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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
NAA see Newspaper Association of America.
NAAG see National Association of Attorneys General.
NAB see National Association of Broadcasters.
NAD see National Advertising Division.
NAICS see North American Industry Classification System.
NARB see National Advertising Review Board.
NARC see National Advertising Review Council.
NCTA see National Cable and Telecommunications Association.
NHI see Nielsen Homevideo Index.
NMR see Nielsen Media Research.
NPD see new-product development process.
NRF see National Retail Federation.
NSI see Nielsen Station Index.
NSS see Nielsen Syndication Service.
NTI see Nielsen Television Index.
NAB Code in television and radio, a self-regulatory “Code of Conduct” aimed at promoting a steadfast commitment to the highest standards of broadcasting in the public interest; includes guidelines and standards relating to program content, advertising content, types of products that should or should not be advertised on programs, time limits for advertising, a special sensitivity to programming and advertising directed to children, and other standards in the public interest.
name recognition the extent to which a company, organization, or brand registers with and has meaning for the consumer; see brand recognition.
naming rights in sponsorship marketing, the privilege or claim a marketer has on an event or other sponsorship to put its name on the title of the event; e.g., the FedEx Orange Bowl in college football, the Mercedes Championship in professional golf, or Gillette Stadium for the home field of the New England Patriots professional football team.
narrative copy advertising copy that tells a story as it attempts to influence the audience; the product’s selling points are delivered by means of a series of statements. Often uses a problem-solution execution format. See dialogue copy and problem-solution format.
narrowcasting in television or radio, in contrast to broadcasting, a specialized program tailored to smaller, more defined audiences with specific interests or particular demographics; e.g., cable television networks devoted to food, golf, finances, or history, or radio programming that caters to sports enthusiasts. The broadcast equivalent of special-interest magazines. See broadcasting.
national advertiser a company or other organization whose advertising is aimed at a nationwide or multi-region target audience.
national advertising advertising directed at target audiences nationwide or geographic regions, as opposed to local advertising; see local advertising.
division of the Council of Better Business
National Advertising Review Board (NARB) a division of the National Advertising Review Council (NARC), this body serves as the appeals board for National Advertising Division (NAD) decisions in the self-regulatory mechanism of the advertising industry; when an NAD decision is appealed, the NARB reviews the complaint and the NAD findings, conducts a hearing in which the advertiser presents its case, and then issues a non-binding decision. The next step for an advertiser who refuses to abide by the NARB decision to either modify or discontinue the questionable advertising is government intervention by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), an extremely rare occurrence. See Federal Trade Commission (FTC), National Advertising Division (NAD), and National Advertising Review Council (NARC).
National Advertising Review Council (NARC) the council consists of two divisions that together form the advertising industry’s primary voluntary self-regulation mechanism – the National Advertising Division (NAD) and the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU); this body’s mission is to maintain high standards of truth, accuracy, and social responsibility in national advertising; Established by the cooperative efforts of the American Advertising Federation (AAF), the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), and the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB). See National Advertising Division (NAD) and Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU).
National Association of Attorneys General an association comprised of the states’ attorneys general; has considerable impact on the way in which the states regulate business practices, including advertising.
National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) the industry association that represents the interests of free, over-the-air television and radio broadcasters; promotes and protects interests at the federal level, does industry research for the betterment of practice, and keeps members current on policy issues, technological developments, and management trends. See NAB Code.
national agency an advertising agency with the capability to prepare and place advertising throughout the entire country or at least several geographic regions of the county.
national brand see manufacturer’s brand.
national buy in magazine and newspaper advertising, the purchase of advertising space in the national edition of the publication, as opposed to buying space in individual markets in regional or metro editions, one market at a time as in the case of a market-by-market buy; see market-by-market buy and network buy.
National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA) the major trade association of the cable television industry dedicated to providing a single voice on issues affecting the cable and telecommunications industry; represents cable networks, cable system operators, equipment suppliers, and providers of other services to the cable industry; heavily involved with public affairs and government relations, and a broad range of activities and initiatives to advance the cause of cable television and telecommunications.
national magazine a magazine with nationwide circulation.
national newspaper a newspaper whose circulation covers the entire country; e.g., USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times.
national media media whose audience or circulation is over the entire country.
