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PBS   see Public Broadcasting Service. 

PACT   see Position Advertising Copytesting. 

PDF   see Portable Document Format. 

PIB   see Publishers Information Bureau. 

PLC   see product life cycle. 

PMs   see push money. 

PMA   see Promotion Marketing Association, Inc. 

PMS   see PANTONE Matching System. 

PMSA   see Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area. 

POP   see point-of-purchase advertising. 

POPAI   see Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute. 

PPAI   see Promotional Products Association International. 

PPM   see Personal People Meter. 

PPV   see pay-per-view. 

PR   see public relations. 

PRM   see partner relationship management. 

PRSA   see Public Relations Society of America. 

PSA   see public service announcement. 

PUR   see people using radio. 

PUT   see people using television.   

PVR   see personal video recording device. 

package   the container for a product, including the size, shape, design, color, imprinted information, and other physical and graphic features affecting its appearance and effectiveness as a selling tool. In direct marketing, the term refers to the complete set of enclosures in a mailing. For term’s use in television or radio advertising, see package plan. Also see packaging. 

package insert   any advertising or promotional material placed inside a product’s package; also called a package stuffer. See outsert. 

package plan   in television or radio, a combination or group of commercial units on one or multiple programs offered to an advertiser by a network or individual station so the advertiser may sponsor them as a “single unit;” usually priced lower than if each commercial unit was purchased separately.  Also known as a package and program package. See syndication. 

package stuffer   see package insert. 

package test   in direct marketing, research to determine the effectiveness of different combinations of elements or enclosure in a direct mail package; also refers to the research done on a product’s container to determine its effectiveness in helping to promote and sell the product. 

packager   see syndicator and syndication; sometimes refers to the company that owns a branded product sold in a consumer-unit package. 

packaging   see package. 

packaging concept   the package’s role in the marketing of a product; involves thinking about the functions of the package and what the package should do to provide information, selling ability, and product protection. 

page unit   in magazine advertising, the basis on which advertising is sold, as opposed to column inches (newspapers); e.g., full-page, half-page, quarter- page, and other units. 

page views   on the Internet, the number of times a user requests a given page on a particular Web site; e.g., the number of hits on a specific advertisement on a Web site page. 

pages-per-person   on the Internet, a measure of the average number of pages a unique visitor (i.e., a single person) views on a particular Web site; an indication of the user’s interest level in a given site. See unique visitor. 

paid circulation   the total number of copies of a publication bought by subscription and at newsstands or retail outlets; based on an average issue. See circulation, controlled circulation, non-paid circulation, and qualified circulation, as well as  Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). Same as net paid circulation. 

paid programming   see infomercial. 

paid search  when a website owner pays an advertising fee to have its advertisement
given a top placement position on a search engine's results page. The fee is usually based on "click-throughs" or "ad views." Also called sponsored search.        

painted bulletin   in outdoor advertising, a billboard whose advertising message is usually painted, as opposed to printed on paper; at 14’ high x 48’ wide, the larger and more expensive of the two standard-size billboards, or outdoor bulletins. Used in prime high-traffic locations on a long-term basis. Artwork is painted onto a piece of vinyl which is then affixed to the structure or painted onto the structure itself. Also referred to as a permanent bulletin or rotary bulletin. See billboard, outdoor bulletin, poster panel and spectacular.  

painted wall   in outdoor advertising, an advertising message painted on the side of a building; also called a permanent bulletin. 

paired comparison test   in marketing and advertising research, a technique where respondents are presented with two alternatives (e.g., product features, product benefits) and asked to choose one based on a particular criterion; any number of questions or combinations may be used, but each particular question involves just two alternatives. 

panel   in outdoor advertising, a single unit or “board;” also refers to a continuing sample of individuals or households whose actions and behavior are measured over time. See consumer panel.  

panel data collection  in advertising research, information gathered from a semi-permanent group of sample respondents (individuals or stores) who participate in on-going and continuous research sponsored by the advertiser, and who are monitored or periodically report their activities, experiences, opinions, decision-making behavior, and other matters of importance to the advertiser. See consumer panel. 

panel number   in outdoor advertising, a number given each panel to serve as location-specific identification to aid the panel buying-selling process; also helps employees (e.g., painters, installers) identify specific structures.  

panel study   see consumer panel. 

PANTONE Matching System (PMS)   the authoritative source and universal standard for specifying, selecting, and matching color systems; assures that any communication pertaining to color is accurate and consistent. 

paper diary   see diary method. 

paperless coupon   an instant coupon dispensed at the time of purchase at the checkout. 

parallel location   in billboard or outdoor advertising, a panel that is parallel or very slightly angled to the street or highway, making it clearly visible to traffic in both directions; see angled poster. 

parent station   in broadcast television, a station that supplies programming to another station (i.e., a satellite station) to achieve greater coverage than it would get alone; see satellite station. 

Pareto rule   see 80-20 rule. 

parity marketing   see copycat marketing. 

parity product   see me-too product. 

parody advertising   advertising that is an imitation or spoof on a common and  well-known situation, issue, or person, typically in an attempt to be humorous through ridicule that is in acceptable taste; e.g., the advertising may mirror the travails of corporate life, the endless quest to keep up with the neighbors, or a swashbuckling high-stakes attorney.  

partial showing   in outdoor and transit advertising, anything less than a full showing; see full showing, half run, and half showing. 

partial sponsorship   in television or radio advertising, sponsorship of a program shared by several advertisers; sometimes called segment sponsorship. Also may refer to event sponsorship in which there are several sponsors of a particular event. See co-sponsorship.  

partial-run edition   in magazine advertising, something less than the total circulation offered to advertisers, for which the advertiser pays a lower rate than that for the entire circulation; e.g., a demographic edition, metro edition, regional edition, or state edition. 

participating announcement   in television or radio, a commercial from one of the advertisers that has bought time on a particular program; see participation basis and participation program. 

participation basis   in television and radio, the way in which most network advertising time is sold, with several different advertisers buying commercial time on a particular program; See participation program and participating announcement. 

participation program   a television or radio program sponsored by several advertisers; i.e., a co-sponsored program. See participation basis and participating announcement. 

participation rate   in cooperative advertising, the dollar amount as the manufacturer reimburses the retailer for advertising; also called payment share. See cooperative advertising. 

partner relationship management   all activities designed to launch, preserve, and enhance a long-term bond and mutually-beneficial connection between a company and its business and industry partners; e.g., a manufacturer’s efforts to secure its relationship with its suppliers, distributors, retailers, advertising agency, or other manufacturers with which it has joint programs. See customer relationship management (CRM). 

partnership marketing   see co-marketing. 

partnership promotion   see tie-in promotion.  

part-time station   see limited-time station. 

pass-along audience   see pass-along readership. 

pass-along deal   in trade sales promotion, a promotional deal extended to a retailer by an advertiser, with the expectation that the retailer will pass the savings, or least a portion, on to the consumer. 

pass-along readership   readers of a publication other than the subscriber or newsstand buyer, i.e., a reader of a publication he or she has not purchased; e.g., family members other than the subscriber or readers in professional office waiting rooms. An estimated number or rate. Also called pass-along audience

pass-through rights  in sponsorship marketing, assets negotiated by a sponsor that may be transferred to an entity of the sponsor's choosing, very often a retailer; e.g., use of signage or logo of a property such as a team or an event at the store level. Allows the retailer to participate in the sponsorship. A good way to reward vendors for their loyalty and support. Also called pass-along rights.

paste-up   see mechanical. 

patch advertising   primarily in sports marketing, an advertiser’s logo, insignia, or other identification of the advertiser affixed to a player’s uniform; e.g., the “R” on a major league baseball player’s uniform, standing for Russell Athletic or the “CCM” on a college ice hockey player’s uniform, standing for the company that supplies the uniform. 

Patent and Trademark Office   see U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.  

patronage reward   free merchandise or some other consideration given by a marketer to a customer in recognition of the customer’s regular use of a product or service; a minor league baseball team’s gift of a team logo jacket to season-ticket holders of five years or longer, an art museum’s gift of an art history book to attendees of three or more art exhibits, or an automobile dealer giving a free oil change with every five oil changes. See frequency program.    

pay cable   see pay television. 

pay television   refers primarily to cable television programming that subscriber households must pay for in addition to the basic cable fee; may also be used as an all-inclusive term for cable television, since any cable television is paid for, whether it is the basic service or a premium service. Also called pay cable or subscription television. 

payback   the time period until a product, advertising campaign, or other marketing-related activity or program has fully recovered its costs; see payout.      

pay-for-performance   in trade sales promotion, a method in which the manufacturer pays off on a trade deal according to the number of units sold by the retailer, i.e., the manufacturer rewards the retailer based on the retailer’s success in selling the deal product; not to be confused with pay-for-results agency compensation plan or performance-based agency compensation plan. 

pay-for-results agency compensation plan   see incentive-based agency compensation system. 

payment share   see participation rate. 

payoff   the final results of an advertising campaign or a marketing program. 

payout   the profit or value resulting from investment in an advertising or promotion campaign; i.e., the return-on-investment (ROI). Can also refer to other returns from a campaign, such as the impact on sales, market share, or even awareness levels, and other qualitative measures. See payback.  

pay-per-click advertising   in Internet advertising, when the rate paid by an advertiser is based on the number of clickthroughs to the advertiser’s web site; see clickthrough. 

pay-per-lead advertising  in Internet advertising, when the rate paid by the advertiser is based on the number of sales leads generated by the advertising. 

pay-per-sale advertising  in Internet advertising, when the rate paid by the advertiser is based on sales of the advertiser’s product as a direct result of the web site advertising; quite common in affiliate marketing. 

pay-per-view advertising   in Internet advertising, the term refers to the idea that the rate paid by the advertiser is based on the number of times a visitor arrives on the web page that has its advertisement on it, whether or not the visitor clicks on the advertisement to go to the advertiser’s web site or destination point, i.e., the advertising rate is based on the number of impressions (see impressions).  

pay-per-view television (PPV)   television programming for which viewers pay a fee for a single showing of a particular program; e.g., a championship boxing match or a movie. 

pay-to-stay fee   in trade promotion, a manufacturer’s payment to a retailer to continue stocking and displaying a product. 

