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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
RAB see Radio Advertising Bureau.
RADAR see Radio All Dimension Audience Research.
ROB see run-of-book.
ROI see return-on-investment approach.
ROP see run-of-press.
ROS see run-of-schedule.
radio an advertising medium in which message are transmitted via electromagnetic waves, ultimately to a receiving radio set.
radio households households with radio sets.
radio network see network.
Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) a trade organization serving the radio advertising business by promoting radio as an effective medium for national and local advertisers.
Radio All Dimension Audience Research (RADAR) in radio audience research and measurement, the standard for radio ratings; an important goal is generate reliable audience estimates for local and network buying and selling. A service of Arbitron.
radio dayparts see dayparts.
radio format the subject or style that characterizes a radio stationís programs; e.g., country, classical, oldies, rock, or adult contemporary music or news, talk, or sports.
Radio Market Report see Arbitron.
radio network see network.
radio syndication see syndication and syndication program.
ragged in print advertising, printed matter (i.e., copy) that is nonaligned or uneven on the left side (ragged left and aligned on the right), the right side (ragged right and aligned on the left), or on both sides (ragged left and right); see flush.
railroad showing an advertising poster at a railroad station or along the tracks of a train line.
random sample in marketing and advertising research, a probability sample whereby all individuals have an equal and known chance of being selected using a random selection process; see probability sample.
ranking see forced-ranking question.
rank-order scale see forced-ranking question.
rate the amount charged per unit of space or time by a media vehicle to an advertiser for placing an advertisement or commercial in that vehicle; e.g., the amount charged per full page, half page, column inch, :30, :60, and the like.
rate base the circulation number that is the basis for a periodicalís advertising rates; may be guaranteed or non-guaranteed. See circulation rate base, guaranteed rate base, and non-guaranteed rate base.
rate book a publication that presents advertising rates for a wide variety media; e.g., Standard Rate and Data Service volumes or Marketerís Guide to Media.
rate card a published listing of the relevant information about placing advertising in a particular media vehicle, issued by the media vehicle to the advertiser; contains information such as advertising rates, availability of discounts, mechanical requirements, copy requirements, closing dates, circulation data, availability of regional editions, special issue information, special services (e.g., split-runs), and other information the advertiser needs before ordering space or time. An important part of a media kit. Used by print media, out-of-home media, and broadcast media. See media kit.
rate class in television or radio, the particular type of rate that is in effect during a given time period; e.g., prime-time rate or daytime rate. See dayparts.
rate differential in newspaper advertising, the difference between the national rate and the local rate; see national rate and local rate.
rate guarantee see rate protection.
rate holder an advertisement or commercial that an advertiser runs solely for the purpose of qualifying for or meeting the requirements to earn a quantity or frequency discount from the media vehicle, during a contract period.
rate protection a guarantee given by a media vehicle to an advertiser who has a contract for space or time over a period of time that the rate agreed upon at the time of the contract will not change during the life of the contract, even if the media vehicle raises its rates during that period; even in the absence of a contract, there may be an agreement that a rate will be guaranteed for a given period of time, even if a rate increase occurs. Also called a rate guarantee.
rated structure in out-of-home advertising, a structure such as a billboard that has been judged and gauged for location, visibility, type and amount of traffic, competition, and other factors; see space position value (SPV).
rating in television and radio, an expression of the percentage of households with television sets or radios that viewed or listened to a particular program; can also be applied to a networkís or stationís entire slate of programs collectively, or for a specific daypart. Most always used for broadcast media, but can be used for any medium as the percentage of homes or individuals exposed to the medium or a particular vehicle. Example: in television, a 9 rating for women 25-54 signifies that nine percent of all women 25-54 in a specific geographic area were viewing a particular program or station. See program rating, rating point, and share.