National Outdoor Advertising Association (NOAA) see Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA).
national plan an advertising and media plan this is aimed at the entire country (or to more than one region), as opposed to a local plan covering only the immediate local or regional area.
national rate an advertising rate charged by local media vehicles, such as newspapers, to national or regional advertisers; higher than the local rate which is charged to local retailers. Also called a general rate. See general rate and local rate.
national ratings see people meter.
National Retail Federation (NRF) the major retail industry association for department, specialty, and discount chain stores, plus nearly two million smaller retailers; conducts extensive and timely conferences and educational programs to assist retailers in their marketing and operational programs, and collects and distributes statistical information on every aspect of retailing. Formed by a merger of the National Retail Merchants Association with the American Retail Federation.
national spot advertising in television or radio, a national advertiser’s non-network or local advertising time purchased from a local station; i.e., local advertising time bought by a national advertiser. See spot and local spot advertising.
national supplement see Sunday supplement.
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act the major federal legislation governing all aspects of highway safety, via the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
navigation on the Internet, the way in which a user travels to, around, and from a web site and its pages.
near-pack premium in consumer sales promotion, a premium that is located away from but close to the product rather than in the package or on it; so placed because the premium is too large for the product’s package or is otherwise not economically inserted in or affixed to the package. See in-pack premium, on-pack premium, and premium.
neckhanger promotional material that is slipped over and hung from the neck of a bottle.
need the difference between an individual’s actual situation and desired situation; the lack of something useful or desired. See need recognition and wants.
need recognition a consumer’s awareness or realization of a discrepancy between his or her current state and that which is desired; the first stage of the consumer decision process. To the extent the recognition of a need stimulates behavior to fill that need, there is motivation. See consumer decision process.
needs the composite of the consumer’s requirements; see hierarchy of needs.
negative advertising advertising whose focus is almost entirely on the dire consequences of not having the advertiser’s product; sometimes the approach when fear appeals are employed. Also a term for advertising that attacks or slams the competition (i.e., comparison advertising) with extremely hard-hitting copy. See negative appeals, fear appeals, and comparison advertising.
negative appeals an advertising copy approach whereby virtually the entire emphasis is on problems a consumer will face without a particular product or service and how their life will be difficult if they do not buy the product or service; the intent is to create such anxiety in the consumer that he or she perceives a big void see positive appeals.
negotiated commission advertising agency compensation that is the result of the advertiser and the agency bargaining and agreeing to a rate structure other than the usual 15 percent commission on all billings, or time and space purchased by the agency on behalf of the advertiser; often results in a sliding scale, with the commission rate decreasing as the media purchases increase. See agency compensation method, agency commission, fee method, commission method, combination method, performance-based method, sliding rate, and billings.
negotiated price a product or service price determined by bargaining between the buyer and seller.
neighborhood showing a small group of outdoor posters, in close proximity to one another, featuring a product available in the area or neighborhood in which the posters are located.
neon bulletin an outdoor advertising poster illuminated by neon lights.
net in buying advertising time or space, the money actually paid to a media vehicle by an advertising agency after deducting the agency’s commission; also short for network.
net amount generally, what remains, i.e., the gain, after any reductions or adjustments in the grand total; see gross amount.
net audience the total unduplicated audience (individuals or households) reached by all media in a complete media schedule; can also refer to the unduplicated audience reached by a particular medium or by a specific media vehicle over the entire media schedule (i.e., the total number of different people or households reached at least once in a media schedule. Also known as net unduplicated audience or unduplicated audience.
net circulation in periodicals, the total number of copies actually distributed to all individuals regardless of whether or not the copies are paid for.
net controlled circulation in controlled circulation periodicals, the number of copies bought, as well as those not bought but received by individuals on the controlled-circulation distribution list; i.e., the number of copies of a controlled-circulation publication actually distributed. See controlled circulation.
net cost an advertiser’s cost of using the services of an advertising agency, after the agency commission has been deducted; also an advertising media rate after all discounts, including the agency commission, have been deducted from the base rate.
