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MA   see Metropolitan Area. 

MIS   see marketing information system. 

MPA   see Magazine Publishers Association. 

MPR   see marketing public relations. 

MRI   see Mediamark Research, Inc. 

MSA   see Metropolitan Statistical Area. 

macroenvironment   the extensive and all-embracing societal forces that affect an organization and its marketing efforts; includes forces such as demographics, economic, technological, political, legal, social, cultural, and environmental. See microenvironment. 

Madison Avenue   a reference to the advertising industry collectively; historically, the specific locale of many of the world’s best-known advertising agencies and where the industry had its beginnings. A street in New York City. 

magalog   in direct marketing, a catalog that closely resembles a magazine in appearance, if not content; often published several times a year featuring seasonal merchandise and even some editorial matter. 

magazine   a periodical, usually of coated paper and excellent production quality, which focuses on complete, in-depth treatment of its subjects and which has regular features issue-to-issue; usually issued weekly or monthly. See consumer magazine and trade publication. 

magazine concept   a television or radio program format in which there are several different stand-alone, usually unrelated segments run back-to-back; e.g., 60 Minutes. 

magazine group   a collection of magazines comprising the offering of publications from the same publisher; typically appealing to different interest segments. For example: Primedia Publishing’s Soap Opera Digest, Skateboarder, Horticulture, Pro Football Weekly, American Baby, Crafts, Hot Rodding, Four-Wheeler, SUV, and many more, or Hearst Corp.’s Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, Popular Mechanics, SmartMoney, Redbook, and House Beautiful, to mention just some. See magazine network. 

Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS)   in advertising research, a copy testing technique for magazines, in which advertisements are tested using an at-home, in-magazine context among widely dispersed samples; the test advertisements may naturally appear in the magazine or inserted for testing. A product of Gallup and Robinson (G&R). See copytesting, InTeleTest, In-View Test, Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS), and Advertising Response Modeling (ARM). 

magazine insert   see insert

magazine network   a group of magazines that sell advertising space to advertisers, who can buy space in several of the group’s magazines at the same time with just one insertion order, i.e., buy space as a single purchase transaction or buy space in a package deal; Conde Nast publications include Gourmet, Bon Appetit, Vogue, Self, Allure, Bride’s, Glamour, Modern Bride, Vanity Fair, Conde Nast Traveler, The New Yorker, House & Garden, Lucky, GQ, Wired, and Architectural Digest.  

Magazine Publishers Association (MPA)   the industry association for  publishers of consumer magazines. 

magazine supplement   the preprinted magazine section of the Sunday edition of a metropolitan newspaper; e.g., The New York Times Magazine, which is included as a separate publication inserted into the Sunday Times. Also refers to a supplement that is distributed nationally in several different Sunday newspapers, such as Parade Magazine. See Sunday supplement. 

Magnuson-Moss Consumer Product Warranty Act   a federal law, passed in 1975, that governs consumer product warranties, requiring manufacturers and sellers of consumer products to provide consumers with detailed information about coverage. Also called the Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act. 

mail order   a method of consummating a sales transaction which requires the buyer to submit to the seller a formal statement of intent to purchase the advertised product by filling out an order form, following which the product is shipped to the buyer. 

mail response list   a direct mail list comprised of names and addresses of individuals who have responded to an advertiser’s previous mailing or, especially, those who have responded to mailings of other organizations whose products or services complement the advertiser’s offering. 

mail sampling   a method of sampling in which the trial-size samples are distributed through the postal system; see sampling. 

mail survey   a survey method of data collection by means of a questionnaire sent by mail to a respondent who completes the questionnaire and returns it to the researcher via mail. 

mail-in offer   any consumer sales promotion program in which the consumer is required to respond by mail in order to receive the promotional item or other incentive; usually requires some proof-of-purchase to be submitted. 

mail-in premium   a sales promotion tool in which the consumer mails some sort of offer sheet or other type of response to the firm and, in return, receives a premium; see premium. 

mailing list   a list of prospective buyers’ names and addresses, or those of other individuals or organizations, used by direct marketing or other firms for a wide range of promotional purposes. 

mailing list profile   a description of the common characteristics of the individuals or organizations that comprise a particular mailing list. 

mail-order advertising   advertising whose intent is to have the entire sales transaction completed by the advertising and a mail response.  

mail-order house   a retail organization that typically advertises via mail (including catalogs), accepts orders from consumers by mail or telephone (or the Internet), and delivers the goods by mail or carrier service.  

