at a time and in a position of its choosing, i.e., when the magazine has space its wants to fill in a particular issue; not all magazines do this. 

standing ad   an advertisement that runs in several consecutive issues of a publication or on several consecutive episodes of a program; refers to the same advertisement or commercial rather than a different one. 

standing-room-only (SRO)   see last-chance method. 

staples   the basic products that consumers buy frequently and with little  thought or effort; the routinely-purchased necessities. 

Starch   the leading print advertising research organization; part of RoperASW. 

Starch Readership Studies   in print advertising research and testing, a measurement of the performance of individual magazine advertisements among readers, i.e., the extent to which advertisements are seen and read; respondents who claim readership of the particular magazine issued being tested are placed in a “Noted,” “Associated,” “Read Some,” or “Read Most” category. Noted =  the percentage of the readers of a specific issue of a magazine who remember having previously seen, i.e., recognized, a particular advertisement at the time of reading the magazine; Associated = the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who not only noted a particular advertisement, but also saw or read some part of it which clearly indicated the brand or the advertiser; Read Some = the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who read any part of a particular advertisement’s copy; Read Most = the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who read one-half or more of the written material in a particular advertisement’s copy.

Starch scores   see Starch Readership Studies. 

state edition   an edition of a national magazine that goes only to a particular state in the United States, e.g., Sports Illustrated has an edition for every state in the U.S.; an advertiser can buy space in the state edition without having to purchase a larger circulation. A type of partial-run edition. See demographic edition, metro edition, and regional edition. 

statement stuffer   an advertisement or other promotional material enclosed with a monthly statement or invoice that is mailed to customers by banks, department stores, utility companies, oil companies, and others; also called a hitchhiker and a ride-along, as well as a bill enclosure

state regulation   legislation, consumer protection measures, and other efforts at the state level designed to monitor and control marketing activities such as advertising; individual states vary in their approach to governing unfair and deceptive marketing practices, but every state has the power to investigate and prosecute cases, and each is a valuable extension of the federal regulatory mechanisms aimed at consumer protection and the preservation of competition. See federal regulation, local regulation, in-house regulation, and self-regulation.  

static ad placement   in Internet advertising, inserting a “permanent” advertisement into a particular space on a web site’s page; unlike dynamic ad placement, the same ad is seen by all visitors to the page on which the ad is located. See dynamic ad placement. 

station   in television and radio, a specific free-standing broadcasting facility; in out of-home advertising, a transit station or terminal. 

station break   in television or radio, the time between programs or within a program between individual segments, to permit a station to identify itself by channel number, call letters, or location, as well as to run spot announcements or commercials; specific time is designated by program originator. 

station compensation   in broadcast media, payment by a network to an affiliated station for carrying the network’s programming; also called network compensation. 

station domination   in transit advertising, when one advertiser buys all or most of the message spaces in one confined site or terminal, such as a bus, train, or subway station; greatly enhances chance to catch the eyes of on-the-go commuters and passers-by. 

station identification (ID)   in television or radio, the announcement of the station’s channel number, call letters, or location during a station break; see station break and network identification

station lineup   in television and radio, the list of affiliated stations that carry a particular network program. 

station log   in television and radio, the official record of a station’s programming and commercials during the entire broadcast day. 

station option time   see station time.

station poster   see terminal poster. 

station promo   in television or radio, a promotional announcement by a station on its own behalf, or one for an advertiser or other entity such as a not-for-profit cause or event at no cost. 

station rep   an individual who serves as a sales representative for several different television and/or radio stations in dealings with national advertisers. 

station time   in television or radio, broadcast time for which an individual station has the option of selling advertising time (rather than the networks having the option); also called station option time. See network time

status-quo marketing   see defensive marketing. 

stealomatic   see ripomatic. 