net coverage see net audience.
net earnings see net profit.
net income see net profit.
net paid circulation in periodicals, the number of copies actually sold, i.e., the total number of purchasers of an average issue of a periodical, including subscription and newsstand sales; same as paid circulation.
net profit gross sales less taxes, interest, depreciation, and other expenses in operating the business; also called net earnings or net income. See gross sales, gross profit, gross margin, net sales, and cost of goods sold.
net rating in television or radio, the percentage of the total potential audience exposed to a program, without duplication; see reach.
net rating point in television or radio, one percent of the total potential audience that is exposed to a program, without duplication; see gross rating point.
net reach see net audience.
net sales gross sales less discounts, returns, and allowances; i.e., the actual sales dollars received by the company; see gross sales, gross profit, gross margin, net profit, and cost of goods sold.
net single-copy sales for a particular publication, the total number of copies sold through retail locations, such as newsstands, minus any returns from the retailer.
net unduplicated audience see net audience.
net weekly audience in television or radio, the number of individuals or households that tune to a program that is broadcast more than once a week, over a period of time.
net weekly circulation in television or radio, the number of individuals or households tuned to a particular station for a minimum of five minutes during a week, over a period of time.
network in television or radio, a group of interconnected stations, i.e., affiliates, bound together by contract, that broadcast the same programs simultaneously in many different markets; stations are interconnected for the distribution of programming. Can also refer to a group of magazines that sell advertising space in the different publications as a single unit. Examples: ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, WB, or UPN in television and Westwood One or Premiere Radio in radio. See broadcast network and network affiliate.
network affiliate a local television or radio station, not owned by the network but which is formally a part of the network group, that makes specific time periods available for network-supplied programs and advertising; in contrast to an “owned-and-operated” station. See O & O station and network.
network buy in television and radio advertising, the purchase of commercial time directly from the network resulting in the commercial being aired on all affiliate stations, as opposed to buying time one market at a time as in the case of a market-by-market buy; see market-by-market buy and national buy.
network commercial review board in television advertising, a TV network’s committee charged with the responsibility of reviewing all advertising scheduled for broadcast on that network, to ensure it meets the network’s acceptability standards for airing commercial messages.
network compensation in television advertising, when broadcast networks pay their affiliated stations in each local market to air the network offerings and, in return, the networks retain the bulk of the commercial time for sale to national advertisers; also called station compensation.
network cooperative program a broadcast network program that allows local commercials to be aired.
network identification in television or radio, a brief announcement of the identity of the network made during a program, usually at the beginning or the end; see station identification.
network option time see network time.
network participation see participation basis.
network promo a commercial by a television or radio network that airs on its own network stations promoting the network or a particular program or program lineup appearing on the network.
network radio see network.
network spot buy a spot or an entire schedule of spots purchased on network programs; see spot and spot advertising.
network television see network.
network time a time period in the broadcast day when a local television or radio station agrees it will broadcast network programs and for which the networks have the option of selling the advertising time (rather than the individual stations having the option); e.g., prime time. Also called network option time. See station option time.
new media any of the variety of media developed and utilized relatively recently, especially those made possible by technological advances; e.g., the Internet, interactive kiosks, CD-ROMs, interactive television, videotapes.
new unsought products consumer products that the potential customer simply does not know exist on the market and, as a result, is making no attempt to find; see unsought products and regularly unsought products.
new-brand strategy a brand strategy in which the marketer uses an entirely new brand name entering a new product category for the company; e.g., Black & Decker home-improvement power tools company entering the lawncare market with its GrassHog edge trimmer, LeafHog blower, HedgeHog hedge trimmer, EdgeHog edge trimmer, the kitchen appliance market with its ArcticTwister ice cream maker, SmartBrew coffeemaker, and Gizmo can opener, as well as the home cleaning market with its DustBuster cordless vaccum, plus Unilever with its Dove soap, Lipton tea, Bird’s Eye frozen foods, Close-Up toothpaste, Slim-Fast wellness products, Hellmann’s dressings, Vaseline personal care products, and many others. Two additional examples are Procter & Gamble, with its vast array of brands in several product categories, such as dental care (Crest toothpaste), foods (Jif peanut butter, Folgers coffee), and laundry detergent (Tide, Bold), plus Sara Lee, with nearly 50 brands of packaged meats (Jimmy Dean, Hillshire Farm), over 40 brands of bakery products (Sara Lee, Sunbeam, Holsum, Mother’s,), over 60 brands of apparel (Hanes, Champion, Wonderbra, Bali)), over 20 body care brands, plus several different brands in each of shoe care, insecticides, furniture care, detergents, and other product categories. See brand strategy, line extension, brand extension, and multibranding.