PC   a personal computer. 

pencil drawing   see rough. 

pencil-and-paper diary   see diary method. 

penetration   the effectiveness with which a commercial or an advertisement or an advertising campaign not only reaches but also has a measurable impact on (i.e., convinces) the target audience; also refers to the percentage of different people or homes within a defined population or market that can be exposed to a medium, a media vehicle, or a media schedule, e.g., the proportion of households owing televisions or subscribing to cable TV. See reach. 

penetration price policy   a new-product pricing policy in which a low price is set for the product; used when demand is elastic, i.e., high price-sensitivity exhibited by the consumer. Unlike introductory price dealing, the low price level is permanent. See skimming price policy, introductory price dealing, elastic demand, and inelastic demand. 

pennysaver   see shopping newspaper. 

People Meter   an electronic device or “box” hooked up to and placed on each television set in a particular household and which records what specific program or channel is being watched and who is watching; collects data and measures audiences for programs on broadcast and cable networks, nationally distributed syndicated programs, and satellite distributors over the entire U.S. The meters are installed in more than 5,000 television households nationwide (involving more than 13,000 persons). Nielsen households are randomly selected and recruited by the company. The meters remain in the selected households for about two years. Data accumulated from the meters provide the basis for Nielsen’s national ratings estimates. Specific data generated by the People Meter system include when the television set is on or off, which channel and program the set is tuned to, when a channel is changed, and who is viewing television. Viewer demographics are in the system, so when an individual makes it known that he or she is watching a particular program (by pressing his or her own pre-assigned button on the people meter), something is known about that person (e.g., age, gender). A sample of People Meters in the largest television markets provides the data for the overnight ratings. See Nielsen Media Research, diary method, metered markets, overnight ratings, set-tuning meter, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

people using radio (PUR)   the number or percentage of people listening to radio at a particular time. 

people using television (PUT)   the number or percentage of people viewing television at a particular time.   

perceived risk   the level of uncertainty the consumer believes exists in a particular purchase decision; the consumer’s estimate of the consequences of a poor decision and that the outcome will not be favorable. 

perceived value   the extent to which the satisfaction of a product is greater than the cost of obtaining it, as measured by consumer perception; the consumer’s view of the difference between the cost incurred to purchase a product or service and the satisfaction derived from its ownership and use. The consumer will favor the company or brand that he or she perceives to offer the highest delivered value.    

perceived value pricing   the practice of pricing a product or service at the level believed to represent the value placed on it by the consumer (i.e., perceived benefits), without regard to the costs incurred in making the product or creating the service. 

percent return   see response rate. 

percentage accrual   an approach to establishing a cooperative advertising fund whereby, for the specified length of the cooperative advertising program, the advertising fund grows by a percentage of the value of purchases by the retailer from the particular manufacturer; e.g., if a digital camera manufacturer provides 5 percent of a retailer’s purchases to accrue to the retailer’s cooperative advertising fund and the retailer purchases $300,000 worth of cameras during the period, the funds available from the manufacturer for cooperative advertising total $15,000. See accrual account, percentage accrual, and cooperative advertising.   

percentage charge   see markup charge. 

percentage-of-sales method   a way of determining the advertising or promotion budget based on a predetermined percentage of expected sales; commonly used because it is simple and straightforward, but has a major drawback in that it treats advertising as a result of sales rather than a cause of sales. A top-down approach to budgeting. See affordable method, arbitrary method, competitive parity method, objective-and-task method, and unit-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and top-down approach to budgeting. 

perceptible differences   differences among products that are visibly recognizable to the consumer. 

perception   the process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret stimuli to form a picture of the world around them; see selective attention, selective comprehension, selective distortion, selective exposure, and selective retention. 

perception management   a coined term for public relations; guidance of efforts designed to influence someone’s view or outlook toward something; see public relations. 

perceptual map   a graph that shows consumers’ perceptions of competing brands and how the brands compare with each other on certain product attributes, such as comfort, durability, ease of use, and status; the result of perceptual mapping research; a research tool to help understand how a particular brand is positioned relative to competitors’ brands, in the minds of consumers. See perception and perceptual mapping. 

perceptual mapping   a research technique that asks consumers to rate different brands certain product attributes, such as styling and durability; i.e., their perceptions of different brands. The ratings are then plotted on a graph and the result is a perceptual map. Particularly useful when assessing opportunities and deciding on marketing communications goals and objectives. See perception and perceptual map. 

performance allowance   a purchase-price rebate given by an advertiser to a retailer who agrees to and carries through agreed-upon promotional services on behalf of the advertiser’s product, such as advertising, display of the goods, or other merchandising activities; retailer must submit proof of performance. 

performance analysis   comparing actual vs. planned accomplishments, and investigating the reasons underlying variations between the two. 

performance index   in television, a station’s revenue-share relative to audience-share; generally, a number that describes one factor relative to  another number, or base. See index number. 

performance measures   the various criteria used to evaluate an individual, organization, product, advertising, or any other marketing activity or program. 

performance risk   in consumer decision making, the chance that a product will not work or function as expected by the consumer; also called functional risk. See risk-taking, financial risk, physical risk, social risk, and time-loss risk. 

performance-based method of agency compensation   an advertising agency compensation method in which the advertiser-client pays the agency according to the results achieved by the advertising; when used it normally is part of a combination plan for agency compensation, also involving a fee and/or commission. The results that serve as the incentive are based on criteria agreed upon in advance by client and agency, and the criteria generally involve performance goals, such as sales volume or market share. Also called incentive-based method, results-based method, or pay-for-results agency compensation plan. See fee method, commission method, and combination method. Also see agency commission and sliding rate.   

peripheral cues   elements or features of an advertisement or commercial other than the actual statements about the product itself; e.g., music, scenery, or the presence of a celebrity spokesperson. See cue. 

perimeter advertising   signage around the perimeter of an event site. 

per inquiry advertising   an agreement between a media vehicle and an advertiser that payment for the space or time will be based on the number of inquiries or sales resulting from the particular promotional effort in that vehicle. 

per-issue rate   in magazine advertising, a special rate for an advertiser based on the number of issues it advertises in during a contract period; somewhat like a frequency discount, but based on the number of issues in which the advertising appears, not the number of advertisements placed; see frequency discount. 

permanent bulletin   in outdoor advertising, a display that remains at one location for the entire term of the advertiser’s contract; see painted bulletin. 

permanent display   a display such as a point-of-purchase display that is in service for six months or longer.    

permission marketing   in Internet or on-line marketing or advertising, permission granted by consumers to Web sites to collect their personal information; also refers to Web users who agree to receive e-mail communications from organizations. Also referred to as opt-in. See opt-out.  

personal communications   communications in which there is a direct and personal interaction between the sender and the receiver; see personal selling and non-personal communications. 

personal influence   the ability an individual to affect marketplace behavior by shaping another person’s attitudes, opinions, motivations, and other factors associated with consumer decision making; see opinion leader. 

personal interview   a survey method of data collection by means of a trained interviewer questioning a respondent in face-to-face contact. 

Personal People Meter (PPM)   in television and radio audience measurement, a device about the size of a pager that consumers carry throughout the day to monitor their viewing or listening habits. The device detects inaudible codes that broadcasters embed in the audio portion of the television or radio program, thereby measuring viewership or listenership. A product of Arbitron.  

personal selling   one-to-one selling by a salesperson to a prospect or customer; personally persuading or assisting the target audience to take a particular action that has commercial significance to the seller. Communications involving direct face-to-face contact between a company representative and a customer. 

personal selling process   the sequential steps a salesperson goes through in selling a product or service; prospecting, preapproach, approach, presentation, handling objections, closing, and follow-up.   

personal video recording device (PVR)   an interactive television device that records and plays back TV programs, thereby allowing the consumer to use a PC to access and view a television program anytime, anywhere; a hard disk recorder that is essentially a hard-drive in a VCR-size box. Can be used by marketers for measuring viewing patterns of consumers. Also called a digital video recorder (DVR). 

personality   the totality of an individual as comprised of all the distinctive behavioral and emotional forces that set him or her apart from all others, and which have great influence in shaping marketplace behavior; in advertising, the individual spokesperson speaking on behalf of the advertiser’s product or service.     

persons-using-radio (PUR)   the number or percentage of an area’s or market’s population who are listening to the radio at a particular time; a measure of audience size. See households-using-radio (HUR). 

persons-using-television (PUT)   the number or percentage of an area’s or market’s population who are viewing television at a particular time; a measure of audience size. See households-using-television (HUT). 

persuasion   a means by which an advertiser influences a target audience to believe something or to do something, using reasoning and coaxing in a compelling and convincing and way; accomplished via communications such as advertising and personal selling. 

persuasive advertising   advertising whose purpose is to convince the target audience of the merits of the advertiser’s product or service or to induce someone to take a particular action; often attempts to build selective demand for the advertiser’s product. See informative advertising and reminder advertising. 

persuasive communications   the attempt to change consumers’ opinions, attitudes, or behavior as a result of a particular form or combination of forms of marketing communications. 