stealth marketing   use of unconventional promotional tactics to capture consumer attention and interest in a product without the consumer realizing it is a full-scale carefully-scripted marketing attempt to win consumer acceptance; typically used to augment other more mainstream promotional tactics. Example: a man, accompanied by a woman (both hired actors), and carrying a Sony-Ericsson cellular phone with a built-in digital camera that takes pictures and stores them, asks a passerby at a major intersection to take a picture of him and his girlfriend...and proceeds to show the passerby the ease with which the camera can be used, along with glowing praise about its quality and value -- a scene that is repeated over a period of time at several locations. Also called undercover marketing, under-the-radar marketing, street marketing, grassroots marketing, viral marketing, and product placement.

stereotype   see mat. 

stickiness   in web marketing, the extent to which people return to an advertiser’s site on a regular basis, as well as the amount of time people spend on the site during any given visit. 

still production   in television advertising production, a technique of filming and editing a series of photographs to give the appearance of movement and action in the finished commercial. 

still-life format   in advertising, a creative execution format in which the product stands alone, with virtually no copy; e.g., a full-page magazine advertisement featuring a Coca-Cola soft-drink bottle or an Absolut vodka bottle with no copy, a Nike advertisement showing just a single running shoe with no copy on the page, or a Lexus advertisement consisting of a picture of the automobile with only a single word of copy, “Luxury.” See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

stimulus   a factor that directly influences the activity of an individual and serves as the impetus for a particular behavior. 

stimulus-response theory   the theory that says a stimulus results in a consumer’s need or desire to respond to it; e.g., an advertisement featuring an attractive offer results in the consumer taking action to accept the offer. Also called conditioning theory.  

stock art   ready-made images, designs, and other artwork for advertisers to purchase and use in advertising; also called standard art or library art.    

stock footage   existing film containing a wide variety of shots, scenes, actions, and special effects, available for purchase and use by an advertiser in a television or radio commercial; e.g., a crowd at a baseball game rising and cheering for a ball walloped out of the park. 

stock formats   in direct-mail marketing, templates which have pre-printed illustrations or headings and sub-headings, ready for an advertiser adds its own copy. 

stock music   existing, recorded music of all varieties available for purchase and use by an advertiser in a television or radio commercial. 

stock photos   existing photographs of all kinds available for purchase and use by an advertiser in an advertisement.    

stock posters   in outdoor advertising, existing, pre-made and ready-to-go 30-sheet posters in a variety of designs and messages available for purchase and use by an advertiser who only has to add its name to the display via a dealer imprint; may refer to a standard design for a particular business category available for use by a company or retailer in that category who simply adds its name by use of a dealer imprint. See dealer imprint. 

stock shot   see stock footage. 

stocking allowance   see slotting allowance.   

stockpiling   occurs when consumers buy multiple units or greater-than-normal amounts of a product to take advantage of a sales promotion deal. 

stockturn rate   the number of times a retailer’s or wholesaler’s average inventory is sold during a specified period of time, usually one year; indicates how fast a company’s or store’s inventory is moving. Several ways to calculate the rate, one of which is: unit sales divided by average inventory in units. 

stopping power   the ability of a commercial or advertisement to arrest the audience’s attention; the advertising’s capacity to make people take notice. 

Storage Instantaneous Audimeter (SIA)   an electronic meter, introduced in 1973 by Nielsen, that was attached to the television set and automatically recorded minute-by-minute television viewing data on channel selection, time of day, and length of time the TV was tuned to a particular channel; the meter was connected to a central computer by a telephone line and all data were immediately fed to the central location. The SIA marked the beginning of daily national and local television ratings being available to advertisers and their agencies. See diary method, metered-market overnights, Nielsen Media Research, People Meter, set-tuning meter, overnight ratings, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

store audit   a formal accounting and authentication of the product and brand movement at the retail level; in addition to sales numbers, may include other factors such as number of displays or other promotional activities. 

store check   an examination of a retail store’s layout, merchandise display, general décor, selling capabilities, and other factors associated with the store’s marketing efforts; a complete review of a store and its way of serving the customer. 

store image   the particular way in which a retailer is perceived or regarded relative to the competition, by customers as well as non-customers. 

store panel   a limited number of representative retail stores that are used regularly over a period of time to collect data on product movement. 

store-redeemable coupon   a manufacturer-issued coupon that can be redeemed at any retail store carrying the particular product. 