new-product development process (NPD) a series of stages describing how an idea for a product or service ultimately becomes an official entry to the marketplace; full process consists of idea generation, idea screening, concept testing, market evaluation, product development, marketing plan, market testing, and commercialization. For the most part, this is a sequential series of stages, though some stages are worked on simultaneously.
news format in advertising, a creative execution format that presents the message in an announcement or reporting style; e.g., an advertisement announcing a new product or the grand-opening of a new store. See straightforward factual, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.
news release formally-prepared information distributed by the organization to print and broadcast media for appearance in the media outlets for the purpose of gaining publicity for the organization’s products, its people, an occurrence, an issue, or other matter of importance to the organization; a public relations activity. Also known as a press release.
newsgroup on the Internet, a system for conducting discussions; essentially, a worldwide bulletin board.
news-information headline a type of headline for an advertisement or commercial in which the advertiser makes something of an announcement or an informative statement that causes the audience to take notice; e.g. “A surprising ally in the fight to save the environment – an oil company.” (Sunoco oil) or “Introducing a new way to lower your cholesterol. Without drugs.” (Cholestin capsules). See headline, as well as benefit headline, command headline, curiosity headline, and question headline.
newspaper an advertising-dependent daily or weekly publication containing news, current events, articles on a variety of topics, and generally organized into major sections such as national news, metropolitan and local news, arts and entertainment, business and finance, sports, and others; see broadsheet and tabloid.
Newspaper Association of America (NAA) the major association for the newspaper industry, with a focus on strategic priorities collectively affecting the entire newspaper industry, including marketing, public policy, diversity, industry development, newspaper operations, and readership; an important effort is made to increase newspapers’ share of advertising dollars, as well as to improve sales and marketing capabilities. Formed by a merger of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, the Newspaper Advertising Bureau, and five other industry associations.
newspaper insert see insert.
newspaper network a group of newspapers that sell advertising space to advertisers, who can buy space in several of the group’s newspapers at the same time with just one insertion order, i.e., buy space as a single purchase transaction.
newspaper sampling a method of sampling in which the trial-size samples are distributed via newspapers; see sampling, polybag, and billboard bag.
newspaper supplement see Sunday supplement.
newspaper syndicate an organization that sells features, comic strips, cartoons, and other special materials for publication in newspapers.
newsstand sales a magazine's sales through retail store outlets, as opposed to home-delivered; also called single-copy sales or newsstand circulation. See subscription sales.
newsweekly a weekly publication devoted mainly to news and current events; e.g., Newsweek, Time.
next-to-reading-matter when ordering space in a publication, an instruction or request from the advertiser to the publication to have an advertisement placed next to editorial matter on a page, as opposed to having other advertisements on its borders; sometimes sold at a premium rate.
niche a narrowly-defined market segment with a very distinct set of characteristics or needs; often willing to pay a premium price to have its specific needs met and satisfied. See niche marketing.
niche magazine see special-interest magazine and custom magazine.
niche marketing marketing, advertising, and promotion to a small and distinct segment of a broader market, with the marketer often facing little or no competition, because the segment is overlooked or simply ignored by competitors; see niche.
niche media specialized media, such as magazines covering a specific interest and catering to a distinct group of people passionate about a particular topic such as sports cars, stamp collecting, bird watching, signature luxurious living, polo, or other very special interest. Media aimed at distinct and limited collection of individuals; media aimed at a narrowly defined target audience, e.g., a college newspaper. See special-interest magazine, custom magazine, and mass media.
niche network in television, a network aimed at a very specific audience; e.g., cable TV’s The Golf Channel. The television equivalent of a special-interest magazine or custom magazine.
nighttime in the radio broadcast day, the time period 7:00pm-12:00am; see dayparts (radio).