PEST analysis   in the situation analysis stage of the marketing communications planning process, a framework for investigating the macroenvironment; an acronym for political, economic, socio-cultural, and technological forces that impact the planning process. See macroenvironment and situation analysis. 

phantom cume   in radio advertising, an industry expression to describe unreported listening of people who are recording their radio listening via an Arbitron diary; they often do not put the data in the diaries, especially their second- and third-choice radio stations. See Arbitron and cume. 

phone kiosk   in out-of-home advertising, a display affixed to a pay telephone. 

photoanimation   a technique of creating animation using a series of still photographs; see animation format. 

photoboard   displayed on a single sheet of paper, a series of still photographs (and the audio script) made from a television commercial; for record-keeping or promotional purposes (e.g., merchandising the advertisement to the trade). 

photomatic   in pre-testing a television commercial in preliminary form, a rough commercial produced from a series of still photographs shot in sequence; used to give the client an idea of what to expect in the finished commercial. See pre-testing, liveamatic, ripomatic, storyboard, and rough.    

physical distribution   all the activities involved in the physical flow of materials and products through the entire distribution network, to and from producers and intermediaries; transportation, storage, and handling of the products every step of the way, from raw materials to matching customer requirements throughout the entire distribution network. Also referred to as marketing logistics or, simply, logistics. 

physical risk   in consumer decision making, the chance a product will be harmful to the health or safety of the user; also called safety risk or health and safety risk. See risk-taking, performance risk, financial risk, social risk, and time-loss risk. 

physiological testing measures   in advertising research, pretesting methods that use a variety of means and devices to measure consumers’ physical responses to advertising, or the physiological functions controlled by the central nervous system and over which the individual has little or no voluntary control; see galvanometer, pupillometer, and voice-pitch analysis (VOPAN).  

picture caption copy   in print advertising, a layout that features a series of pictures, each with a caption, to deliver the advertising message; can be effective in showing time-related effects of a product’s use, e.g., a series of pictures with captions showing the results of a lawn fertilizer or grass seed brand from spring to fall or a “before-after” or a “ours vs. theirs” sequence utilized by many types of products such as exercise machines or house paint.  

picture response test   in qualitative advertising research, a projective technique in which a person is shown a picture and asked to describe what is happening, what the people and/or objects in the picture are all about, and what thoughts come to mind. See word association test, sentence completion test, story completion test, cartoon method and third-person method, as well as qualitative research and projective research techniques. 

piggyback commercial   the back-to-back airing of two television (or radio) commercials for the same advertiser but for different products; e.g., a commercial for Folger’s coffee followed immediately by a Pringles potato chips commercial, both products of Procter & Gamble. Also referred to as double spotting or back-to-back. 

pilot   in television or radio, a trial or sample production of a proposed broadcast program made for testing and review; sometimes may be used for advertising testing purposes, such as for a theater test. 

pioneering advertising   advertising messages that seek to educate the consumer about a product, service, or idea, or the focus may be on a specific brand; the message may aim to stimulate primary demand for a product category or to inform consumers about a new brand. See informative advertising and primary demand advertising. 

pitch   the oral presentation made by the advertising agency to the advertiser, either in an attempt to win a new account or to propose a new campaign for an existing client; also can refer to any type of message whose aim is to persuade, convince, or sell.    

pixel   in Internet advertising, a dot that represents the smallest graphic unit of measurement on a computer screen; a descriptive term for measuring a graphic in online advertising, it is the online equivalent of inches in print media advertising. Typically, a full screen is 640 x 480 (640 pixels wide x 480 pixels high). A common banner ad measures 468 pixels wide x 60 pixels high (i.e., a 468 x 60 banner ad). Short for “picture element.” 

place   the distribution component of the marketing program, or making products and services available to customers in the right quantities, at the right locations, at the right time; along with product, price, and promotion, one of the 4Ps of the marketing mix. 

placement   in public relations, getting an article or other release accepted for publication or airing in the media desired; not to be confused with product placement. 

place utility   the benefits to a consumer from the marketer making a product or service available where the consumer wants it; see utility, possession utility, form utility, and time utility.    

place-based media   the variety of fixed locations in which posters and other advertising messages can be displayed, and which require the audience to come to the site, as opposed to the advertising coming to them; e.g., outdoor advertising locations, airports, stores, and stadiums. Content is geared to the specific venue and audience.

planogram   a retailer’s diagram of a product or group of products as they should appear on the store shelves for maximum visibility and impact, while providing efficient utilization of space. 

plans board   a blue-ribbon management committee at the advertising agency whose work involves review of creative plans and strategies and, ultimately, approval of the proposed advertising before it goes to the advertiser. 

plant   see outdoor advertising plant. 

plant capacity   in out-of-home advertising, the total supply of advertising structure or faces owned by and available through a particular company. 

plant operator   in outdoor advertising, the company that owns and maintains poster panels and other out-of-home media, and rents the space to advertisers, generally in 30-day time blocks, though some locations are contracted for longer periods; see outdoor advertising plant.  

plug   in television or radio mainly, but may pertain to any media, mention of a company’s product, service, cause, or other activity, free of charge; sometimes used to generally describe any broadcast advertising.  

Pocketpiece   a condensed weekly ratings report issued by Nielsen Media Research; so named because of its smaller physical size. 

pod   in television, a group of back-to-back commercials aired during a break in a program; e.g., four :30s in a two-minute span between segments of a particular program. 

podcast   a downloadable audio or video file that can be listened to or viewed online. For example, it may be a 30-minute presentation on how to increase online sales, cost-effective ways to improve brand awareness, designing websites that sell, or a discussion of B2B marketing issues.

point-of-purchase advertising (P-O-P)   floor displays, counter-top displays, window displays, wall displays, signs, banners, and other promotional materials at the location, most commonly the retail store, where the consumer meets and considers buying a product; aim is to influence the consumer’s buying decision at the action stage, often as an impulse purchase. See point-of-sale.  

Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute (POPAI)   a trade association dedicated to serving organizations involved with point-of-purchase, including the advertisers, retailers, producers, suppliers, as well as advertising and sales promotion agencies; protect and advance the industry members’ interests through programs of research, education, trade forums, and legislative efforts, all directed toward to making point-of-purchase an integral part of marketing communications strategy to influence consumers’ buying decisions. 

point-of-purchase display   see point-pf-purchase advertising (P-O-P). 

point-of-sale   the site or location where the customer meets the product and where the product is bought and sold; e.g., the retail store. See point-of-purchase advertising. 

point program   a sales promotion program offered to consumers and the trade whereby points are awarded for purchases or activities and accumulated over time for redemption for merchandise, travel, or some other incentive. 

political advertising   advertising messages used to influence the outcome of an election or vote on a political issue or matter. 

polybag   a plastic film bag containing a product sample or other promotional item, home-delivered with a newspaper or magazine; see billboard bag. 

pony spread   see junior panel. 

population  in marketing and advertising research, the complete count of all members of a group of interest to the researcher; also called the universe. See sample and census. 

pop-up   in magazine advertising, a specially-designed three-dimensional advertisement or promotional piece that rises up and takes form when a reader turns a page the display is on or otherwise opens the display by hand. 

pop-up advertising   in Internet advertising, an advertiser’s pitch that suddenly appears out of nowhere in a separate window on the computer screen while a page loads, and which is superimposed on top of what the web site content the user is trying to view; see pop-under advertising, square pop-up ad, banner ad, skyscraper ad, and rectangle ad. 

pop-under advertising   in internet advertising, an advertiser’s pitch that appears under what the user is viewing rather than being superimposed on top of the web site content, and which comes into full view on the computer screen when the user cancels out of the web site; see pop-up advertising, square pop-up ad, banner ad, skyscraper ad, and rectangle ad. 

portable display   a floor display, generally with folding legs, that is easily transportable from one location to another.  

Portable Document Format (PDF)   on the Internet, a method for distributing documents from one user to another. 

portal   an entry point to the WorldWideWeb, accessed through web browsers such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator; for example, Google, Yahoo!, Lycos, or Excite. 

Porter’s Five Forces   a framework for evaluating the state of competition in an industry; involves assessment of the bargaining power of buyers, the intensity of the rivalry among existing competitors, the threat of potential entrants joining the industry, the bargaining power of suppliers, and the threat posed by substitutes for the existing product or service. An essential part of the situation analysis in designing a marketing plan or a marketing communications plan. 

portfolio   see sample book. 

portfolio test    in advertising research, a laboratory technique used to measure print advertising effectiveness, whereby respondents are given a collection of advertisements, both control ads and test ads, and asked to evaluate them; a test advertisement is hidden within the mix of other ads. See jury test. 

portrait format   a layout of an advertisement in which the height is greater than the width; more common than the landscape format where the width is greater than the height. See landscape format. 

position   the specific location of an advertising message in print or broadcast media; e.g., in magazines or newspapers, the particular page and the place on that page and, in television or radio, the particular part of the program. Also refers to the particular place a product occupies in the mind of a consumer, or the way in which the consumer thinks about and ranks the product relative to competitors’ products. See positioning. 