mail-order selling   the sales process when it is conducted entirely by mail rather than on a personal face-to-face basis. 

main head   the most prominent headline in an advertisement; see sub-head and headline. 

maintenance marketing   see defensive marketing. 

majority fallacy   the questionable notion that a company should always pursue the market segment with the highest number of consumers and highest usage rates, ignoring the smaller markets; in fact, the smaller market may be less competitive, allow the marketer to gain a real differential advantage and firm foothold, and be more profitable in the long-run. 

major selling idea   see theme. 

make-good   advertising time or space provided free by the medium or media vehicle to the advertiser to compensate for less-than-promised ratings or some error by the medium or media vehicle in running or failing to run a scheduled commercial or advertisement; also applies to a sponsorship property’s failure to deliver a promised level of attendance. Arrangements other than free advertising may be employed. 

make-up   the arrangement or layout of all elements in an advertisement, brochure, or other promotional piece; see layout.  

makeup restriction   guidelines issued to an advertiser by a publication to be sure an advertisement does not have such unusual dimensions or features that would make it difficult for the publication to use the space efficiently. 

mall   see shopping mall.

mall display   in out-of-home advertising, a display located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually a backlit advertising structure. See backlit. 

mall intercept   see intercept survey.  

mandatories   elements of a message that, by order of account management and/or the client, must be included in the finished advertising, and often in a specific location of the advertisement or commercial; advertiser’s Web address, telephone number, address, logo, “a family-owned company,” or any other copy or element deemed essential. 

mandatory copy   copy that is required by law to appear in an advertisement or commercial, on a package, or as an integral part of another promotion vehicle; e.g., the Nutrition Facts statement on food packages or the Warning statement on tobacco products. 

manufacturer’s brand   a brand owned by the maker of the product; also referred to as a national brand, though it may not be distributed nationally.  

manufacturer’s coupon   a coupon distributed to the consumer by a manufacturer; see coupon. 

manufacturers’ representative   an agent middleman (does not take title to the goods) engaged in wholesaling who sells similar products for several noncompeting manufacturers; generally has limited authority regarding price and terms or conditions of sale and is paid by commission. See selling agent. 

marcom   a pseudonym for marketing communications. 

margin   in a publication, the area between the boundary of the printed matter and the edge of the page. 

marginal analysis   a thorough examination of how costs affect sales and profits; e.g., the relationship between advertising costs and sales figures. 

marginal utility   the extra benefits or extra satisfaction a consumer receives from having each additional unit of a product or service; e.g., the benefit a golfer gets from having two golf balls rather than only one. See utility and law of diminishing marginal utility. 

markdown   a reduction in a product’s original selling price to encourage consumer purchasing of a slow-moving item or simply as a sales promotion deal to generate more sales; usually promoted as a percentage reduction or savings. 

market   all the customers or potential customers who have the following: a need or want for a product or service, the resources to offer as exchange, the willingness to make the purchase, and the authority to buy. 

market analysis   that part of the advertising and promotion planning process that examines and evaluates the factors that shape the market for an organization’s product or service; a major part of the situation analysis that precedes development of a marketing communications plan. See market, market profile, and situation analysis. 

market challenger   a company or organization whose marketing efforts are aimed at achieving a position of market leadership or supremacy; may apply to the company or organization as a whole or to a particular product or service. See market leader and market follower.  

market demand   total amount of purchases of a particular product or brand over a specified period of time; typically refers to actual purchases, but may related to an estimate of likely demand in a specified future period; see market forecast and sales forecast.  

market development   an organization’s growth strategy in which the firm attempts to increase sales by tapping new markets with its current products; involves moves such as promoting new uses for a product, expanding to a new geographic region, or adding new distribution outlets. See growth strategies, market penetration, product development, and diversification. 

Market Development Index   see Category Development Index (CDI). 

market evaluation   the fourth stage of the new-product development process, in which the product idea is subjected to an extensive investigation and evaluation of its potential for sales, market share, costs, profitability, return-on-investment, and meeting customer needs; see new-product development process, idea generation, idea screening, concept testing, product development, marketing plan, market testing, and commercialization. 