rating point in television and radio, a measure of the audience watching or listening to a given program, where one rating point is equivalent to one percent of the population that own a television or radio. With approximately 106.6 million television households in the United States, for example, each rating point is equal to about 1,006,600 households. Can be done on a national, regional, or local basis, appropriately adjusting the population figure. In outdoor advertising, a rating point is a percentage of the area population potentially exposed to an advertiserís message in one day, or over a 30-day period. See program rating, 100-showing, and share.
rating service an organization that measures audiences for television or radio programs, using a representative sample of the given population (national, regional, or local); service is performed for advertisers, networks, and stations. Data collected include audience size and viewer or listener characteristics. See Arbitron and Nielsen Media Research.
rational appeals in designing and executing advertising messages, a basis used to attract and engage the consumer through logic and pragmatic concerns employing facts and claims related to function, dependability, economy, safety, efficiency, greater earnings, quality, price, increased leisure time, durability and other links to the practical and reasoned judgment of the individual; also called informational appeals and logical appeals. See appeals and emotional appeals.
rational motives in consumer behavior, the economic or objective reasons for choosing a particular alternative or course of action; as contrasted with emotional motives, which focus on personal or objective bases in making marketplace decisions. See motive and emotional motives.
raw data in marketing and advertising research, the actual and specific responses to a survey, exactly as provided or stated by the respondents, with no editing.
reach the number or percent of different people or households in an advertiserís target audience who are exposed to a media vehicle or schedule at least once over a specific period of time (e.g., four weeks); in reality, the figure represents the audienceís ďopportunity-to-seeĒ an advertisement or commercial, since the reach measure is an expression of exposure to the media vehicle or schedule, rather than to the advertising itself. A measure of unduplicated audience. Common to all media. Sometimes called penetration. See effective reach, opportunity-to-see (OTS), frequency, effective frequency, and average frequency.
reach curve a graphical depiction of how total reach builds over the duration of an advertising and promotion campaign; see reach.
reach x frequency equals gross rating points (GRPs); the total advertising weight of a media schedule, media vehicle, or medium. See reach, frequency, and gross rating points (GRPs).
reactive marketing marketing strategies and tactics designed and implemented in response to competitive action and the need to combat the competitive moves or suffer market share damage; a defensive approach. See proactive marketing.
reactive public relations marketing and public relations efforts undertaken in response to a developing or actual situation that, if left unattended, will likely result in negative consequences for the organization; a counteraction to pressure exerted on the advertiser, especially that from outside the firm, such as consumer displeasure with an event, activity, or practice of the firm, competitive actions, or change in government policy. A defensive move aimed at problem solving. An ďafter-the-factĒ or defensive approach. Often necessitated by conditions, events, or influences beyond the control of the company. See marketing public relations and proactive public relations.
readability index a measure of the ease with which advertising copy can be read; see Gunning Fog Index and Flesch Reading Ease Score.
Read Most score in magazine readership studies, the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who read one-half or more of the written material in a particular advertisementís copy; see Associated score, Noted score, and Read Some score. A measure of The Starch Readership Report.
Read Some score in magazine readership studies, the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who read any part of a particular advertisementís copy; see Associated score, Noted score, and Read Most score. A measure of The Starch Readership Report.
reader an individual who reads a particular issue of a print publication.
readers per copy (RPC) the average number of individuals who read each copy of a particular publication, including pass-along readers; often noted in magazinesí media kits to highlight cost comparisons among specific vehicles. See pass-along readership.
readership the total number of individuals, including pass-along readers, who read a particular publication; i.e., readership by base circulation and pass-alongs, as calculated by a publicationís circulation multiplied by the number of people who read it. Also refers to the extent to which the editorial and/or advertising content are read by the audience. See pass-along readership.
readership studies in print advertising research and testing, the measurement and analysis of the performance of individual advertisements among readers; see Starch Readership Studies.
readership survey in advertising research, an investigation into the readership and their reading habits of a publication and/or the advertising in that publication.
reading notice a newspaper or magazine advertisement whose design in format and type style is very similar to the publicationís editorial matter; the advertisement must contain the word ďadvertisementĒ clearly visible and set apart at the top or bottom. Usually carries a higher rate than a regular advertisement.