Position Advertising Copytesting (PACT)   a document consisting of nine fundamental copytesting principles, representing the advertising industry’s consensus of the guidelines for how copytesting research should be conducted or supervised; a statement prepared and issued by 21 leading U.S. advertising agencies, focusing on what constitutes good copytesting practice. See copytesting.    

position charge   an extra fee levied by a media vehicle for advertising space or time when the advertiser desires to specify exactly where the advertisement or commercial will appear; typically a percentage of the basic charge. See preferred position and preferred position rate. 

positioning   the process of differentiating—and then communicating—a firm’s product or service offering so it occupies a meaningful and competitively distinct place in the minds of target customers; refers to how consumers think about a company’s product or service. 

positioning by attribute   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on a product’s physical feature(s) that sets it apart from the competition.   

positioning by benefit   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on how the advertiser delivers a particular benefit or set of benefits better than anyone else. 

positioning by competitor   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on how the advertiser’s product is better than a directly- or indirectly-named competitor; a positioning strategy by which an advertiser sets itself apart from the competition by establishing a distinctive and important difference between its product and those of the competition; the advertiser’s claims are presented relative to the competition.  

positioning by price   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on providing the best value relative to competitors.      

positioning by product class   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on how the advertiser’s product is better than another product in another category or the entire range of products in another product category; e.g., Amtrak passenger rail service vs. the entire product category of airline travel.    

positioning by quality   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on the superior craftsmanship of the advertiser’s product relative to what is available from the competition.      

positioning by use   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on its superiority in a particular use or application relative to the competition; sometimes referred to a positioning by application.      

positioning by user   in an advertiser’s attempt to make its product offering distinctively different from competitors in consumers’ minds, a promotional strategy that focuses on the individuals who use the product and how this product is the one for this particular relative to what is offered by the competition.    

positioning map   see perceptual map. 

positioning statement   a formal declaration of what a brand is intended to mean or represent in the target customer’s mind; see positioning. 

positioning strategy   the particular approach or concept an advertiser uses to communicate the distinctive and noteworthy nature of its product or service to the target market; see positioning, positioning by attribute, positioning by benefit, positioning by competitor, positioning by price, positioning by product class, positioning by quality, positioning by use, and positioning by user. 

positive appeals   in advertising copy, an approach that places sole emphasis on the favorable results for the consumer in purchasing a particular product or service, without mention of the downside of not having the product or service ; a very sunny approach. See negative appeals.  

possession utility   the benefits, satisfaction, and pleasure a consumer receives from a product or service by owning, consuming, or using it; see utility, form utility, place utility, and time utility.    

post analysis   generally, any after-the-fact evaluation of advertising or other marketing activity; see post-buy analysis. 

post-buy analysis   an examination of a media schedule after it runs; usually based on physical evidence of the schedule running as planned (e.g., tearsheets, affidavits of performance) and audience delivery data during the time the schedule ran. See tearsheet and affidavit of performance.      

post-buy ride   see post-ride.  

post-decision evaluation stage  the fifth and final stage of the consumer decision process, in which the consumer assesses the decision, in terms of its appropriateness and effectiveness in satisfying the need that put the consumer into the market in the first place; a more appropriate term for the phenomenon vs. post-purchase evaluation, since the consumer’s decision may have been to not purchase, a decision that, like a decision to purchase, is evaluated by the consumer. See consumer decision process and cognitive dissonance.  

poster   an advertising message printed on paper and affixed to a large surface as a sign in a public location; a general term for advertising messages that are posted on advertising structures. Also called a bill. 

poster bench   a seat on which an advertising message is painted or a sign attached; e.g., bus stop or terminal bench, golf course bench, or park bench. 

poster panel   a billboard, or sheet metal surface, on which a printed (vs. painted) advertising message is mounted; the smaller of the two standard billboard sizes, measuring 12’ high x 25’ wide, compared with the bulletin, whose dimensions are 14’ high x 48’ wide. The most popular form of outdoor advertising. An outdoor unit that can accommodate a 30-sheet or 8-sheet poster display. See outdoor advertising, outdoor poster, bulletin, painted bulletin, permanent bulletin, rotary bulletin, 30-sheet poster, 8-sheet poster, and spectacular.  

poster plant   a company whose work is in the outdoor advertising industry. 

poster showing   see showing. 

posting   the actual raising of the outdoor advertisement; may refer generally to when advertising actually appears in the media. Also may refer to following up after an advertisement has been executed to make sure everything was done as intended; e.g.,  see affidavit of performance, tearsheet, or "ride-the-boards."

posting date   the date on which the advertiser’s outdoor showing is to begin; see posting leeway. 

posting instructions   the details about the display of a particular outdoor poster such as objectives, location selection; sent to the plant operator by the advertiser or the advertising agency. 

posting leeway   in outdoor advertising, a margin of time beyond the posting date for the plant operator to actually post the advertisement without penalty; i.e., a grace period. Used to allow for inclement weather, holidays, or other factors beyond the plant operator’s control. Typically, five working days. See posting date and plant operator. 

posting period   in out-of-home advertising, the length of time bought by the outdoor or transit advertiser for the advertising to be displayed; usually 30 days. 

post-media-buy analysis   see post-buy analysis.

postproduction   all the work done after the shooting to finish a television commercial (or a radio commercial); includes editing, film processing, coordinating the music and sound effects, making duplicates, and other activities to put the finishing touch on the commercial.    

post-purchase dissonance   see post-decision evaluation stage. 

post-purchase evaluation   see post-decision evaluation stage. 

post-ride   in out-of-home advertising, an in-the-field check of outdoor poster or billboard locations when the advertising copy is already in place, though it could refer to checking locations prior to contracting for specific locations; also called riding the showing.  See pre-ride and riding the showing. 

post-testing   part of copytesting; measuring the effectiveness of an advertising message after it appears in the media, i.e., anytime after the launch of an advertising campaign; done to see if the advertisements and the campaign are or have accomplished objectives and to serve as input into the planning stages for a subsequent campaign. See copytesting, message research, and pre-testing.  

post-turn   see trivision. 

potential audience   the number of individuals or households in a position to be exposed to an advertising medium or media vehicle by any means, whether purchased or not; essentially, the maximum possible audience. 

potential buyer   see prospect. 

Power, J.D.   the leading marketing information services firm specializing in customer satisfaction research across many industries; provides quality and customer satisfaction ratings for the automotive, boating, financial services, travel (hotel, airline, airport, rental car), telecommunications (television, Internet, telephone), health care, and home (builders, insurance, lenders) industries. Officially, the J.D. Power Consumer Center. 

pre-approach   the stage in the personal selling process in which the sale representative does a thorough investigation to learns as much as needed to be knowledgeable about the potential buyer and the organization, as well as to know the most effective way to approach the prospect. See prospecting, approach, presentation, handling objections, closing, and follow-up.

pre-buy analysis   in media buying, the research and analysis that go into a media plan prior to actually buying time and space; e.g., determining the reach and frequency objectives, the optimum number of GRPs, and the combination of media vehicles that will work best. See post-buy analysis. 

pre-buy ride   see pre-ride.  

preemptible rate   in broadcast advertising, a special discount rate for advertising time given by a television network or station to an advertiser on the condition that the network or station can resell that same exact time to another advertiser at a higher rate, thereby bumping the original buyer from the spot; i.e., an advertising rate subject to cancellation when another advertiser agrees to pay a higher rate for the same broadcast time. See fixed rate. 

preemption   in broadcasting, the act of a network or station taking back or displacing a scheduled program and/or its advertising time to air a special program of major importance to the public interest; e.g., breaking news of a major disaster or the President of the United States giving a major address. Also, the act of taking paid-for advertising time away from an advertiser and selling the time to another advertiser for a higher rate. May involve the use of a make-good or a credit. See preemptible rate. 

pre-emptive claim   an advertiser’s assertion about its product that competitors either cannot duplicate with their products or choose not to contest directly; such an assertion may put an advertiser in the advantageous position of “owning” that particular difference. 

preferred position   a specific location for an advertisement or commercial desired by an advertiser; e.g., the location may be on a particular page of a publication, a specific place on a page, in a particular section of a publication, at a certain spot during a broadcast program, or at a given time. A premium price is charged by the media vehicle. In a sense, the opposite of run-of-the-press (ROP). See preferred position rate, run-of-book (ROB), run-of-press (ROP), and run-of-schedule (ROS). 

preferred position rate   a premium rate charged by a media vehicle for placing an advertisement or a commercial in a special location, or preferred position, ordered by an advertiser; also called a position charge. See preferred position. 

preliminary investigation   see situation analysis. 

premiere panel   in outdoor advertising, a standard display format measuring 12’3” x 24’6” in overall size.   

premiere square   a standard display format measuring 25’5” x 24’6” in overall size; a single-sheet vinyl face is stretched over two stacked 30-sheet poster panels. Same technique can be used with 8-sheet poster panels. See stacked panels.  