Market Facts, Inc.   a leading market research company providing a wide array of data collection and analysis services, including brand tracking, concept testing, product testing, and sales forecasting for consumer packaged goods firms, plus companies in the financial and telecommunications industries. 

market follower   a company or organization whose marketing efforts are aimed at simply following the lead of others, often imitating their tactics and, in no way acting as a challenger or aspiring to a leadership spot in the market; may apply to the company or organization as a whole or to a particular product or service. See market leader and market challenger.     

market forecast   in marketing planning, the estimated total demand for a product or service over a specified period of time, made prior to the full-scale development of a marketing program; demand projection is for all brands of the product. See sales forecast. 

market intelligence   key real-time information for use in developing marketing strategies and tactics aimed at gaining a competitive advantage; up-to-the-minute data collected from a variety of sources by use of established procedures designed to assure a steady flow of relevant information. 

market leader   a company or organization whose marketing efforts have propelled it to the number one position in the market, with the largest market share in the industry; may apply to the company or organization as a whole or to a particular product or service. See market challenger and market follower. 

market niche   see niche marketing. 

market penetration   an organization’s growth strategy that attempts to increase sales to its current markets with existing products; usually done with changes in the firm’s marketing mix, such as a price reduction, increased advertising, using a different media mix, added sales promotion activities, more aggressive trade promotion, and other practices. See growth strategies, market development, product development, and diversification. 

market potential   an estimate of the total demand for a product or service in a particular industry or market segment, or what sales level a product or service  can be expected to achieve; see sales potential and sales forecast.    

market profile   the specific features or characteristics of the customers and potential customers in a market for a particular product or service; see market. 

market response   the reaction of the target audience to an organization’s advertising or promotional efforts. 

market segment   a customer group in which the individuals share common characteristics making them likely to respond in a similar way to a particular marketing program; consumers are homogeneous within a particular segment, but different from consumers in other segments or groups, i.e., homogeneity  within and heterogeneity between. See market segmentation. 

market segmentation   dividing a large population into separate groups or markets based on  a set of common characteristics, each group (segment) representing a distinct target market with its own requirements for a marketing program; breaking a large heterogeneous market into a series of smaller homogenous markets. See behavioristic segmentation, demographic segmentation, geographic segmentation, geodemographic segmentation, and psychographic segmentation. 

market share  a brand’s percentage of total sales in a product category. 

market share price objective   setting price at a level to achieve a particular market share goal; see target return, profit maximization, sales growth, and meeting competition price objectives.  

market structure   the character of an industry, based on the number of firms, barriers to entry, extent of product differentiation, control over price, and importance of non-price competition; see pure competition, pure monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopolistic competition. 

market target   see target market.  

market targeting   see target marketing. 

market test   see test market. 

market testing   see test marketing. 

market-by-market   a method of allocating the advertising or promotion budget or  intensity of effort; each local area is evaluated and receives a share of the budget or total effort on the basis of its past and potential sales picture, competitive situation, or other factor; see Brand Development Index (BDI) and Category Development Index (CDI). 

market-by-market buy   in the purchase of media, buying commercial time or advertising space a single market at a time, as opposed to buying time on the entire network of stations or the national edition of a publication; see network buy and national buy. 

market-driven   taking the cue from the marketplace in designing marketing activities and programs. 

marketer   an individual or an organization that engages in marketing, i.e., has something to sell such as a product, service, or idea; see marketing. 

Marketer’s Guide to Media   an AdWeek publication containing a wealth of advertising media data and information; an annual edition includes audience size, circulation figures, demographics, costs, and other data for broadcast television, cable television, syndicated television, radio, out-of-home, magazines, newspapers, online services, promotion media, the teen market, the Hispanic market, and others.  

marketing   the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods services, and ideas to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives; the American Marketing Association definition. 

marketing audit   a comprehensive, systematic, and objective review and appraisal of every aspect of a firm’s or organization’s marketing program, its organization, activities, strategies, and people. 

marketing by-the-book   see by-the-book marketing. 

marketing channel   see distribution channel. 

marketing communications   the combination of the elements, activities, and techniques an organization employs to connect with and persuade the target market to engage in a particular action or response, such as buying a product, using a service, or accepting an idea; the major tools include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling. 

marketing communications campaign  a range of individual but fully-integrated promotion elements, activities and methods, unified under a common theme and aimed at common objectives; a series of promotional messages, integrated under a common theme, working toward common objectives. Also called a promotion campaign.  See integrated marketing communications. 

marketing communications mix   see communications mix. 

marketing communications plan   see integrated marketing communications plan. 