rear-end display see front-end display and tail-light poster.
reason-why copy an argument presented in an advertising message that explains why a consumer will benefit from purchasing and using a particular product; a formal statement describing exactly why a particular product or a specific feature will produce a need-satisfying benefit to the consumer. Body copy that substantiates the promise made in the headline. Should be included in the copy platform, or blueprint outlining the creative strategy.
rebate a sales promotion tool in which a buyer receives cash back from the advertiser following purchase of a particular product and submission of proof-of-purchase; most commonly used for durable, expensive goods. Also may refer to the payment by a media vehicle to an advertiser when the advertising time or space actually used by the advertiser exceeds the original contract commitment, allowing the advertiser to qualify for and secure a lower rate. May further refer to a media practice in which there is a return payment from the media to the advertiser to compensate for less space being used than originally charged, or because of error or less-than-promised circulation or audience delivery. See refund.
rebuttal advertising see counter-advertising.
recall an individualís ability to remember specific elements or points about a particular advertisement, commercial, or campaign; see recall test.
recall test a technique for determining the extent to which or how well respondents remember an advertisement or other element of a promotion program; respondents may be provided with verbal or visual details to help their memory (aided recall), or they may be provided no help at all (unaided recall). See aided recall and unaided recall, as well as recognition method.
receiver the recipient or target audience of a senderís message, i.e., an advertising or promotional message; see decoding.
recency effect in theory, the information presented last in an advertising message tends to have greatest impact and effect on the audience and will be remembered longest; see primacy effect.
recent-reading method a method for measuring print media exposure and readership that begins with the interviewer asking the respondent whether he or she has read a copy of a particular publication in the past week (for a weekly) or in the past month (for a monthly).
recognition an individualís ability to remember having seen a particular advertisement, commercial, or campaign; see recognition method and recall.
recognition method in print advertising research, a measure of the respondentís ability to remember having seen a particular magazine advertisement; can be done on a one-time, single-issue basis or over a period of time, with a single magazine title or several titles. See Starch Readership Studies and recall test.
recognized agency an advertising agency that meets a media vehicleís criteria and standards of a legitimate agency and is, therefore, eligible to receive a commission (usually 15 percent) from the vehicle for the space or time it sells to advertisers.
recruitment advertising advertising by organizations seeking qualified applicants for position openings, typically placed in the ďhelp wantedĒ classified section of daily and Sunday newspapers, as well as in trade and industry publications.
Internet advertising, a rectangle ad shape with 180 x 150 dimensions
Red Books see Standard Directory of Advertisers, Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies, and Standard Directory of International Advertisers & Agencies.
redemption the act of submitting a coupon at the point-of-purchase for a reduction in price of a given product equal to the face value of the coupon.
reference group individuals who are a point of comparison and a basis for shaping and expressing a personís attitudes, opinions, values, and behavior; influencers of a consumerís decision making for products and brands in that the group serves as a guide for a personís behavior in a specific situation. Those more influential individuals in a reference group are referred to as opinion leaders. See primary group, secondary group, formal group, and informal group, and opinion leader.
reference price prior to a purchase situation and exploring alternatives, the price the consumer expects to pay for a particular product or service.
refund a sales promotion tool whereby the advertiser returns cash to the buyer of a given product, usually a non-durable, inexpensive product; also may refer to the payment by a media vehicle to an advertiser when the advertising time or space actually used by the advertiser exceeds the original contract commitment, allowing the advertiser to qualify for and secure a lower rate. May further refer to a media practice in which there is a return payment from the media to the advertiser to compensate for less space being used than originally charged, or because of error or less-than-promised circulation or audience delivery. See rebate.