Nielsen families the households and people comprising the representative sample from which Nielsen Media Research provides television audience estimates; there are approximately 5,000 households in the national people meter sample and 18,000 households with set-tuning meters in the local television market samples, plus there are about 1.5 million diaries from the 210 television markets in the U.S. edited each year. See diary method, people meter, and set-tuning meter.
Nielsen Hispanic Station Index a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides viewing information in 16 local television markets with significant Hispanic population (via metered-market measurement and diary measurement).
Nielsen Hispanic Television Index a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides audience measurement and estimates of the Hispanic audience on a national basis (via people meters).
Nielsen Homevideo Index (NHI) a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides measurement of cable television, pay cable, VCRs, video discs, and other television technologies (via people meters, set-tuning meters, and diaries).
Nielsen Interactive Services a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides auditing and measurement of Web sites.
Nielsen Market Research see A.C. Nielsen.
Nielsen Media Research (NMR) the leading provider of television audience data and information services to worldwide, national and local customers, including television networks and local affiliates, cable networks and local cable systems, independent stations, syndicators, satellite distributors, advertisers, advertising agencies, media buying services, station representatives, and program producers; also provides a wide range of research services, such as audience estimates for the Internet, sports marketing organizations, and interactive marketing organizations. VNU Media Measurement & Information Group and A.C. Nielsen.
Nielsen Monitor-Plus a service of Nielsen Media Research that uses advanced data collection technology and information delivery systems to gather, manage, and distribute information on advertisements from a wide variety of media; includes cost estimates and other data to give a comprehensive view of the reach and cost-effectiveness of advertising, along with a means to evaluate competitors’ advertising strategies. Media planners can compare advertising schedules and actual audience delivery to gain insight into how well their advertising reaches target audiences compared with competition.
Nielsen/Net Ratings a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides data on Internet audiences and usage, as well as Internet advertising measurement; web site ratings are based on a sample of more than 225,000 individuals worldwide. Results are compiled from real-time meters on the individuals’ computers, which monitor the sites they visit.
Nielsen People Meter see People Meter.
Nielsen Retail Index a compilation of retail statistics coming from store audits done by A.C. Nielsen; stores include those involved with household and food products, cosmetics, and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. See store audit.
Nielsen Sports Marketing Service a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides a wide range of tracking data on sports leagues, teams, and marketers, including measurement and estimates of broadcast and cable television audiences.
Nielsen Station Index (NSI) a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides local market television audience measurement in 55 major markets (via metered-market overnight measurement) and 210 Designated Market Areas (DMAs) (via diary measurement); see Nielsen Television Index (NTI).
Nielsen Syndication Service (NSS) a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides measurement of the syndication programming segment of the television industry (via people meters, set-tuning meters, and diaries).
Nielsen Television Index (NTI) a service of Nielsen Media Research that provides television audience measurement and estimates for all national broadcast television programs (via people meters); see Nielsen Station Index (NSI).
NielsenTV ratings the catch-all for the entire range of television ratings services provided by Nielsen Media Research; see the individual Nielsen entries.
90-day cancellation in outdoor advertising, the advertiser’s right to cancel scheduled advertising, with at least 90 days’ notice.
no-change rate a special rate for space or time offered to an advertiser by some media vehicles when the advertiser uses the same advertisement or commercial for an extended period of time.
noise interference or extraneous stimuli along the communications channel that is a distraction and reduces the clarity, accuracy, or intended meaning of a message from the sender to the receiver; anything that serves to disrupt the free flow of communications or diminishes the effectiveness of the message.
nonadvertising promotion promotion activities other than advertising, especially those activities used in a public relations program.
nonbusiness advertising see non-commercial advertising.
noncommercial advertising advertising done by a not-for-profit organization to promote a charity, a cause, an idea, an attitude, a philosophy, or some other such end; e.g., advertising done be a charitable institution, a civic group, a college or university, a specific-purpose cause organization, a political party, or some other such not-for-profit organization.