premium   a merchandise offer made by an advertiser as an incentive to purchase a particular product; may be offered free or at a reduced price. See in-pack premium, near-pack premium, and on-pack premium. 

premium pack   a product package that includes a free promotional item inside the package (in-pack premium) or affixed to the outside of the package (on-pack premium); See in-pack premium and on-pack premium. Also see near-pack premium. 

premium rate   a higher-than-normal or extra charge for advertising that appears in a preferred position or for advertising services not considered part of the customary package offered by the supplier; see preferred position. 

prepack display   a promotional display unit that arrives at the retail store already packed with the featured merchandise so all the store operator has to do is open the shipping container and place the display. 

prepared sales presentation   see canned presentation. 

preprint   in print advertising, a prepublication copy of an advertisement; often used for publicity or promotional purposes. For example, an advance copy of an advertisement sent to retailers to inform them about a coming campaign. 

preprinted insert   an advertising message or other promotional material printed in advance by the advertiser and then sent to the publisher for insertion into the newspaper prior to delivery; not a part of the newspaper. 

pre-production   in television advertising, all of the planning and organizing activities done in preparation for the actual shooting of a television commercial (or a radio commercial); includes activities such as cost estimation, finding a location, casting, securing props, getting permissions, tending to legal matters, and other considerations. 

pre-production meeting   in television advertising production, a meeting at which the final plans are set for the production of the commercial; involves the producer, creatives (copywriter and art director), account management team, client, and the people responsible for the actual production of the commercial. See pre-production, production, and post-production. 

pre-ride   in out-of-home advertising, a physical in-market inspection tour of the available billboard advertising locations and panels prior to an advertiser’s selection and commitment to use them; see post-ride and riding the showing.    

presentation   the stage in the personal selling process where the sales representative convincingly relates and demonstrates, if possible, the key features of the product or service and translates the features into benefits for the prospective buyer; important to remember that what is being sold is a solution to a problem or need, not just a physical object or a service itself. See prospecting, pre-approach, approach, handling objections, closing, and follow-up. 

presentation fee   see hello money. 

presenter commercial   see spokesperson. 

presenting sponsor   a sponsor whose company name is affixed immediately below the name of the sponsored property; for example, on the Professional Golf Association (PGA) Tour -- the Bay Hill Invitational presented by Cooper Tires. See primary sponsor. 

press kit   a collection of public relations materials provided by an advertiser to the media, as company background information for use in articles or programs done on the company, its people, products, or other matters; e.g., given to the media covering a special event sponsored by the advertiser. Not the same as a media kit. 

press release   a formal statement given to the media by an advertiser containing information about the advertiser’s organization, its products, its people, or other matter of importance at that moment of time; also called a news release. See news release. 

prestige pricing   setting an elevated price for a product or service to connote high status or a lofty image. 

pre-test   in survey research, a small-scale trial run of a completed questionnaire to determine its appropriateness for the full-scale use; provides opportunity to make changes and fine-tune the instrument prior to actual use. Not to be confused with pre-testing. See pre-testing and rough. 

pre-testing   in advertising research, part of copytesting; done to evaluate the elements and determine the effectiveness of an advertising message during its development stage and prior to its appearance in the final version ready for use in a campaign; typically done before the advertising agency submits it to the client as a recommendation. See rough, copytesting, message research, and post-testing.

price   the amount of money a customer is willing to pay for a product or service, as a measure of the value and benefits of having that product or service; along with product, place, and promotion, one of the 4Ps of the marketing mix. 

price allowance   in sales promotion or media buying, any of several different… see quantity discount. 

price competition   using an aggressive pricing approach to challenge competitors for consumer patronage, as opposed to putting the major emphasis on product, promotion, and distribution strategies and actions; see non-price competition. 

price discrimination   when, for the exact same product, a marketer charges different prices to different buyers; e.g., an airline charging business and personal travel passengers a different price or 50-yard-line seats vs. endzone seats at a football game. A legal tactic if the price difference is supported by a difference in cost of serving the buyer (e.g., a quantity discount) or when there is a need to meet competition in a particular market. Otherwise, it is considered undue price discrimination, and unsubstantiated price differences are judged to “injure competition” and are in violation of the Robinson-Patman Act.  

price elasticity   the relationship between the percentage change in price of a product or service and the percentage change in the quantity demanded for the product or service; i.e., the market’s sensitivity or responsiveness to a change in the price of a product or service. 

price follower   a firm that changes its price only in response to a competitor’s price change; see price leader. 

price leader   a firm in a particular industry that initiates a price change and other firms follow; see price follower.  

price pack   a product package that features a special price or “cents-off” deal imprinted on the package by the advertiser; also called a cents-off deal. See price-off deal. 

price positioning   see positioning by price. 

price objectives   see target return, profit maximization, sales growth, market share growth, and meeting competition price objectives.  

price sensitivity   the degree to which a product’s demand is affected by a change in its price. 

price-based trade deals   in trade sales promotion, incentives offered by the marketer to its dealers that involve price reductions on dealer purchases of the product, as opposed to activities such as display materials, a contest, or an in-store sampling program sponsored by the marketer. 

price-off deal   a consumer sales promotion that offers the buyer a limited-time reduction in the regular price of an advertiser’s brand; see price pack. 

primacy effect   a theoretical notion that information presented first or at the beginning of an advertising message will have greater impact and effect on the audience and will be the information most remembered from the message; see recency effect. 

primary audience   see primary readership. 

primary circulation   see primary readership. 

primary data   original data collected for the specific information needs of the current research effort, as opposed to data that already exists; research collected directly from the marketplace. See secondary data.     

primary demand   the demand for a type or category of product; e.g., the demand for digital cameras, microwave ovens, or house paint. Sometimes called generic demand. See selective demand. 

primary demand advertising   an advertising message designed to promote and stimulate demand for a product category (computers, insurance, digital cameras), as opposed to a specific brand (Compaq, Kemper, Kodak); sometimes called generic advertising. See selective demand advertising. 

primary group   generally consisting of relatively few individuals, a group characterized by frequent interpersonal contact, cohesiveness, and similarities in beliefs and behavior; quite influential in shaping an individual’s behavior. Example: the family. See secondary group, formal group, informal group, and reference group. 

primary household   a household in which there is an individual who is a subscriber or newsstand buyer of a periodical. 

primary listener   an individual who is a regular listener to a particular radio program or station. 

primary listening area   in television or radio broadcasting, the geographic area in which a station’s broadcast signal is perfectly clear, with no interference or static. 

primary market   see primary target market. 

Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA)   a geographical area comprised of one or more counties, within a metropolitan area, having a population of 1,000,000 or more; a definition of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). When PMSAs are established, the larger area of which they are component parts is designated a Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA). See Metropolitan Area (MA), Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA). 

primary readership   the individuals who subscribe to or purchase a particular publication. 

primary sponsor   the sponsor that pays the largest rights fee and which is the most prominently identified and featured sponsor; this sponsor would be called the title sponsor if the sponsored property had sold the naming rights to the sponsor. For example, John Hancock’s major commitment to sponsorship of the Boston Marathon, without its company name in the title of the event. See title sponsor, associate sponsor, and presenting sponsor. 

primary target market   the individuals, households, or market segment that a marketer considers its most attractive opportunity for sales and profit, and which is the main focus of its marketing and promotion program; see target market, target marketing, and secondary target market.  

primary viewer   an individual who is a regular viewer of a particular television program or station. 

prime access    in the television broadcast day, the time period 7:00pm-8:00pm; see dayparts (television) and prime access rule  

prime access rule   in broadcast television, a rule prohibiting network-affiliated stations from broadcasting more than three hours of network programs between the hours 7:00pm-11:00pm, Monday-Friday, with the intent that one hour of the four would be at the individual station’s discretion and that it would be used to air programs of local interest; the hour from 7:00pm-8:00pm became almost universal in its use for local stations. Mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 and repealed in 1996. See prime access. 

prime location   a superior location conducive to an advertising message achieving maximum impact on the target audience; e.g., in outdoor advertising, an exceptional location, based on the audience it delivers.  

prime time   in the television broadcast day, the time period 8:00pm-11:00pm, except Sunday when it is 7:00pm-11:00pm; time during which networks broadcast the most high-profile programs. See dayparts (television). 

prime-time access rule   see prime access. 

print media   commercially-published media, i.e., newspapers and magazines, that sell advertising space to companies and organizations that have an advertising message to deliver to their target audiences; see broadcast media. 

print production   see production. 

printing plate   a prepared plate of the image of what is to be printed which is applied directly to the paper for printing the image; see mat. 

prior knowledge   the information a consumer has in his or her memory entering the consumer decision process. 

private brand   see dealer brand. 

private label   see dealer brand. 

PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market)   a geodemographic market segmentation system in which each neighborhood of the U.S. is classified into one of 64 distinct clusters based on lifestyle; to determine proper placement of each neighborhood, several characteristics are analyzed, including household size and makeup, age, gender, education, occupation, income, housing data, marital status, ethnicity, interests, media habits, financial data, and other factors contributing to audience profiles. A product of Claritas, Inc. designed to aid marketers and advertisers target consumers by lifestyle. See geodemographics. 

proactive marketing   marketing strategies and tactics designed and implemented in anticipation of competitive action, with the intent to dilute or forestall it; an offensive approach. See reactive marketing. 

proactive public relations   marketing and public relations activities and programs designed to continually monitor the attitudes and opinions of an organization’s publics, and to address an issue before it becomes a threat to the organization’s image, reputation, and public stature; identifying opportunities to enhance an organization’s image and standing, and acting to create and maintain positive outcomes. Includes having a plan or set of guidelines to deal with negative publicity that occurs from conditions beyond the control of the organization. A “before-the-fact” approach or one that seeks to take the offensive. See marketing public relations and reactive public relations.     

probability sample   in survey research for marketing and advertising, an approach to choosing a sample where all units in the population of interest have a specific and known non-zero chance of being selected; see simple random sample, stratified random sample, cluster sample, non-probability sample, and survey method. 

problem definition   the first stage of the marketing research process, in which an attempt is made to clarify and crystallize the predicament, difficulty, question, or issue that needs attention and resolution; see marketing research process. 

problem solving   see consumer decision process. 

problem-recognition stage   the first stage in the consumer decision process, when the consumer becomes aware of the need for something; sets into motion the problem-solving sequence. Every need creates a problem situation, and the problem manifests itself when there is a difference between the consumer’s actual condition and his or her desired condition. See consumer decision process, information search stage, information evaluation stage, decision stage, and post-decision evaluation stage.  

problem-solution format  in advertising, a creative execution format in which the message spotlights a problem faced by consumers and focuses on the advertiser’s product or service as the solution; e.g., a Gatorade commercial for fluid replacement after an intense workout, an Ortho Weed-B-Gon advertisement for a lawn application to eliminate and control weeds, or a Robitussin commercial for cough relief. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

producer   the individual at the advertising agency who manages the production process for a commercial or an advertisement; most commonly refers to a television commercial. Individual may be from the production house or the studio. 

product   an organization’s or individual’s offering to a customer, something that contains a bundle of attributes capable of satisfying the needs and wants of the customer; the offering may take the form of a physical object, a service, an idea, a person, a place, or an organization. Along with price, place, and promotion, one of the 4Ps of the marketing mix. See actual product, augmented product, and core product. 

product advertising   an advertising message specifically designed to promote and stimulate demand for a product or service of the advertiser, as opposed to a message promoting an idea; see nonproduct advertising and services advertising. 

product allocation   the portion of an advertising or total promotion budget that is allotted to the individual products of a multi-product company; also the amount of advertising time or space allotted to the individual products of a multi-product company. 

product ambassador   an individual appearing as a spokesperson or representative on behalf of a particular product, as part of the marketing and promotion program, particularly in the role of promotion goodwill; e.g., Tiger Woods for Buick or Michael Jordan for Nike. Title and role as a true ambassador often reserved for those individuals perceived by the audience as extraordinary in their field of endeavor, and who are believable, trustworthy, and of impeccable character. Same principle as company ambassador. See goodwill, spokesperson, and company ambassador. 

product assortment   the complete set of all products a company offers; consists of all product lines and every individual product; e.g., Sears and Wal-Mart each stocks thousands of items in many product lines, General Electric manufactures thousands of items, Procter & Gamble, Sara Lee, and Black & Decker produce an enormous number and variety of products. See product assortment depth, product assortment width, product line, product line depth, product line width, individual product, and product item. 

product assortment depth   the number of products within all the product lines offered by a company; e.g., Sara Lee has a large number of packaged meats and bakery products in its food and beverage line, including the brands such as Sara Lee, Jimmy Dean, Bryan, Hillshire Farms, Ballpark, Kahn’s, and Hygrade among the nearly 50 different brands of packaged meat alone. See product assortment, product assortment width, product line, product line depth, product line width, individual product, and product item. 

product assortment width   the actual number of product lines marketed by the company; e.g., Sara Lee offers a broad mix of many product lines, including  food and beverage, casual and intimate apparel, sportswear, household products, personal care products, and baby care products and Black & Decker offers many product lines, too, among them power tools, cleaning products, outdoor power equipment, kitchen appliances, garment care, and heaters and fans. See product assortment depth, product line, product line depth, product line width, individual product, and product item. 

product bundling   see bundling. 

product cannibalization   see cannibalization. 

product category   a type or classification of products as opposed to the individual brands comprising the classification; e.g., appliances, sporting goods, apparel, soft drinks.

product class positioning    see positioning by product class. 

product concept   a detailed written description of a product idea, put forth in  terms meaningful and understood by the consumer; concept development is a key stage in the new-product development process; See product idea and new-product development process. 

product development   the fifth stage of the new-product development process, in which the engineering and design of the physical product is completed, getting the product from a concept to a final form ready for market testing; see new-product development process, idea generation, idea screening, concept testing, market evaluation, marketing plan, market testing, and commercialization. Also refers to an organization’s growth strategy by which the firm attempts to increase sales and profits by offering new or modified products to its existing markets; e.g., Nike adding apparel to its running shoe line, then adding golf balls and golf clubs to its golf shoe line or Kraft introducing a low-fat salad dressings to go with its regular line of salad dressings. See growth strategies, market penetration, market development, and diversification. 

product differentiation   the tangible and intangible features and characteristics of a product or service that make it distinctive from those of competitors.  

product features   the physical attributes of a product or service; see benefits. 

product fulfillment   see fulfillment. 

product idea   the very basic notion or vision behind a prospective product the company might eventually market to consumers; the initial stage of the new-product development process. See new-product development process and product concept. 

product image   the way consumers perceive a product; see perception and brand image. 

product immersion   the practice of merging a product into a television program to the point it seems like an integral and seamless part of the show; see convergence and product placement. 

product integration   a promotional technique, similar to product placement, in which advertisers pay to have their products placed into the action and plots of television shows or movies; rather than being used simply as a prop, the product is built into the action of the television program right from the beginning. For example, the reality program, Survivor, featured contestants munching Doritos, guzzling Mountain Dew, wearing Reebok sneakers, and winning prizes from Dr. Scholl’s or Pontiac – all as part of the content and action of the show; the 20th James Bond movie, Die Another Day, was the centerpiece for Norelco’s launch of its Spectra Shaving System, to go along with Bond’s driving an Aston Martin car, wearing an Omega watch, and drinking Finlandia vodka. See product placement and branded entertainment. 

product item   the very specific product, or individual unit, in a product line; e.g., each size and flavor of a ready-to-eat cereal brand. Also called individual product. See product assortment, product assortment depth, product assortment width, product line, product line depth, and product line width. 

product launch   the formal introduction of a new product to the market. 

product liability   a marketer’s legal obligation to compensate individuals harmed by defective or unsafe products. 

product life cycle (PLC)   the four stages through which a product passes during the course of its existence, including the sales and profit levels of the product over its lifetime; introduction stage, growth stage, maturity stage, decline stage. Especially relevant for advertisers in that the product’s life cycle stage influences the planning, development, and implementation of the marketing, advertising, and promotion programs. Important: in its basic application, the PLC concept describes industry sales and profits for a product; individual product and brand sales and profits may not follow the industry pattern, but can still be the focus of PLC description and analysis. See introduction stage, growth stage, maturity stage, and decline stage.   

product life cycle management   using the product life cycle (PLC) as the basis for managing a product and its marketing mix over the life of the product; see product life cycle (PLC).  

product line   a set of closely related individual products; products may be considered related by their similarity in functions, target markets, and retail stores in which they are sold. Example: Sears has many product lines, among them appliances, housewares, electronics, tools, lawn and garden, automotive, fitness and recreation, jewelry and watches, computers and office, gifts, and kids. See product assortment, product assortment depth, product assortment width,  product line depth, product line width, and product item. 

product line depth   the number of specific versions of each type of product in a product line; e.g., Sears Craftsman tool and equipment line includes nine categories, among them portable power tools, bench power tools, storage chests, compressors, and others; the company’s Kenmore household appliances line also includes nine categories, including laundry, refrigeration, cooking, dishwashing, grilling, compacting, and others. Beyond that, Sears Craftsman has 52 different sets in its mechanics hand tools line and six different sets of homeowners hand tools, while its Kenmore brand washing machines come in 64 models 21 different models of room air conditioners. See product assortment, product assortment depth, product assortment width, product line, product line width, and product item.  

product line length   see product line depth and product line width. 

product line width   the number of different products in each product line in a company’s offering; Sears, in its lawn and garden line, has several entries, including garden tools, grills, lawnmowers, lawn tractors, tractor attachments, patio furniture, power lawn equipment, pressure washers, snow equipment, and yard care; the company has 19 lines within its appliances line and 10 within electronics, to mention just a few. See product assortment, product assortment depth, product assortment width, product line, product line depth, and product item.  

product management  see brand management. 

product manager   see brand manager. 

product marketing   all the activities and processes relating to the marketing of a physical object or tangible item, as opposed to services or something intangible; see services marketing.  

product megabrand   the superbrand or umbrella brand name under which there are individual brands; so classified by virtue of a combination of elements such as size, sales volume, market share, profit, advertising dollars, and other factors that make the organization a giant in its field. Examples: Toyota, with individual brands including, among others, Camry, Corolla, Avalon, Prius, Matrix, Tacoma, 4Runner, and Highlander, or General Mills, with Cheerios, Wheaties, Total, Lucky Charms, and Chex. See megabrand. 

product mix   see product assortment. 