store-switching   the extent to which consumers change stores to satisfy a particular product or service need; the store equivalent of brand-switching behavior. 

story completion test   in qualitative advertising research, a projective technique in which the respondent completes an already-started story in his or her own words; a variant of the sentence completion test. See word association test, sentence completion test, cartoon method, third-person method, and picture response test, as well as qualitative research and projective research techniques. 

storyboard   in the television commercial planning process, a series of drawings depicting a proposed commercial; usually on poster board (later reduced to a 8½ “ x 11” sheet of paper) containing six to twelve television screen frames, sketches are drawn or there is a photo sequence in each frame to show key scenes or action, with the audio part (voice-over) and special effects (SFX) described below each frame. Used at various stages in the development of a commercial, especially to present to the advertiser for approval. Once the commercial is finished and ready to run, a final storyboard is produced using freeze-frames of the actual commercial, along with the final copy and special effects written below each frame, and printed on coated paper, to serve as a permanent record for the advertising agency and the advertiser. Sometimes used in pre-testing the television commercial. See pre-testing, liveamatic, photomatic, ripomatic, storyboard, and rough.    

STP marketing   an acronym for segmentation, targeting, positioning, or the core activities in designing a marketing communications program; see segmentation, targeting, and positioning. 

straight announcement   a television commercial in which the advertiser’s message is delivered by an announcer directly to the camera, or the announcer may be off-screen while a film or other graphic is showing; the oldest form of television commercial. 

straight copy   in radio advertising, a commercial consisting of words only, with no music or sound effects of any kind; read by the station’s talk-show host, disk jockey, newscaster, sportscaster, or other individual on air at the time scheduled for the commercial. 

straight-fee method   a method of advertising agency compensation; see fee method. 

straightforward factual format   in advertising, a creative execution format involving a basic presentation of information in an unadorned matter-of-fact manner, essentially letting consumers make their own judgments based on the facts presented; e.g., an anti-drug abuse or anti-smoking advertisement that presents statistics about drug or tobacco abuse as well as known consequences of product usage, or an ad that focuses solely on the ingredients and nutrition value of a particular food product. See news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

straight-line copy   a print advertisement that uses a direct no-frills approach to why a consumer will benefit from use of the product or service; typically, the body copy starts off immediately explaining the headline, often including a series of bullet points in a straightforward way of selling the product. Also called straight-selling copy. 

straight-selling copy   see straight-line copy. 

stratified random sample   in survey research for marketing and advertising, a type of probability sample using a method of choosing respondents whereby the population is broken into mutually-exclusive groups (age groups, gender groups, education groups) and a random sample is drawn from each group; see probability sample, simple random sample, cluster sample, non-probability sample, and survey method. 

street furniture   in out-of-home advertising, a general term for displays located at close proximity to foot traffic or vehicular traffic; e.g., transit shelters, kiosks, shopping mall and convenience store panels, newspaper stands. 

street marketing   an entity's grassroots marketing and promotional efforts undertaken on behalf of its product, event, or cause, utilizing paid individuals or even volunteers to "walk the streets" to deliver the message, i.e., spread the word, to the target audience; for example, distribution of leaflets or promotional items in conjunction with a store opening or a music concert, an athletic shoe company promoting a basketball clinic at a central city playground by employing people to talk up the event, or, in a more elaborate approach, a new travel agency or consulting firm hiring people to ride the subway and to read the local newspaper with a bogus back-page advertisement for the company to give the impression of size and success. Often a good way to achieve custom targeted marketing with high visibility and low cost. Also referred to as stealth marketing and grassroots marketing. See stealth marketing.

street money   cash offered to distributors by manufacturers for reaching performance goals or meeting certain conditions asked for by the distributor; essentially the same as push money. See push money (PM). 

street team   the collection of individuals comprising the marketing group engaged in a company's grassroots marketing efforts; see street marketing.

strip ad   in newspaper advertising, an elongated or shallow advertisement that runs across the entire bottom of a newspaper page; e.g., an advertisement measuring 3” deep x 6 columns wide. See broadsheet and tabloid.  

