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OAAA   see Outdoor Advertising Association of America. 

ORC   see Opinion Research Corporation. 

OTO   see one-time-only. 

OTS   see opportunity-to-see. 

O & O station   a television or radio station “owned and operated” by a network. See network affiliate. 

Obie Award   in the outdoor advertising industry, an annual award that recognizes creative excellence; administered by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). 

objections   the obstacles and resistance shown by a prospective buyer during the personal selling process; may be stated or unstated, rational or emotional. See handling objections, as well as see prospecting, preapproach, approach, presentation, closing, and follow-up. 

objective   the goal toward which a particular effort is directed; the result being sought. For example, a 5% increase in sales, a 2% increase in market share, a 10% increase in brand awareness, or a 4% coupon redemption rate. A well-stated objective identifies a specific communications task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific time period to achieve a particular degree of change as evaluated by a specific measurement.  

objective-and-task method   an approach to determining the advertising (or promotion) budget that starts with setting the objectives, followed by identification of the tasks required to attain those objectives, cost estimates for the tasks and, finally, a summing of the costs to arrive at the total budget; a build-up approach to budgeting. See affordable method, arbitrary method, competitive parity method, percentage-of-sales method, and unit-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and top-down approach to budgeting. 

observation method   a research technique that focuses on observing consumers as they go through the decision process and make marketplace choices; used primarily in the information search stage of the decision process, but may be used in other stages, and may also include observing their consumption behavior. See experimental method and survey method. 

off-camera   see voice-over. 

off-card   television or radio advertising time sold at a special rate not shown on the station’s official rate card.    

offensive marketing   marketing programs, strategies, and tactics used by an organization in its attempt to win market share away from competitors; see defensive marketing. 

offensive spending   increased advertising and promotion spending intended to make an impression, secure new business, or put a burst of pressure on competitors; may refer to a long-term strategy of heavy promotion expenditures or to a short-term tactic designed for a specific purpose. See defensive spending, heavy-up scheduling, bursting, and pulsing. 

offer   an invitation or proposal made by a seller to a buyer for an exchange of values, such as that involving a product, service, exhibit space, cooperative advertising program, or an event sponsorship; advertising most often is an offer to sell.  

offer test   in testing direct marketing or sales promotion activities and programs, a measure and evaluation of the responses generated by a particular proposition vs. another; e.g., offering cash vs. a vacation trip as an inducement to participation by dealers in a trade contest, offering a two-year magazine subscription at a savings compared with a one-year subscription, offering a consumer deal involving a free premium with the product at the regular price vs. a reduced price for the product alone, or a direct-mail offer of a premium fountain pen with a purchase vs. personalized stationery. 

offering   the combination of what the marketer makes available to the consumer in an attempt to provide need-satisfying benefits; the products, services, information, as well as the experiences the consumer will gain from acquisition of the offering. See value proposition. 

official count   in out-of-home advertising, a traffic count for an advertising structure done by an official certified and approved governmental source such as a municipal, city, county, or state agency, e.g., a department of transportation at any one of those. See traffic count, hand count, and counting station. 

official organ   a periodical owned and issued by an association or group whose purpose is other than to publish the periodical, rather to use it to carry the organization’s message; similar to a house publication or house organ, except it is the property of an association, not a company. See house publication. 

Office of Consumer Affairs   a federal agency charged with the responsibility to oversee programs and efforts to educate, inform, and protect consumer interests; heightens public awareness of key consumer issues, helps to enforce product safety standards, handles consumer complaints and, generally, serves as a watchdog for consumer interests.   

off-invoice allowance   a promotional reimbursement from the advertiser to the retailer, in the form of a reduced price on the bill rather than payment being made by check at a later date; retailer often gets a lower bill for performing certain promotional activities on behalf of the manufacturer. 

offline   no connection between computers; see online. 

off-network syndication   television programs that originally were produced for and ran on a network in prime time and which are sold as reruns in the syndication market; e.g., Seinfeld, Frasier, Friends, Everybody Loves Raymond, Home Improvement. See first-run syndication and syndication. 

off-premises sign   in out-of-home advertising, a sign that features products or services not produced, marketed, or otherwise available on the property where the sign is located; e.g., an outdoor bulletin. See on-premises sign. 

off-screen announcer   see voice-over. 

offset lithography   in print production, a process in which the printing surface is flat, i.e., not raised (as in letterpress printing) or etched into a printing plate (as in rotogravure printing); a popular method for printing large quantities; e.g., several posters for out-of-home advertising; see letterpress and rotogravure. 

oligopolistic competition   a market structure characterized by relatively few producers, substantial barriers to entry, either a standardized or differentiated product, considerable control over price, significant reliance on non-price competition, especially product differentiation (though any price or non-price strategies must carefully consider any possible competitive reaction or counter-strategy); e.g., steel, aluminum, automobiles, refrigerators, lawn mowers, photographic equipment, computers. See pure competition, pure monopoly, and monopolistic competition.  

omnibus layout   see circus layout. 

on-air test   in television advertising research, a test commercial shown during a regular program telecast in a test market(s); purpose is to determine the effectiveness of the commerical.   

on-camera   refers to an individual appearing on the television screen during a commercial, as opposed to being off-camera or off-screen; e.g., a spokesperson or an actor. See voice-over.   