product placement   a promotional technique that involves arranging for an advertiser’s product to appear in use or at least be clearly visible (in-focus exposure) during a movie or a television program; also includes products at other venues such as big league baseball team dugouts with Gatorade buckets and cups and David sunflower seed buckets and packages. Advertiser pays a fee and/or provides free products. Also referred to as virtual placement, though product placement has the physical product as part of the scene, while virtual placement involves digitally inserting the product or image in a scene where there is no actual product. Also referred to as embedded advertising and stealth marketing. See in-focus exposure time, product integration, product immersion, and convergence. 

product positioning   see positioning. 

product protection   in television or radio advertising, the amount of time between the airing of commercials for competing products; in print advertising, the number of pages separating competing advertisers’ messages. Also called competitive separation or just separation. See competitive separation, commercial protection, and piggyback

product release   a publicity tool used for a new-product announcement and to provide relevant information about the product.  

product symbolism   an abstract meaning attached to a product or brand by  the consumer; what the product or brand represents and what the consumer experiences in having and using it. 

production   a stage in the advertising development process that involves taking an advertising idea, copy, scripts, illustrations, art, and other elements and producing a finished ready-to-run commercial or advertisement or a brochure or other promotional material; e.g., when a commercial is actually made, including the shooting and recording. Most commonly refers to television commercials. Sometimes called the shoot. See pre-production and post-production.

production add-on   a part of an advertising agency’s total compensation package; a markup charge that the agency tacks on to the cost of producing work such as art, photos, illustrations, printing, market research, or other such work done on behalf of its client, whether performed by the agency or outside vendors, who do not allow a commission. The markup typically is 17.65 percent, because 17.65 percent added to the cost, say, of photography, translates to a 15 percent commission. Example: Suppose an advertising agency purchases photography services from an outside vendor at a cost of $20,000. Adding 17.65 percent as the “production add-on” gives a markup of $3,530 which, added to the $20,000 basic cost, yields a total of $23,530 billed to the client. The $3,530 markup is 15 percent of $23,530. See markup charge and 17.65 percent.

production department   the advertising agency unit responsible for the preparation of the finished commercial or advertisement; see production. 

production house   an organization that specializes in producing television and radio commercials. 

production services   the advertising agency function and team that is responsible for the transformation of the creative ideas to finished advertising, direct mail pieces, and other campaign materials.  

production timetable   in producing a television commercial, a time schedule of all the activities associated with making a commercial; includes pre-production, production, and post-production activities. 

productivity audit   generally, the measure of the return on investment of a marketing communications program or any specific element of the program; see return-on-investment approach (ROI). 

professional advertising   an advertising message directed to individuals engaged in the professions who influence the products and services used by their clients; e.g., doctors, dentists, architects, teachers, accountants, financial planners, lawyers. 

professional journal   a magazine for lawyers, physicians, architects, and other professionals; e.g., Architectural Record, The Complete Lawyer, The New England Journal of Medicine. See business publication. 

profile   refers to the characteristics of a medium’s or media vehicle’s audience composition; also refers to the characteristics of the customers or potential customers of a product or service. See audience profile and consumer profile. 

profit maximization price objective   setting price at a level that allows the firm to gain as much profit as possible; see target return, sales growth, market share, and meeting competition price objectives. Also see maximum profit rule. 

program compatability   the match, suitability, or fit between a company and its product and the broadcast programming offered by a particular network or station; see editorial compatability. 

program package   see package plan

program rating   in television or radio, the percent of households owning television sets (or radios) in a given broadcast area (national or market-by-market) that are tuned in to a particular program; calculated by dividing the number of households tuned in to a program by the number of households with television sets (or radios). Each rating point represents approximately one percent of the population. See time-period rating. 

program share   in television or radio, the percent of all viewing or listening households in a given broadcast area (national or market-by-market) that are tuned in to a particular program; calculated by dividing the number of households tuned in to a program by the number of households with their television set (or radio) on. 

program tie-in   in television advertising, the practice of integrating a product or service in a particular program; see product integration and product placement. 

program-length commercial   see infomercial. 

programming format   in radio, the distinctive style of a station that separates it from other stations; e.g., news, sports, country music, classical music. 

progressive proofs (progs)   in advertising production, a series of proofs that show the colors of an advertisement at each stage of its development, as each new color is added; also called progs and color keys. 

projected audience   in television or radio, an estimate of the total number of individuals or households watching or listening to a particular program based on ratings or results derived from a sample survey. 

projective research techniques   qualitative research used in the development of advertising programs in which the consumer is asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli such as vague statements or objects; designed to measure consumer feelings, opinions, attitudes, and motivations. See word association test, sentence completion test, story completion test, cartoon method, third-person method, and picture response. 

promo   in television or radio, a station’s announcement of an upcoming program or other event of the station’s own; also, a station’s or network’s commercial promoting itself. The short version of promotional spot. 

promotion   the marketing communications function of a company or organization; the process and techniques by which an organization finds, encourages, and persuades target customers toward a particular response, such as buying a product or service, or accepting an idea. Along with product, price, and place, one of the 4Ps of the marketing mix (among the 4Ps, promotion denotes the entire marketing communications mix, including advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling). See promotion mix, promotion element, promotion plan, and marketing communications. 

promotion agency   a firm that specializes in handling all or some phases of  sales promotion activities. 

promotion audit   see communications audit. 

promotion budgeting   see budgeting methods. 

promotion campaign   see marketing communications campaign. 

promotion copy   in print advertising, a copy of a publication sent to  prospective advertisers and advertising agencies; see complimentary copy and unpaid distribution. 

promotion element   any of the five major components of the marketing communications program: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling. 

promotion management   providing leadership, coordination, and supervision of the planning, development, implementation, and control phases of the marketing communications program. 

promotion mix   the particular combination of promotion methods and techniques an organization uses to persuasively communicate information about its products or services to its target audience; major tools include advertising, sales promotion, public relations and publicity, direct marketing, and personal selling. 

promotion money   see push money (PM). 

promotion objectives   the goals toward which the marketing communications program is directed, as it contributes to the achievement of overall marketing objectives; e.g., a promotion objective of generating trial would imply a different set of techniques as compared with an objective to boost repeat purchases. See communications objectives and hierarchy of effects. 

promotion plan    see communications plan.

promotional allowance   in trade promotion, any of a wide variety of deals (e.g., discounts or free goods) given by the advertiser to the dealer for promotional support provided by the dealer on behalf of the advertiser’s products, such as advertising or providing a special display during a sales promotion period; see advertising allowance, dealer allowance, and merchandising allowance. 

promotional crawl   in television, a promotional message that runs across the screen during a program; runs from right to left and usually appears at the bottom of the screen. Also called a crawler. 

Promotional Marketing Association, Inc. (PMA)   the major voice of the promotion and
     promotional products industry, representing the interests of marketers, retailers,
     agencies, suppliers, and academics; primary goal is to foster a better understanding of
     how promotional products and programs build brand equity through integration with
     overall marketing and marketing communications strategies. See promotional products
     marketing.
 

promotional partnership   any of a broad range of cooperative efforts or alliances between marketers for the purpose of promotion; see co-marketing. 

promotional pricing   a temporary price reduction as part of a special promotional effort for a product or service. 

Promotional Products Association International (PPAI)   an international trade association serving the promotional products industry through efforts designed to enhance the professionalism of the industry, such as establishing standards and guidelines for members’ promotional programs, sponsoring expositions and forums, administering certification programs, and collecting and disseminating research data and information.  

promotional products marketing   a promotion method that uses promotional products such as specialties, premiums, prizes, or other sales promotion tools to attract or keep customers. See specialty advertising and advertising promotional products. 

promotional pull strategy   see push strategy. 

promotional push strategy   see push strategy. 

promotional spot   see promo. 

promotional stock   products and merchandise offered to retailers at a reduced price as part of a special promotion, such as that accompanying a special event or a seasonal promotion. 

prompted recall   see aided recall. 

proof   a copy of an advertisement given to the advertiser by the advertising agency for final checking before it is run as scheduled. 

proof copy   in newspaper advertising, a copy of an advertisement that was prepared by the newspaper’s advertising department, given to the advertiser (usually a local retailer) for proofreading before the advertisement appears in the newspaper; often used more generally to refer to a copy of any completed advertisement or commercial that is used for a final check for errors. 

proof of performance   certification that an advertisement or commercial was actually run as scheduled and contracted for; common to all media. See affidavit of performance (broadcast media) and tearsheet (print media). 

proof-of-purchase   a requirement that the consumer must submit to the marketer to be eligible for a promotional offer; can be a UPC symbol, cash register receipt, or some other proof that a particular product was purchased. 

propaganda   information and opinions, typically heavily slanted, disseminated by a sender to influence a particular audience on an idea, belief, or view; essentially, what public relations, advertising, and other promotion activities are all about. Term has negative connotations stemming from the distortion of facts and the zeal of some users whose motives are toward subversive or questionable ends, far removed from marketing communications.  

property   in sponsorship marketing, a specific entity that makes itself available to a company or marketer to become involved as a sponsor; e.g., an entity engaged in the arts, sports, causes, entertainment, or a nonprofit organization. For example: a youth summer basketball league, Little League baseball, a convention center, a theater, a golf tournament, a music festival, or an art exhibit.  