strip mall   a row of stores along a roadside with a shared parking lot. Typically one-story buildings, the stores represent a wide range of products and services. Also called a mini-mall or a shopping plaza.

strip programming   a particular television or radio program that airs (different episodes) at the same time of day on consecutive days of the week, e.g., Monday through Friday at 10:00 a.m., or any daypart other than prime time; as opposed to checkerboard programming, which is the standard for prime time. Also refers to a commercial that is scheduled the same way. Also called stripping and across-the-board. See checkerboard programming, strip scheduling, daypart, and prime time. 

strip scheduling   in television or radio advertising, an advertiser’s commercial that is run at the same time on consecutive days of the week, e.g., Monday through Friday at 3:00 p.m. each day; also called across-the-board. See strip scheduling

stripping   see strip programming. 

structured questions   see closed-end questions

stuffer   an advertising enclosure that is put in vehicles such as a newspaper, invoice mailing, mailed packages containing purchased merchandise, and the like; see envelope stuffer, newspaper insert, and package insert. 

stunt programming   in television or radio advertising, frills (stunts) that occur on a station during the sweeps months when viewership or listenership is closely monitored for ratings purposes; “sensationalism” designed to get increased ratings during a sweeps period. For example, a television station’s week-long or month-long expose of alleged corruption in a local public service department. Also called stunting.

style   a manner of expression or presentation; see fad and fashion. 

subculture   in a society, a group of individuals who are distinct in that the members share common characteristics and beliefs, as well as common life experiences.   

subhead   a secondary headline that is generally smaller than the main headline but larger than the body copy, and which often serves as transition from the headline to the body copy of an advertisement; can be above or below the main headline. Contains information that is not in the headline. Also may refer to a heading that sets off blocks of copy in the text part of the advertisement. See main head and headline. 

subject to nonrenewal   advertising time or space that becomes available for purchase if the current advertiser in that time or space does not renew or continue its contract with a media vehicle. 

subliminal advertising   an advertising message that tries to reach the consumer by using a stimulus that is below the conscious awareness or perception of the individual (on a subconscious level); extremely controversial as to whether or not it can be achieved. Certainly not a recommended practice. See subliminal perception. 

subliminal perception   a process whereby an individual notices a stimulus, such as a “hidden” visual in an advertisement, even though it is below the threshold of conscious awareness; see subliminal advertising.    

subscriber   an individual who, via a formal purchase agreement, consents to receive a particular medium or media vehicle; e.g., a magazine or cable television service. 

subscriber study   a research study of the demographic, psychographic, and behavioral characteristics of a periodical’s subscribers; typically commissioned to an independent research organization by the publisher, with results summarized and highlighted in the vehicle’s media kit to attract advertisers. 

subscription sales   home-delivery (or business-delivery) of a magazine to an individual who has made advance payment to receive the publication for a specified time; see newsstand sales.

subscription television (STV)   a pay-television service that broadcasts programs using a scrambled signal, with only those home having a special signal decoder able to receive a clear signal; a monthly fee is charged. See pay-per-view (PPV). 

subscription/newsstand sales split-run   placement of one advertisement in the copies of a publication that are sent to subscribers and a different advertisement in the copies of the same publication that are distributed to newsstands for sales. Often used to test and compare the effectiveness of alternate advertisements. See split run, split-run test, demographic split-run, geographic split-run, subscription/newsstand split-run, and A/B split.  

substantiation of claims   see advertising substantiation.  

substitute products   products or services that can be used in place of each other; the price of one product and the demand for the other change in the same direction, e.g., when the price of one substitute rises, the demand for the substitute also increases. Examples: Rawlings and Spalding basketballs, beef and chicken, butter and oleomargarine, compact disks and audio cassettes. See complementary products and independent products. 