Reggie Awards in promotional marketing, annual formal recognition for superior promotional thinking, creativity, and execution across the full spectrum of promotional marketing; organized and administered by the Promotion Marketing Association.
regional advertiser an organization that operates in and markets exclusively to only one part of the country; see regional advertising and local advertiser.
regional advertising advertising that covers only a specific portion or limited geographic region of the United States, for products that are sold only in that area; as opposed to national advertising or local advertising. See regional advertiser and localized campaigns.
regional agency an advertising agency that prepares and places advertising in a limited geographical area of the country; see local agency.
regional edition an edition of a national magazine (or newspaper) that goes only to a particular region of the United States, e.g., the Southeastern edition of People magazine or the West Central edition of Newsweek magazine; the advertiser can buy space in the regional edition without having to purchase the entire circulation. A type of partial-run edition. See demographic edition, metro edition, and state edition.
regional interconnect see interconnect.
regional magazine see sectional magazine.
regional media any of several advertising media that cover only a part of the entire country, but whose circulation or audience is more than what would be consider local; typically several states constitute the coverage area. See regional edition.
regional network a broadcast network covering only a limited part of the country, and for which advertising rates are priced accordingly; can also refer to a group of magazines (a magazine network) offering advertising space in only a portion of the country. See magazine network and network.
regionalization in international advertising, when the advertiser uses a single campaign to target two or more countries, rather than a different campaign for each country (localization) or one campaign for all countries in which the advertiser does business (globalization); see globalization and localization.
regularly unsought products consumer products that the potential customer knows exist, but has little or no motivation to find and even may actively avoid a search; see unsought products and new unsought products.
regulation all attempts to govern and control marketing activities for the protection and betterment of all parties affected by marketing; see federal regulation, state regulation, local regulation, and self-regulation.
regulatory agencies the broad spectrum of federal, state, and local bodies that, by legal empowerment and authority, have the responsibility to govern and control the practices of marketing, advertising, and the other forms and aspects of promotion; the entities whose major responsibility is to ensure all marketing practices are conducted in the public interest. Also includes the individual industry self-regulation efforts.
reinforcement the strengthening of learning that occurs when a consumer makes a choice about a product or service and experiences satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the decision; see learning.
reinforcement advertising use of media to supplement the major media used in a campaign; e.g., the main media employed in a particular campaign might be magazines and television, with billboards and radio in a supplementary or secondary role to provide additional support or reminder value to the primary media. Also refers to the advertising aimed at recent purchasers and current users to confirm and strengthen their thoughts on what a good choice they made by buying the advertiserís product.
related-recall score in television advertising research, a finding reported by a day-after-recall test, identifying the percentage of respondents who not only remember seeing the commercial in question, but also accurately describe some of the specific details of the commercial; see claimed-recall score, day-after-recall test, and ASI Recall Test.
relationship marketing an organizationís marketing approach that revolves around building and maintaining a long-term link or bond with customers, the trade, and other groups with mutually-dependent needs and goals; advertising and promotional activities, along with personal attention, play a major role in the entire process. Often a goal for a companyís sponsorship marketing program. See sponsorship.
relative advantage see competitive advantage.
relative cost the relationship between the cost of advertising space or time and the size of the target audience delivered; a measure by which media may be compared as to cost efficiency. See cost per point (CPP), cost per thousand (CPM), and cost per thousand-target market (CPM-TM).
relaunch the revival of a marketing or advertising campaign or even a product, after its discontinuation for an extended period of time; e.g., bringing back Tony the Tiger as the spokescharacter for Kelloggís Frosted Flakes.
release see news release.
release print in television advertising, the final version of the commercial or program.
reliability a measure of the extent to which the same marketing, advertising or promotion research technique or procedure will yield similar results every time; an expression of the dependability and consistency of a research technique in the sense that it yields the same results in repeated studies time after time. Also the extent to which the sample result would be the same if the entire population had been surveyed (i.e., a census taken). See validity.
reminder advertising advertising whose purpose is to keep the advertiserís brand name in the target audienceís mind; often used for established, familiar brands to complement the advertising efforts aimed at persuasion. See informative advertising and persuasive advertising.
remnant space in magazine advertising, unsold space in regional and demographic editions at the time a periodical is ready to go to press; usually offered at a substantial discount to an advertiser.