proportion   in a print advertisement, the size relationship of one element to another; e.g., an advertisement is in proportion when the sizes of the elements relative to one another make sense.  

proprietary panel   see consumer panel. 

props   in advertising production, the broad range of structures, objects, devices, and aids needed to provide the staging, scenery, and décor for shooting a television or radio commercial or for photographing a print advertisement.   

prospect   a legitimate potential buyer, having a need for the particular product or service being offered, the ability to pay for it, and the authority and willingness to consummate the deal; see suspect.  

prospecting   the stage in the personal selling process in which the sales representative, using several sources to generate leads, identifies solid, bona fide potential customers for the product or service; see pre-approach, approach, presentation, handling objections, closing, and follow-up.   

prospective customer (buyer)   see prospect. 

provocative headline   see curiosity headline. 

psychogalvanometer   see galvanomoter. 

psychographics   consumer lifestyles as reflected in attitudes, interests, and opinions; used to sharpen the focus beyond demographics in developing consumer profiles. See psychographic segmentation and demographic segmentation. 

psychographic segmentation   dividing buyers into groups based on variables such as activities, interests, and opinions (AIO), lifestyle, values, personality, and social class; see attitudes, interests, and opinions (AIO), behavioristic segmentation, demographic segmentation, geographic segmentation, geodemographic segmentation, and lifestyle advertising. 

psychological influences   in consumer behavior, the intrapersonal factors that affect an individual’s buying process; i.e., the internal variables, such as needs, motives, perception, attitudes, and others. See social influences. 

psychosocial consequences   the various results of a consumer’s decision-making behavior that involve intangible and personal dimensions. 

public access   in cable television, the availability of broadcast facilities for use by local groups in the community interest. 

public access channel   in cable television, a non-commercial channel set aside by the cable operator exclusively for public use and community-interest programming, especially that of not-for-profit organizations. 

public affairs   all the activities related to an organization’s relationships with the community (city, state, or region) in which it operates; involves working with community officials, governmental bodies, lawmaking and law enforcing agencies, and other groups.  

public broadcasting   not-for-profit television and radio stations whose primary focus is high-quality, educational programming; as opposed to advertiser-supported broadcasting, funding comes from individuals, foundations, government, corporate grants, and other non-advertiser sources. Also called noncommercial broadcasting. See advertiser-supported broadcasting. 

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)   an organization of noncommercial stations that, working with member stations nationwide, produces and distributes a wide variety of high-quality, educational programs.  

public radio   see public broadcasting. 

public relations   the relationship between an organization and the publics with which it is associated in some way, including customers, dealers, suppliers, investors, government, the community, and others; all the activities undertaken to understand the attitudes and opinions of the various publics and to bring the organization into alignment with its relevant publics. Involves systematic planning and distribution of information to  establish and maintain a positive image on all fronts. An attempt to manage and control the firm’s image. Among the means used to influence the different publics and to promote and protect the organization’s credibility, image, and goodwill are publications, speeches, public service activities, events, and advertising. Involves both paid and nonpaid forms of communications. A much broader concept than publicity. See engineering of consent, publicity, marketing public relations, proactive public relations, and reactive public relations.    

public relations advertising   see corporate advertising.  

public relations agency   a company that masterminds an organization’s relationships with its publics, such as consumers, employees, suppliers, dealers, stockholders, the financial community, legislators, and the community at-large.   

public relations audit   a comprehensive internal study and accounting of an organization’s standing and reputation among its publics; study focuses on the firm’s characteristics and activities that result in particular feelings and attitudes, positive or negative, by its publics. 

Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)   the primary organization for public relations practitioners, representing business and industry, public relations counseling firms, government, associations, hospitals, schools, professional services firms, and not-for-profit organizations; dedicated to building value, demand, and understanding for public relations through programs to advance industry standards, information exchanges, research projects, and continuing education, as well as promulgating an industry code of ethics.  

public television   see public broadcasting. 

publication life   in print media, the length of time a publication is kept by its audience before being discarded. 

publication-set   see pub-set. 

publicity   a specific activity and tool of an organization’s marketing public relations efforts that involves generating media coverage and goodwill about the organization, its image, its products, people, ideas, and whatever else is important to the public standing of the organization; nonpersonal communications regarding an organization, its products, services, or ideas; not directly paid for by the company. See public relations and marketing public relations.  

publics   the different groups of people in whom a company or organization has a special interest by virtue of the relationship each group has with the firm; e.g., customers, employees, suppliers, public interest groups, government agencies, stockholders, financial institutions, and the media. Also referred to as stakeholders. 

public-service advertising   an advertising message that is in the public interest or promotes the general welfare, delivered by a not-for-profit organization, a company, or other sponsor; the message may focus on social issues, drugs, pollution, education, civic, philanthropic, or other matters of public interest. Advertising time and space are donated by the media or offered at a greatly reduced rate. See Advertising Council and corporate advertising. 

public-service announcement (PSA)   an announcement containing information in the public interest that is broadcast by a television or radio station, free of charge; involves a variety of social issues important for the public welfare. 

Publishers Information Bureau (PIB)   a leading source of detailed consumer magazine advertising spending data, tracking the number of pages and type of advertising carried by consumer magazines, sorted by publication title, type, company, and brand; serves advertisers, agencies, media buyers, and the consumer magazine sales staffs. 

publisher’s statement   a certified report of a publication’s circulation statistics, such as total circulation, the geographic distribution, paid and free circulation, subscription and newsstand circulation, and other data; subject to audit, it serves as the basis for advertising space rates. Usually included in a publication’s media kit. See Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC), rate base, and media kit. 

pub-set   in print advertising, an advertisement for which the copy is set by the newspaper or magazine in which the ad will appear, as opposed to another source that sets the type for the ad and supplies the publication with the type already set (e.g., an outside compositor or the advertising agency); short for publication-set. 

puffery   advertising or other sales representations which praise the item to be sold with subjective opinions, superlatives, or exaggerations, vaguely and generally stating no specific facts; i.e., exaggerated and overstated but legitimate expressions of praise for a product, based not on factual claim, but on the advertiser’s biased opinion. Examples: “We provide the best service in the industry” or “Our product will give you more satisfaction than any other brand on the market” or “This is the only pair of sunglasses good enough for you.”  

pull strategy   advertising and promotion activities by the manufacturer aimed at the ultimate consumer to influence and encourage acceptance and to generate consumer demand causing the retailer to carry the product which, in turn, causes the wholesaler to carry the product; a lot of advertising and sales promotion directed to the consumer to stimulate a “pulling” effect through the distribution channel. See push strategy. 

pulling power   the ability of advertising, sales promotion, direct mail, or any marketing communications activity to capture the audience’s attention and move them to the action desired by the marketer. 

pullout   in print advertising, a special self-contained section that is easily removed from the publication for saving and referencing; e.g., a special Presidents Day automobile advertising section in a newspaper, featuring the local dealers’ inventory for the big auto-selling weekend. 

pulsing   an advertising scheduling pattern that combines a steady pattern of continuous advertising at relatively low levels with intermittent bursts of heavy advertising activity; in contrast to a flighting pattern which has periods of no activity (hiatuses), there is a continuous base of advertising support and always some advertising activity. A combination of flighting and continuous scheduling. See blinking, bursting, continuous scheduling, flight, flighting, and hiatus. 

pupillometer   a device that measures the dilation of the pupil of a person’s eye in response to a visual stimulus; used to measure advertising effectiveness and is based on the idea that the pupil dilates or becomes larger when it encounters something noteworthy in an ad, such as a headline, a particular word, or an illustration. See physiological testing measures. 

pure competition   a market structure characterized by large numbers of buyers and sellers, ease of entry, a standardized or homogenous product, very little control over price, and virtually no non-price competition;  e.g., agriculture, the stock market. See pure monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopolistic competition. 

pure monopoly   a market structure characterized by a single seller, extreme barriers to entry (essentially blocked), no close substitutes, considerable control over price, and public relations advertising is about the only form of non-price competition; e.g., local utilities, government-owned or -regulated monopolies (as well as those privately owned or regulated), professional sports teams. See pure competition, monopolistic competition, and oligopolistic competition. 

purchase criteria   the factors and standards the prospective consumer uses to make product or service choices in the buying decision; also called buying criteria. 

purchase decision   see buying decision. 

purchase influences   all the factors, personal and nonpersonal, that affect the consumer’s decision to buy a particular product, or the decision not to buy.  

purchase intention   an individual’s predisposition toward a particular product or brand after information search and evaluation, or at any time prior to actual purchase; see consumer decision process. 

purchase occasion   a type of market segmentation based on the time or situation for which the consumer enters the marketplace to buy a product or service; e.g., an anniversary, birthday, wedding, graduation. See market segmentation and behavioristic segmentation. 

push money (PMs)   a cash payment made by the advertiser directly to trade salespeople such as those at the retail store whenever they sell the advertiser’s product, as an inducement to give special attention to selling a particular product. Also called promotion money or spiffs. See street money. 

push strategy   advertising and promotion activities aimed at the trade and  dealers, for the purpose of getting products down through the distribution channel, all the way to the ultimate consumer, by generating selling support on the part of channel members; a lot of advertising and sales promotion directed at encouraging the trade to buy from a marketer and therefore helping to “push” the product from the top of the distribution channel, all the way through to the consumer. See pull strategy.