Sunday supplement   a preprinted magazine included as a separate publication, inserted into the Sunday newspaper; may be a local supplement (e.g., The Boston Globe Magazine), or one that is typically prepared internally by the newspaper and which features local editorial content and advertising or it may be a national supplement (e.g., Parade Magazine), or one that is published by an outside organization and is distributed with newspapers throughout the country. 

super   in a television commercial, copy or words superimposed on the screen while the announcer talks or the film is run; e.g., product name, package, slogan, or key benefit placed in front of another picture on the screen. Short for superimposition. 

superagency   an extremely large full-service advertising agency capable of providing a comprehensive integrated marketing communications program on a  worldwide basis. 

Superbrands   an annual special issue of BrandWeek magazine that provides data and information on the top 2000 brands in the U.S., covering 25 product categories; information includes rank in the category, identity of the advertising agency, sales figures, advertising expenditures, and a brand equity score. See BrandWeek. 

superimposition   see super. 

supermarket   a large self-service retail store featuring a wide assortment of food and non-food items. 

superstation   an independent television station whose signal is tranmitted to cable systems across the country via satellite for greatly expanded coverage and viewership; e.g., WTBS (Atlanta), WGN (Chicago), WWOR (New York). 

superstore   a large retail store that carries a seemingly unlimited assortment of products at lower-than-usual prices to meet consumers’ far-ranging needs and wants; also called a supercenter, hypermarket, or megastore. See big-box store.

supplement   see Sunday supplement.    

suppliers   organizations and individuals who provide a wide range of specialized services that assist advertisers and agencies in the creation and execution of advertising and promotional material, such as printing, photography, production, specialty items, and other activities.    

supplies   products required for the conduct of business and are not part of the finished product.  

supply   the amount of a product or service available for purchase or use by the consumer; the various amounts of a product or service a producer is able and willing to make and offer for sale at different  prices. See demand. 

supply chain   the entire collection of firms, facilities, and logistics involved in getting products to the market, from raw materials to delivery of the finished product to the final customer; the entire network of producers, suppliers, and distributors involved in the complete set of activities and processes required to get a product into the hands of the customer. Also called value-delivery network. 

support media   the so-called “nontraditional media” used by advertisers; e.g.,  shopping carts, parking meters, park benches, elevators. Typically used to supplement and reinforce the traditional broadcast and print media used in campaigns. Can also be used to mean any medium that plays a secondary role to another medium that is primary and carries the greatest share of the load. Often referred to as nontraditional media, alternative media, or unmeasured media. See unmeasured media. 

support salespeople   individuals whose assistance and efforts are instrumental to the order-getting salespeople, but who do not attempt to get orders themselves; see sales support and technical specialist. 

surface arteries   for outdoor advertising purposes, the major and easily accessible streets in cities and towns that carry a heavy flow of vehicular traffic. 

surfing   see channel grazing. 

survey   in marketing and advertising research, a basic method of collecting data from people and/or organizations; data may be collected via personal interviews, mail, telephone, or over the Internet. 

survey of buyer intention   a sales forecasting method that involves directly asking individuals about their buying plans for a specified future period; purchase intention data are obtained via mail surveys, personal interviews, telephone surveys, or any other research technique. See sales forecast, composite of sales force opinion, expert opinion, jury of executive opinion, test marketing, market potential, and sales potential. 

Survey of Buying Power   an annual special-issue of Sales and Marketing Management magazine, serving as a comprehensive reference guide for marketers, advertisers, media planners, researchers, and others involved in the broad range of business activities; contains up-to-date statistics on U.S. population, effective buying income, and retail sales by regions, metropolitan areas, and DMAs. Known for its Buying Power Index (BPI). See Buying Power Index (BPI). 

survey method   a research technique which involves gathering data from respondents by use of a questionnaire administered by mail, personal interview, telephone, or the Internet; see experimental method and observation method. 

survey research   see survey method. 

suspect   an individual or organization thought to be a possible legitimate potential buyer, but lacking at least one of the characteristics required to be classified a prospect, i.e., having a need for the particular product or service being offered, the ability to pay for it, and the authority and willingness to consummate the deal; see prospect. 

sustaining advertising   in an advertising campaign, a period during which advertising intensity is reduced to levels below normal for the campaign, to keep the product name in front of the audience as a reminder and to maintain demand; i.e., advertising used to remind vs. persuade. Very often happens after a period of heavy persuasive advertising. See pulsing. 