renewal on or before its expiration data, the extension of a contractual agreement between an advertiser and a media vehicle, such as a television station or a newspaper.
renewal paper the extra outdoor posters or transit cards, beyond the number needed at one time, that are produced to replace the ones that are damaged (by natural forces or vandalism) during the course of their showing; also called overrun.
rep see sales representative and media represenatative.
rep firm in advertising media sales, a firm acting on behalf of a media vehicle to sell advertising time or space to advertisers on a national basis or in cities other than where the media vehicle is located; see media representative.
repeat purchase when a consumer buys the same brand as that purchased the time before for that product category, i.e., the same brand is purchased a second consecutive time; also called repurchase.
repositioning changing a brandís image and the way consumers view it, often in an attempt to attract a different target market segment or audience; see positioning.
repositioning the competition an advertiserís strategy that aims to get a target audience to change its opinion about or views toward a competitor; i.e., altering the way consumers think about or perceive a competitor.
representativeness the degree to which advertising research data and results generated from a sample can be generalized to a larger population; e.g., the degree to which television viewing habits found in a sample survey of television viewers can be generalized to the national television viewing audience.
repurchase see repeat purchase.
reputation management in public relations, a long-term process, using a variety of tools and programs, of building and maintaining an organizationí s solid image and standing among its relevant publics; see public relations.
request see hit.
resale price maintenance see fair trade.
re-scaling see re-sizing.
research see advertising research and marketing research.
research design an overall plan or blueprint establishing the framework for collecting and analyzing data, including the details of the research techniques, procedures, and methodology to be used.
research director an individual at the advertising agency who masterminds the complete consumer research effort, and who provides input to the creative effort aimed at producing effective advertising.
research firm an independent organization capable of planning, designing, implementing, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting out on marketing research projects.
research methodology in marketing and advertising research, a complete description of the manner in which data are to be collected for the research project at hand; key methodologies involve surveys, test markets, and literature searches.
research process see marketing research process.
reseller see middleman.
residual in broadcast advertising, a payment to the talent, i.e., performers, who appear in a commercial; it is the payment that occurs after the original contract expires, and occurs every time the commercial is broadcast until it is no longer used. Payment to performers for repeated airings or showings of a commercial. See talent cost and session fee.
re-sizing changing the dimensions of the elements in a print advertisement, so the ad can appear in another size; often done to accommodate the different dimensions of a magazine, for example. In a general sense, the term applies to a broadcast commercial ďreducedĒ to a shorter time frame, e.g., a :30 becomes a :15 by eliminating a part of the voice-over while retaining the essence of the commercial. Sometimes called re-scaling.
resonance test in advertising research, an examination and evaluation of the extent to which a message scores accurately with the target audience.
respondent an individual or organization that answers or participates in an advertiserís request for action of some kind.
response an individualí s reaction to an advertising message or promotional effort; i.e., the receiverís reaction to the senderís communication.
response analysis in direct mail, an evaluation of the individuals who were moved to action by a direct mail program, as well as an examination and interpretation of different components in a direct mail package that were subjected to testing. Concept applies generally to the investigation and explanation of responses to any promotion activity or program.
response bias in marketing and advertising research, the distortion of results that occurs when a respondent, knowingly or unknowingly, provide incorrect or untruthful answers to questions posed by the researcher.
response device in direct marketing or other promotional effort, an order form or other mechanism which the recipient can return to the advertiser to show acceptance of or interest in an offer or request.
response elasticity the extent to which the target audience reacts to a marketing program or particular activity in the way the marketer intended.
response list individuals and organizations that have in the past responded to direct marketing or promotional efforts of the advertiser or other firm for products, services, or purposes similar to those of the advertiser.
response rate a measure of the positive reaction to an advertiserís efforts, e.g., the percentage of individuals who respond to a direct marketing program, the percentage of the target audience who take action asked for by the advertise, the percentage of individuals who participate in an advertising or marketing research survey (e.g., complete a questionnaire), the percentage of the target audience that participate in a sales promotion (e.g., enter a contest or redeem a coupon), and the like. Also referred to as percent return.