noncommercial broadcasting television and radio stations whose major sources of funds are viewers, listeners, grants from foundations, companies, government, and other sources, as opposed to advertisers; see advertiser-supported broadcasting, cable television (CATV), and public broadcasting.
noncommissionable media media and services bought by an advertising agency that, unlike magazine and other traditional media vehicles, do not grant the agency a commission or discount on the purchase; e.g., sales literature created for dealers to distribute to prospects as part of a campaign. See collateral materials, collateral services, and commissionable media.
noncompensatory decision rule a decision rule in which the consumer, in choosing between two or more alternatives, rules out a product that scores low on any one relevant attribute, because a particular brand’s weakness on one attribute is not offset by its strength on another attribute; a choice process wherein each product attribute is considered separately, and a favorable evaluation on one attribute of a particular brand does not compensate for an unfavorable evaluation on some other attribute of the same brand where it does not meet the minimum standard on that attribute. See compensatory decision rule, lexicographic decision rule, consumer decision rules, and evoked set.
noncumulative quantity discount a reduction in price offered to a customer on the basis of amount purchased on that particular order only; see cumulative quantity discount.
nondeal prone consumers individuals who are either loyal to a particular brand in a product category or who actually may engage in brand-switching behavior but are not, under any circumstance, drawn to a brand by any deal or sales promotion activity; consumers who are not responsive to deals. See deal-prone consumers.
nondirective interview a type of depth interview in which the respondent is given wide latitude and freedom to express thoughts on the subjects central to the research and of interest to the interviewer; see depth interview.
nondisguised research in marketing and advertising research, asking respondents questions in a very clear and straightforward manner, with each respondent knowing the purpose of the questions; also called direct questioning. See disguised research.
nondurable goods consumer goods that are consumed in one or very few uses and which are bought frequently; e.g., breakfast cereal, photographic film, or toothpaste. Sometimes referred to as soft goods. See durable goods.
nonexclusive rights when a marketer is involved and directly associated with an event, cause, or entity such as a sports team, at the same time one or more of its competitors is also associated with the same property; e.g., two banks, two automobiles, or two fast-food restaurants being associated with a professional or college football team. See rights, rights fees, sponsor, sponsorship, exclusive rights, and exclusivity.
nonfinal art in the creative phase of the advertising design process, any of the various sketches done in stages prior to the mechanical, or final artwork; e.g., thumbnail, rough layout, or comprehensive.
nonfoods products other than food that are commonly sold in supermarkets and other food stores; e.g., baking supplies, magazines, photographic film.
nonfranchise-building promotions sales promotion activities whose primary purpose is to induce immediate consumer action rather than attempting to enhance a brand’s image over the long-run; e.g., a one-time consumer deal or a coupon program. See franchise-building promotions.
nongovernment regulation see self-regulation.
nonguaranteed rate base in print media, the circulation number that is the basis for a periodical’s advertising, but is not officially verified by an audit, such as that done by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC); see rate base and Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
nonilluminated panel an outdoor poster without lighting.
nonmeasured media see unmeasured media.
nonnetwork programs in television and radio, any programming that is not created by or originate from a broadcast network; e.g., local programming or syndication. See local programming and syndication program.
nonpaid circulation number of copies of a subscription-type publication that are distributed free-of-charge; usually, recipients must be qualified to receive the publication. Not to be confused with free publication. Also called free circulation. See circulation, controlled circulation, paid circulation, and qualified circulation.
nonpersonal channels see non-personal media.
nonpersonal communications communications in which there is no direct and personal interaction between the sender and the receiver; e.g., advertising, public relations, direct marketing, or sales promotion. Sometimes referred to as impersonal communications or mass communications.
nonpersonal influences in the consumer decision making process, those factors beyond the individual’s own inner self or beyond his or her control that affect marketplace decisions; e.g., time or place.
nonpersonal media communications channels in which there is no personal contact between the sender of a message and the receiver; e.g., magazines or radio. Also called mass media. See non-personal communications.