sustaining period   see sustaining advertising. 

sustaining program   in television or radio, a particular program that is supported entirely by an individual station or a network without any advertiser participation or sponsorship; typically involves public interest programs. 

sweeps   in television advertising, a means of surveying all U.S. markets and by which advertising rates are set by audience delivered; the four-times-a-year rating periods during which Nielsen Media Research uses diary-method measurement for each of its 210 television markets (DMAs) in the country, to measure the audiences for local television. Local stations use the rating numbers gathered during these periods to help set television advertising rates. Rating periods are November, February, May, and July, with the diaries being mailed to the participating households in advance of the rating periods. See Nielsen Media Research, Nielsen Station Index (NSI), Nielsen Television Index (NTI), Designated Market Area (DMA), diary method, metered markets, People Meter, overnight ratings, set-tuning meter, telephone coincidental, and ratings. 

sweeps report   a formal account of the results of the surveys to determine television audience size; see sweeps. 

sweepstakes   a consumer sales promotion activity in which prize winners are determined on the basis of a random chance drawing alone; there can be no requirement for the entrant to purchase the product, i.e., individuals need only submit their names to qualify. 

swipe file   material amassed over time from a variety of sources, such as previous advertising or magazine-picture cutouts, for use in roughs for print and television advertising; see ripomatic

switchers   see brand switchers and brand switching.  

SWOT analysis   an acronym for the review and evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with a particular brand or company; an important part of developing marketing and promotion plans. 

symbol   a physical representation or image intended to convey a particular impression on an individual by virtue of its emotional or suggestive meaning 

symbolic association format  in advertising, a creative execution format that links the advertiser’s product to a person or situation that has a very pleasant aura or feel; e.g., a Lenox fine china advertisement or commercial featuring the elegant entertaining possibilities using the advertiser’s product, a jewelry store commercial featuring a man giving his wife a pearl necklace as an anniversary gift in a romantic setting, a Hallmark commercial showing a person receiving a friendship card from a special person, or an HMO commercial featuring a family’s reaction to good news about the health of a loved one. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

symbolic value   the emotional or suggestive meaning a product has for an individual; highly individualistic in nature. 

symmetric balance   see formal balance

syndicated data   data collected by organizations specializing in research and data collection, and sold to several subscribers or any advertiser willing to pay for the data; as opposed to proprietary research done for a single client and which is not available to others, except at the will of the client. See syndicated research service. 

syndicated music   for purposes of local broadcast advertising production, music services that provide recordings to local radio and television stations on a subscription basis for the stations to make available to local advertisers.  

syndicated program   see syndication program. 

syndicated research service   a research organization that regularly monitors certain activities, collects data, and periodically publishes the results and other information of interest to subscribers, such as advertisers, with each of the different  published reports generally following a standardized format; e.g., data on television viewership, radio listenership, advertising spending, retail-store product movement, and the like. Results are sold to subscribers who have contracted for the service. Examples of such services are A.C. Nielsen, Mediamark Research, Inc. (MRI), Information Resources, Inc. (IRI), Scarborough Research Corp., and Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB). See syndicated data. 

syndication   in television, the market-by-market sale of “non-network” or off-network programs by a syndicator, or owner of the programs, to individual television stations in over 200 markets; see barter syndication, cash syndication, cash-barter syndication, first-run syndication, off-network syndication, and syndicator. 

syndication program   in television, “non-network” or off-network programs sold or distributed to local stations on a market-by-market basis by independent organizations outside the national network structure; also called syndicated program. See syndication, first-run syndication, and off-network syndication. Concept also applies to radio. 

syndicator   a company that produces and sells a packaged program series; the owner of the television program that is sold in the syndication market; Also called a packager. See syndication

synergistic effect   the result achieved when the combination of elements in a marketing communications program provides greater impact than the sum total of each individual element of the program; i.e., the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example, when planned, executed, and coordinated  effectively, advertising and sales promotion, working together, can provide greater impact than each activity used alone. See integrated marketing communications.