response threshold the point at which an individual is moved to accept the marketerís or advertiserís call to action; the number of exposures needed or the extent to which the marketer or advertiser must deliver a message to hit an individualís ďhot buttonĒ to commence a response.
results-based method of agency compensation see performance-based method.
retail advertising advertising placed in local media by a local dealer selling directly to the consumer, i.e., a retailer; qualifies for a preferential advertising rate. See local advertising, local advertiser, and local rate.
retail display allowance see display allowance.
retail rate the advertising rate paid by local retailers; lower than the national rate. Also called local rate. See national rate.
retailing all activities involved in selling products and services to final consumers or users.
retail trading zone a geographical area, inside and outside a central city, in which most of the population does the majority of its shopping and buying; the market outside a city zone whose residents engage in trade with retail merchants located in the city zone. The entire geographical area from which a retailer draws its business.
retailer an organization that buys products and sells them to ultimate consumers; also known as a dealer.
retailer coupon a coupon distributed to the consumer by a retailer; see coupon and retailer in-ad.
retailer in-ad a retailer-specific advertisement containing a coupon offer that is redeemable only at that retailerís location(s).
retailer promotion any of a variety of sales promotion tools and activities used by the retailer to generate store traffic and sales.
retainer method of agency compensation a fee paid by the advertiser to the advertising agency for services, with the fee established by an estimate of the number of billing hours required to serve the account and then determining a series of equal payments; also called straight-fee method. See fee method, commission method, combination method, and performance-based method. Also see agency commission and sliding rate.
retention rate the extent to which a television station or network keeps a viewing audience from one program to another (i.e., holdover audience); the extent to which a television program, station, or network retains its viewers during commercial breaks (i.e., ad pod rating); or the extent to which a company retains its customers from purchase to purchase.
retentive advertising see reminder advertising.
retro ads in
current-day advertising, using advertisements, themes, and approaches that
retro campaign see retro ads.
retro theme see retro ads.
return-on-investment approach (ROI) considering advertising and promotion programs an investment, a method of determining payback by comparing the costs of the program and the results or value generated by the program; e.g., the change in sales, revenues, or brand awareness in response to an advertising program. Very difficult to use with any degree of precision and reliability given the many factors that affect sales, market share, and other results or measures of returns.
returns the response to a direct marketing mailing program.
revenue-per-rating-point the amount of advertising revenue a television network or station generates for each rating point it delivers; a common denominator and comparison tool for measuring results relative to delivery. Hypothetical example: for its college football telecasts, ESPN takes in $120 million in advertising revenue and delivers an average rating of 2.3 for the season, yielding a revenue-per-rating-point figure of $52.2 million. See rating point.
reverse auction see online reverse auction.
reverse timetable see work flowchart.
review see account review.
rich media see rich media advertising.
rich media advertising in Internet advertising, an advertisement that makes use of elaborate technology and which contains elaborate visual elements or interactive elements that allow a visitor to select any of a number of pages to link to on the advertiserís web site; an advertisement more elaborate than usual, such as a banner advertisement with a pop-up menu from which the visitor can select a page to go to on the advertiserís web site, streaming video, fill-in forms, elaborate animations, sound, and other devices designed to capture the userís attention and encourage interaction.
ride-along promotional material that is enclosed in direct mailings sent to consumers for another purpose, such as an invoice or statement; sometimes called a hitchhiker or a statement stuffer.
riding the boards see riding the showing.
riding the showing a physical inspection tour of the billboard advertising locations and panels that comprise a particular advertiserís outdoor advertising buy; may refer to checking posters and sites prior to or, more commonly, after posting, i.e., may be a pre-buy ride or a post-buy ride. See pre-ride and post-ride.
right-of-first-negotiation see right-of-first-refusal.