100 showing   in outdoor advertising, the number of billboards required for complete coverage of the traffic population in a particular market, during a 30-day period; in transit advertising, an advertiser’s car card in every vehicle in a transit line’s system. Also called a full showing. See outdoor advertising and showing. 

one-on-one interview   collecting market research data by interviews with individual consumers, as opposed to in a group setting; see focus group.

one-sheet poster   an advertising poster or sign, measuring approximately 46” high x 30” wide, especially common in rapid transit train and subway station platforms in downtown business and shopping districts; also used near entrances of point-of-sale locations. See two-sheet poster and terminal poster.  

one-sided message   an advertising, sales, or other promotion message that focuses only on the favorable or positive aspects, i.e., benefits of an advertiser’s product, with no mention of limitations; see two-sided message. 

one-time-only (OTO)   a television or radio commercial that airs one time, and no more. 

one-time rate   see open rate. 

one-time use   in direct marketing, the understanding that the individual or organization that rents a mailing list will use it only one time, unless granted prior approval by the list owner. 

online   a live connection to another computer; the state of being connected to the Internet. See off-line. 

online advertising   commercial messages delivered via the Internet and Web sites. 

online jargon   the technical language used to describe on-line activities and that used in on-line communications; any vocabulary pertaining to the on-line world. Also called cyberspeak, cyberslang, or geekspeak.  

online marketing  a type of marketing that combines traditional marketing principles and practices with the interactive features of the Internet, for the purpose of delivering need-satisfying products and services to consumers; organizations conducting marketing by communicating with consumers on the World Wide Web or the Internet by means of personal computers and modems; Also called Web marketing, Internet marketing, and I-marketing. See interactive advertising, interactive marketing, and interactive media. 

online reverse auction   in a media buying or creative review conducted by an advertiser, a situation in which agencies compete with one another online, as opposed to negotiating one-on-one with the client; essentially, it involves competitive bidding using technology. Similar to eBay-type auctions, except that one buyer (the client) reviews bids from multiple sellers (agencies) to evaluate what it will cost to service the account. See account review.

on-location   in television advertising production, shooting a commercial at a site away from the production studio. 

on-pack   any of a variety of promotional offers that are attached to a product’s package; e.g., a premium, a coupon, an advertisement, a recipe, a fitness club application. 

on-pack premium   a promotional item affixed to a product’s package, as opposed to being inside or near the package; sometimes called a banded premium. See in-pack premium, near-pack premium, and premium.   

on-package sampling   in sales promotion, a version of sampling in which a trial-size product is attached to another product’s package; generally, both the packaged product and the trial-size product are products of the same company. See sampling. 

on-page coupon   a cents-off coupon that is part of a print advertisement, and which can be cut out and then redeemed. 

on-premises sign   in out-of-home advertising, a sign that features products or services produced, marketed, or otherwise available on the property where the sign is located; e.g., a Rockport shoes sign at the Rockport factory outlet shoe store sign or a Rockport shoes sign at an independent shoe store. See off-premises sign. 

on-sale date   the date on which a magazine is available for sale at retail outlets; generally a few days before the cover date for a weekly and several weeks before the cover date for a monthly; see cover date.  

on-site order   an order for goods placed at the booth or location of a trade show; also called an at-site order. 

on-the-edge marketing   a marketing approach driven by unconventional methods and non-traditional practices, with the emphasis on taking a different, sometimes risky, path to attracting consumers, and standing out from others in the industry. 

open billboard   a brief announcement at the beginning of a broadcast program in the form of “The following portion of this program is brought to you by (sponsor’s name).” See middle billboard and close billboard. 

open end   in television and radio advertising, the very end of a program or commercial that is left blank to allow local advertising to be inserted; i.e. time at the end given over to local advertisers. 

open rate   in print advertising, the basic, highest rate charged to an advertiser for a single insertion (i.e., a one-time rate), without the agency commission or other media discounts of any kind; the full rate as quoted on the rate card, subject to no discount. Also called base rate, card rate, gross rate, one-time rate,or transient rate. See agency commission, media discount, and rate card. 

