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qualified access   in Internet marketing, admission to a Web site or particular Web site feature by meeting certain requirements; e.g., an official subscriber with a log on name and password or to gain access, the user is required to answer some questions. Can be used by the Web site to collected audience user data; e.g., a person going to the “Scores” link on www.usatoday.com may be stopped and allowed to gain access only by filling out a dialogue box asking for gender and age, allowing the Web site to get a better picture of who is using that particular feature. 

qualified circulation   individuals eligible to receive a controlled circulation publication; may be paid or non-paid. See circulation, controlled circulation, non-paid circulation, and paid circulation. 

qualified lead   see qualified prospect. 

qualified prospect (buyer)   an individual who meets all requirements to be considered a bona fide or legitimate candidate to buy a product or service. 

qualified reader   in advertising research, an individual who has given evidence of reading a particular issue of a magazine that is being studied (e.g., by correctly describing an article in the publication as proof of readership) and, therefore, is eligible to be interviewed about the magazine’s advertisements; also called qualified issue reader. 

qualified respondent   an individual who meets all the criteria and requirements that have been established for selecting participants in an advertising research project. 

qualified viewer   in advertising research, an individual who has demonstrated viewing of a particular television program (by correctly recalling some part of the program) and who, therefore, is acceptable as a respondent to be interviewed about the program’s commercials. 

qualitative media effect   the symbolic impact a medium or media vehicle has on an advertiser’s message by virtue of it appearing in that medium or vehicle. 

qualitative objectives   subjective, unquantifiable goals established for the overall promotion program or for each element of the promotion mix; e.g., to product more informative advertising to help consumers make better marketplace decisions or to improve an organization’s reputation for being socially responsible. See quantitative objectives

qualitative research   subjective research done primarily for exploratory purposes and to better understand a problem; e.g., a consumer’s perceived image of a particular brand vs. a competing brand, why consumers like or dislike comparison advertising, the conditions under which it works best for them, and what they would do to improve it, or what particular sales promotion activities are best under different conditions and why. Investigates consumer variables that are unquantifiable, such as attitudes, perceptions, and lifestyle. Often makes use of focus groups. See quantitative research

quality positioning   see positioning by quality

quantitative objectives   goals that are established in numbers and percents and that set finite yardsticks against which results are measured; e.g., to achieve a 15 percent increase in awareness of a product’s special feature, to generate a 10 percent response rate for a promotional offer, or to gain a 25 percent share of voice. Profit, sales, market share, reach, GRPs, and the like are common goals. See qualitative objectives. 

quantitative research   objective research that seeks information that can be expressed in numbers and statistical terms; e.g., the number of individuals in each of several age brackets who rely heavily on advertising in making high-involvement product decisions or consumers’ ratings of a brand’s performance. Typically uses formal research design and methodology. See qualitative research

quantity discount   a lower rate offered to an advertiser by a media vehicle for the purchase of a given amount of advertising time or space; a price allowance based on time or space bought at one time or over a period of time. See frequency discount. Regarding product purchase, a price reduction based on the amount bought by the customer; see cumulative quantity discount and non-cumulative quantity discount. 

quarter run   in car card advertising, placing a card in every fourth vehicle in the transit system; see full run and full showing

quarter showing   in outdoor and transit advertising, one-fourth of a full showing; i.e., a partial showing. See full run, full showing, half run, and half showing. 

queen-size poster   an advertising sign placed on the sides of a bus or transit vehicle, below the windows; advertising copy area typically measures approximately 30” high x 88” wide. See exterior bus, headlight poster, taillight poster, and king-size poster.  

question headline   a type of headline for an advertisement or a commercial that is designed to encourage the audience to search for the answer in the body copy; e.g., “Can your eyeglasses pass this test?” (Corning, Inc.) or “Does your suit contradict every intelligent thing you say?” (Paul Stuart clothes). See headline, as well as benefit headline, command headline, curiosity headline, and news-information headline.  

quintile   one-fifth of a given population; e.g., the audience of media class, subclass, or media vehicle may be divided into five roughly equal groups based on usage such as readership of a specific periodical, with the groups ranging from very heavy usage to very light readership of the periodical. See quintile analysis

quintile analysis   examination and interpretation of a particular universe that has been divided into five roughly equal groups, focusing on comparison between and among the groups; see quintile.  

quota   a specific sales or activity goal assigned to an individual, department, or other marketing unit for purposes of managing sales and marketing efforts; e.g., the specific sales figure a sales representative is expected to attain or the number of new accounts the salesperson is expected to gain for the company. 

quota sample   in survey research for marketing and advertising, a type of non-probability sample which uses a method of choosing respondents from the population based on a pre-determined desired number of individuals to include for questioning; see non-probability sample, convenience sample, judgment sample, probability sample, and survey method.