right-of-first-refusal in sponsorship marketing, a contractual agreement giving a propertyís sponsor the right to match any offer the property receives in a particular category or level of sponsorship when it is up for renewal; sometimes referred to as right-of-first-negotiation. See option-to-renew.
rights formal permission to engage in some specified activity associated with an event, cause, or entity such as a sports team or art museum; e.g., Coke's or Budweiser's legally-binding authority to dispense its beverage at a baseball park, Goodyear's license to display signage on the backstretch of a NASCAR racetrack, or a radio station's title to broadcast a particular college's basketball games. May be extended to only one company or brand in a product category, or open to two or more competitors in a category, i.e., exclusive rights or non-exclusive rights. See rights fee, sponsor, and sponsorship.
rights fee payment by a marketer to the owner of a property (e.g., an event, a cause, a professional sports team) for permission to engage in some activity associated with the property; see rights, sponsor, and sponsorship.
ripomatic a technique used to pre-test a rough unfinished television commercial produced by ďripping offĒ or taking parts of other commercials and piecing them together to give an idea of what the new commercial will look like; used to show to the advertiser and to gain approval before production of the finished commercial. Also called a stealomatic. See pre-testing, liveamatic, photomatic, storyboard, rough, and swipe file.
risk reduction the attempt by the consumer to minimize the perceived dangers associated with a wrong choice of product or other marketplace decision; the presence of high perceived risk is likely to result in extensive problem solving by the consumer, while a low perceived risk typically results in limited or routine problem solving. See risk-taking, extensive problem solving, limited problem solving, and routine problem solving. Also see high-involvement decision making and low-involvement decision making.
risk-taking encountering the hazards and uncertainties that are an integral part of marketing, from both the marketerís and the consumerís side; e.g., a consumer purchase may involve one or several risks, such as performance risk, financial risk, physical risk, social risk, or time-loss risk, or an intermediary faces risk by making a buying commitment in advance of a selling season. See performance risk, financial risk, physical risk, social risk, and time-loss risk. Also see risk reduction.
roadblocking in television advertising, a media scheduling technique that calls for placing the same commercial on all networks at the exact same time so they are broadcast simultaneously; or placing the same commercial at the exact same time on several stations within a single market area. Anyone watching television at that time likely will be exposed to the same commercial simultaneously.
Robinson-Patman Act a federal law, passed in 1936 to supplement the Clayton Antitrust Act, prohibiting undue price discrimination and also regulating and controlling promotional allowances given by manufacturers to retailers; all such allowances must be made available to the trade on ďproportionally equal terms.Ē Banned offering different prices to different buyers of the same commodity when the effect would be to lessen competition or create a monopoly. Hoped to protect small independent retailers from chain-store competition (sometimes referred to as the ďAnti-Chain-Store Act.Ē See Clayton Antitrust Act.
roles of intermediaries see middleman functions.
roll-out a process of expanding advertising or other promotion activity into additional geographic or market areas over time; in the same way, also refers to a productís introduction into new areas. Geographic expansion may proceed from a single or limited number of test markets to a regional and then a national market over a period of time. Typically the strategy employed during the commercialization stage, and final stage, of the new-product development process.
rolling billboard an advertising sign, billboard, or other display mounted or painted on a truck, van, or other vehicle that moves from one location to another, e.g., from one event to another or one city to another; also refers to auto racing cars with the painted signs and decals of a race teamís sponsors displayed all over the vehicle, not to mention the huge van that transports the race cars from one speedway to another all over the country, with the main sponsorís name painted on the sides of the van. Also called a mobile billboard or a traveling display. See bus wrap and car wrap.
rolling stock generally refers to a company vehicle or delivery truck with the name of the company painted on the sides; the vehicle is used to carry out the normal dayís work, such as delivery or repairs, going from job to job, as opposed to a rolling billboard, which is strictly for promotional purposes. See rolling billboard.