open-end cooperative advertising   a cooperative advertising program in which the manufacturer’s contribution or reimbursement to the retailer for the advertising cost is not contingent on the amount of product bought by the retailer; see cooperative advertising. 

open-end questions   in survey research, questions in which no alternative answers are provided, requiring the respondent to answer in his or her own words or to “free-wheel” a response; also called unstructured questions. 

opening rate   in direct-mail marketing, the percentage of mail recipients who open the envelope and investigate its contents. 

opinion leader   an individual who has a disproportionate amount of influence over consumers in their exposure to advertising and promotional efforts of marketers, and in their marketplace decision making; i.e., one who greatly influences the attitudes, opinions, and behavior of others. See personal influence. 

Opinion Research Corporation (ORC)   a leading market research firm that provides
     global marketing research and services for a wide range of corporate customers;
     organization was a pathfinder in applying public opinion polling methods and
     techniques to marketing issues.
 

opinion sampling   in public relations research, seeking consumer or other public’s feedback relative to an issue or situation via formal or informal research methods. 

opportunity cost   in marketing decision making (assuming scarcity of resources and that choices have to be made on how to allocate funds), the value or worth of the best alternative use for a particular resource, i.e., the next best choice or what must be given up in taking a particular course of action; e.g., the value of a sports event sponsorship that was forgone for a traveling art exhibit sponsorship or the value of a sales promotion activity that was given up when the available funds were allocated to advertising. Also known as economic cost. 

opportunity-to-see (OTS)   a term used to describe the reality of the reach figure, in that reach is the number of individuals or households in the target audience who are exposed to a media vehicle (as opposed to actual contact with the commercial or advertisement itself); i.e., those who are exposed to the vehicle are in a position to see or hear a particular advertising message. See reach  

opticals   in television advertising, the different visual effects used in commercials; e.g., dissolves, fades, wipes. 

optimum advertising level   the level of advertising that yields the best return to the advertiser. 

optimum promotion level   the level of any individual promotion program element or the level of promotion activity in its entirety that yields the best return to the firm. 

opt-in   in Internet or on-line marketing or advertising, permission granted by consumers to Web site marketers to collect their personal information and to send them unsolicited e-mail messages; also referred to as permission marketing. See opt-out. 

option time   in television and radio, a specific time slot for use by a network or station if it so chooses, i.e., if it elects to exercise its option; time reserved in advance or available on demand. 

option to renew   the contractual right to renew a sponsorship agreement on previously-specified terms; see right-of-first-refusal. 

opt-out   in Internet or on-line marketing or advertising, an option for  consumers to tell Web sites (or other media, too) not to collect their personal information or have unsolicited e-mail messages sent; see opt-in. 

orbit   an advertiser’s strategy of scheduling television commercials by rotating them among several different programs or time periods; sometimes called a rotation. 

order card   a card enclosed in a direct mailing for the consumer to fill out with all information required to place an order or inquiry with the advertiser. 

order getting   personal selling efforts in which the salesperson has to go through the entire formal selling process to land a new customer; see order taking. 

order taking   personal selling efforts in which the salesperson has only to take the customer’s order, with no selling per se required; often done in routine fashion. See order getting. 

order-of-merit test   in print advertising research, a method by which respondents are exposed to two or more advertisements and asked to rank the ads from the best to the worst; testing can be done on the advertisement as a whole, as well as on individual elements of the ad, such as headline, color, readability, illustrations, and other factors. 

organizational buyers   individuals who buy the goods and services for firms  or businesses to use in the manufacture, distribution, or resale of other products, or for use in the conduct of operations of institutions whose “product” is a service such as educational institutions, hospitals, or government agencies. 

organizational goods   see business products. 

organizational market   see business market and organizational marketing. 

organizational marketing   marketing programs aimed at firms engaged in the manufacture, distribution, or resale of products, as well as institutions providing services, such as social service agencies, sports organizations,  entertainment and recreation organizations; as opposed to consumer marketing. Sometimes may be used to refer to the marketing activities, including advertising and promotion, done by the company or organization on behalf of itself, e.g., corporate advertising. See business marketing and consumer marketing.    

Osgood Scale   see semantic differential scale. 

out period   in a flighting pattern of media scheduling, the time period is which there is no advertising activity; see flighting, hiatus, and in period. 

outbound telemarketing   in telemarketing, when the marketer or seller telephones a prospect in the attempt to make to make a sale, or to interest the individual in a product or service, offer sales materials, or gather information for marketing research purposes; see inbound telemarketing and telemarketing. 

outdoor advertising   advertising at outdoor locations, using billboards, posters, panels, signs, and other means used specifically to reach consumers outside the home; often used synonymously with out-of-home advertising, but is not quite as inclusive as out-of-home and does not utilize as wide a range of media to reach audiences. See out-of-home advertising and out-of-home media.  

Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA)   the trade association for the outdoor advertising industry; involved with a wide range of activities such as research, government regulations, outdoor plant standards, and display standards. The mission is to promote, protect, and improve the outdoor advertising medium by focusing on legislation, marketing, product improvement, new technologies, and industry unity with the ultimate goal of making outdoor advertising an attractive medium for advertisers, agencies, and consumers. Sponsors a voluntary Code of Advertising Practice for outdoor companies. Formerly called the National Outdoor Advertising Association (NOAA). See outdoor advertising and out-of-home advertising. Also see exclusionary zone. 

outdoor advertising plant   the physical structure on which the outdoor advertising poster is affixed; term may be used to refer to the entire group of outdoor structures in a given market that are operated by one company or to the out-of-home advertising company itself. See plant operator. 

outdoor bulletin   see bulletin.

outdoor network   a group of outdoor advertising companies that have bound together to sell advertising space in several markets with one insertion order and one invoice.   

outdoor poster   the most popular form of outdoor advertising and the smaller of the two standard billboard sizes, measuring 12’ high x 25’ wide, compared with the bulletin, whose dimensions are 14’ high x 48’ wide. Typically a multiple-unit buy for an advertiser to achieve market penetration. Standard showing sizes are #25, #50, #75, and #100. See poster panel, bulletin and showing. 

outgoing posters   the outdoor advertising posters seen by the traffic leaving a central business district; as opposed to incoming posters.    

out-of-home advertising   all advertising whose specific aim is to reach consumers outside the home; often used synonymously with outdoor advertising but is more inclusive than outdoor and uses a wider range of media. See out-of-home media and outdoor advertising.  

Out-of-Home Advertising Source   see SRDS Out-of-Home Advertising Source.  

out-of-home audience   the individuals who are reached by advertising media outside their homes, e.g., going to and coming from work, traveling through airport terminals or train stations, shopping at malls; see out-of-home media.  

out-of-home media   a wide range of advertising media outside the home, such as billboards and posters on highways, panels on transit vehicles, train or bus stations and in airports, signs at shopping malls, or signs at stadiums;  see outdoor advertising and transit advertising. 

out-of-store promotions   a catch-all term for the sales promotion and advertising efforts that occur outside the retail location; includes activities such as couponing, direct marketing, or sampling or other program done off- premises. See in-store promotions. 

outsert   a promotional message or material that is attached to the exterior of a product’s package. 

outside back cover   the outside of the back cover of a magazine, an advertising position that commands a premium rate, generally the most expensive page in a magazine; also called the fourth cover. See inside front cover and inside back cover. 

outside panel   in a multi-poster showing at a given location where two or more panels are positioned side-by-side, the billboard that is closest to the traffic or edge of the street; see inside panel. 

outside poster   any of a variety of transit advertisements on the outside of buses, trains, and taxis; e.g., front, rear, and sides. See exterior bus, headlight poster, taillight poster, queen-size poster, and king-size poster. 

outside producer   in television or radio advertising production, the individual or company hired by the advertising agency's producer to make the commercial as specified by the advertising agency; see producer.

over-delivery   when a media vehicle delivers more than the promised number of impressions in a particular campaign or time period. 

over-door display   in transit advertising, a car card advertisement above the door, on the inside of the vehicle; also called a top-end display. 

overlapping circulation   see duplication

overlay   see snipe

overlay program   see combination program. 

overnight ratings   a local metered-market rating service of Nielsen Station Index (NSI); the television program ratings that are available the day after a program has run. The so-called “early ratings” are available from Nielsen’s  local metered-markets that have television households with set-tuning meters (these ratings are available the morning after the day or evening of a telecast), as well as being available for network audience estimates based on  people meter households (these results are available in the afternoon following telecast). Often referred to as overnights. See Nielsen Media Research, people meter, and set-tuning meter. See Nielsen Media Research, diary method, metered markets, People Meter, set-tuning meter, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

override   in outdoor advertising, continuation of advertising past the time stated in the contract, free of charge. 

overrun   see renewal paper.    

over-spin   see spin. 

over-the-air station   a broadcast television station whose signal is transmitted through the air, rather than via wires, i.e., cable, as in the case of cable television. 

owned-and-operated station (O&O)   in television or radio, a station owned and operated by a network; in contrast to a network affiliate. See network affiliate.