nonpersonal selling see non-personal communications.
nonprice competition challenging competitors for consumer patronage by emphasizing product, promotion, and distribution strategies and actions, as opposed to playing up price; see price competition.
nonprobability sample in survey research for marketing and advertising, an approach to sample selection where the units of the population of interest are chosen based on factors such as convenience, judgment, or meeting a specified quota of responses; i.e., selection is not based on random chance and individuals in the particular population being sampled do not have an equal chance of being selected for inclusion in the sample. See non-probability sample, convenience sample, judgment sample, quota sample, probability sample, and survey method.
nonproduct advertising advertising whose purpose is to sell ideas or images, rather than products or services; e.g., gun control, anti-drug abuse, reading for pleasure, or environmental issues. See services advertising and product advertising.
nonprogram material in television and radio, content aside from the specific program itself, such as commercials, public service announcements, or promotions for other shows on that station; see clutter.
nonrenewal when an advertiser in a media vehicle does not continue beyond the current contract agreement.
nonresponse error in survey research, the error resulting from failure to obtain information from a respondent pre-determined to be included in the survey’s sample; see sampling error.
nonselling activities the activities a salesperson engages in that are not directly concerned with order-getting or order-taking; e.g., reports to the home office, meetings, or the many activities involved in missionary selling. See missionary selling.
nontraditional advertising agency an advertising agency or other organization that does not offers its advertisers-clients the broad range of advertising services normally found at a full-service or even a limited-service advertising agency, instead tending to specialize in other areas, such as music or talent, perhaps in combination with creative writing; does not handle all the promotional needs of its clients. See creative boutique, full-service advertising agency, and limited-service advertising agency. Also see Creative Artists Agency.
nontraditional media refers to any of a variety of advertising media that typically do not carry the bulk of the media load for most advertisers, especially is a particular product category; generally considered to be support media that are often used to make a full impact. Usually, the media for which the fewest dollars are spent by the majority of advertisers. See support media and unmeasured media.
nonusers a market segment consisting of consumers who do not purchase or use a particular product or service, in contrast to those who are heavy users, moderate users, or light users.
nonverbal communications advertising or communications through visual means rather than words; e.g., a picture or illustration in advertising or body language in personal selling situations.
nonwired network a group of television or radio stations that sell advertising time on several of the stations as a single unit, with only one purchase transaction needed; not a network in the legal sense, hence called “non-wired.”
norms within a group, beliefs held by a consensus of individuals about the rules of behavior for the group’s members; also refers to benchmarks used for purposes of advertisings measurement and testing. See benchmark.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) a six-digit hierarchical coding system to classify all economic activity into 20 industry sectors; five sectors are primarily goods-producing sectors and 15 are entirely services-producing sectors; replaced the long-used four-digit Standard Industrial Classification System (SIC), to permit greater coding flexibility.
nostalgia-prone consumer a consumer with a special liking or preference for products, advertising, and icons from his or her younger days.
not-for-profit marketing the marketing programs and activities of non-profit-seeking organizations, such as government agencies, college and universities, museums, social service agencies, or trade associations.
Noted score in magazine readership studies, the percentage of the readers of a specific issue of a magazine who remember having previously seen a particular advertisement at the time of reading the magazine; a measure of The Starch Readership Report. See Associated score, Read Most score, and Read Some score.
notification date in television or radio advertising, the deadline for the advertiser to inform the network or station that it will become or will remain a sponsor of a particular program.
NTIV Analysis (National Television Impression Value) a comprehensive measurement and evaluation of a corporate sponsor’s total sponsorship program in sports and special events, including not only the sponsor’s exposure during the actual event television broadcast (i.e., Sponsors Report), but also the exposure in other media such as TV news programs, radio, print, and the event site. A service of Joyce Julius & Associates. See Sponsors Report, in-focus exposure time, and Joyce Julius & Associates.
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) a 1990 law that requires food producers and distributors to display certain nutritional information on the package (e.g., amount of fat, cholesterol, sodium), as well as requiring that all nutritional claims on the package (e.g., “low-fat,” “light,” or “reduced calories”) are substantiated according to government standards; see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.