Rolodex agency an advertising agency that consists of just a small number of people, instead hiring specialists such as copywriters, art directors, media planners, and marketing strategists on a project-by-project basis; similar to a group of free-lance advertising people. See freelance.
romance copy alluring and enticing advertising copy, heavy on imagery, designed to attract the target audience through connection with their feelings and emotions; very much a soft-sell approach. See soft-sell advertising.
RoperASW a leading consumer marketing and advertising research firm; see Starch Readership Reports.
roster the list of advertising agencies used by a particular company; see agency of record.
roster recall in advertising research, a method by which respondents are shown a list of television or radio programs and then asked to identify those they remember seeing or hearing.
rotary see rotary bulletin.
rotary bulletin in outdoor advertising, one of two standard-size billboards at 14í high x 48í wide; the bulletin is moved periodically to different locations in the same market at fixed intervals, e.g., every 30, 60, or 90 days, to achieve balanced reach in the market area without having a large number of billboards. Also called a rotary or a rotating bulletin. See permanent bulletin and spectacular.
rotary plan see rotary bulletin.
rotation in television and radio, a method of advertising scheduling in which several commercials that comprise a set are run in a regular sequence continuously from first to last over and over; can also be used to mean an advertiserís strategy of scheduling television commercials by rotating them among several different programs or time periods (i.e., an orbit). The term may refer to the outdoor advertising practice of periodically moving billboards to different locations within a market. See rotary bulletin and orbit.
rotational signage at any given fixed location at a sports arena, stadium, or other venue, sponsorsí signage that changes or rotates through various advertiser/sponsor names according to pre-determined intervals of time.
rotogravure in print production, a process in which the printing surface is etched into a printing plate, rather than flat (as in offset lithography printing) or raised (as in letterpress printing); excellent for reproducing pictures, and particularly prevalent in printing newspaper supplements and inserts, as well as mail-order catalogs. See offset lithography and letterpress.
rough any of a number of different forms of a less-than-finished advertisement or commercial; a proposed execution.
rough layout a sketch or drawing in actual size, done in pencil or via computer, that shows a proposed advertisementís layout, with the arrangement of all the elements such as headline, illustrations, and copy; comes after the thumbnail in the layout development process. Very often used by the advertising agency in its initial presentation to the client. The term, rough, can also refer to an unfinished television commercial, such as an animatic, photomatic, or ripomatic. Also known as a pencil drawing or a thumbnail sketch. See layout development process, thumbnail, comprehensive, and mechanical.
routine problem solving consumer decision making characterized by little or no search for new information, with the consumer having and relying on considerable previous experience; typically involves repeat choices, or habitual buying. Often involves low-involvement purchases, or those the consumer does not regard as especially important. See extensive problem solving and limited problem solving. Also see high-involvement decision making and low-involvement decision making.
run-of-book (ROB) in magazine advertising, an advertising position anywhere within the publication, as opposed to a preferred position specified by the advertiser; position is selected by the publisher. Regular rate applies. See preferred position.
run-of-network see run-of-schedule (ROS).
run-of-paper (ROP) see run-of-press (ROP)
run-of-press (ROP) in newspaper or magazine advertising, an advertising position anywhere, any page or any location on a page, within the publication at the convenience and judgment of the newspaper, as opposed to a preferred position specified by the advertiser; advertiser may request a particular section of the newspaper or magazine, but the publisher selects the position, usually trying to accommodate the advertiserís request. Regular rate applies. Sometimes called run-of-paper (ROP). See preferred position.
run-of-schedule (ROS) in television or radio advertising, an advertising position that can be anytime during the broadcast day at the stationís choosing, as opposed to a preferred position; generally, an advertiser will request a particular time period, say, daytime or nighttime, leaving exact placement of the commercial at the discretion of the network or station. Regular rate applies. Sometimes called run-of-station or floating time. See preferred position and best-time-available.
run-of-site in Internet advertising, an advertisement that is placed to rotate on all nonfeatured advertising spaces on a web site.
run-of-station see run-of-schedule (ROS).
rushes see dailies.