marketing communications productivity audit   any of the several techniques for measuring the return on investment in the total marketing communications program; return-on-investment approach (ROI). 

marketing concept   a managerial philosophy that says marketing begins by identifying consumer needs and wants and then, through a series of coordinated activities, satisfies those needs and wants better than competitors while achieving organizational goals; i.e., a consumer orientation, integrated marketing activities, and organizational objectives are the key components of this market-driven philosophy. 

marketing control   the process and activities involved in evaluating marketing programs to determine if objectives are being met and, if not, taking corrective action. 

marketing database   see database. 

marketing ethics   the moral standards and values underlying and surrounding the marketer’s efforts directed at the target audience; the realm of right and wrong.    

marketing implementation   the process of turning marketing plans into action.  

marketing information system (MIS)   in marketing research, a formal and structured procedure for collecting and analyzing data from a variety of key sources and systematically disseminating timely information to marketing decision makers to help them plan, execute, and control the total marketing program; a continuous program of providing key information to marketing decision makers. See marketing research and marketing research process. 

marketing intelligence   the relevant data and information on the latest developments in the total marketing environment that are required for the day-to-day marketing decisions; see marketing information system (MIS).  

marketing logistics   see physical distribution. 

marketing metrics   a broad range of quantitative measurements used to assess marketing performance; e.g., market share, advertising spending, coupon redemptions, event attendance, response rates in a direct marketing program, number of visits to a Web site, number of click-throughs to an advertiser’s page on a Web site, and many others.   

marketing mix   the particular combination of ingredients that forms the marketing program an organization uses to satisfy target customer needs and wants while meeting organizational objectives; includes the blending the four key variables that comprise marketing programs: product, price, distribution, and promotion activities, i.e., the controllable variables. Also known as the 4Ps. See controllables and uncontrollables. 

marketing myopia   shortsighted thinking in designing marketing programs and strategies; failure to consider the long-run consequences of marketing efforts. 

marketing niche   see niche and niche marketing. 

marketing objectives   what is to be accomplished in the performance of marketing activities and the marketing program; stated in terms of sales volume, market share, profit, return-on-investment or other basis. 

marketing management   in pursuit of organizational and marketing objectives, the process of formulating marketing plans, directing the execution of the plans, and controlling each component of the implemented marketing program. 

marketing on-the-edge   see on-the-edge marketing. 

marketing opportunity   conditions in the marketplace that suggest it is likely that a firm can provide better, more appropriate need-satisfying solutions to prospective customers than currently being provided. 

marketing orientation   steadfast adherence to the marketing concept; an approach whereby customer needs and wants are the underlying determinants of an organization’s direction and its marketing programs. See marketing concept. 

marketing plan   a document, complete with rationale, that guides and directs a company’s marketing effort; a formal blueprint outlining an organization’s situation analysis, budget, objectives, marketing strategies, implementation guidelines, and measurement and control systems for the marketing of a particular product or service. Also, the sixth stage of the new-product development process, when the initial plan is designed for a new product prior to its market test. See new-product development process, idea generation, idea screening, concept testing, market evaluation, product development, market testing, and commercialization. 

marketing process   the major stages in planning, designing, implementing, and monitoring marketing programs; consists of analyzing marketing opportunities, selecting target markets, developing and integrating the marketing mix, managing the entire marketing program, and evaluating marketing performance. 

marketing program   the entire set of plans, activities, and strategies with which an organization strives to meet the requirements of its target markets while achieving organizational objectives. 

marketing public relations (MPR)   involves an organization’s relations with consumers or other publics, such as the government, suppliers, channel members, employees, citizens action groups, or the local community, on marketing and marketing-oriented matters; specific role and scope is determined by the firm’s marketing objectives. Major tool is publicity. See publicity, public relations, proactive public relations, and reactive public relations. 

marketing research   processes and activities involved in the systematic identification, gathering, analyzing, and dissemination of data to marketing decision makers to help them render information-based decisions on problems and opportunities in marketing; the all-important link between the customer or audience and the marketer. 

marketing research process   the stages comprising the marketing research activity; consists of defining the problem or issue to be investigated, setting research objectives, examining secondary data, formulating a research design and methodology plan (including specific research approaches, contact methods, sampling plan and size, and data collection forms), collecting primary data, analyzing and interpreting the findings, producing recommendations, and following-up on implementation. Not necessarily a step-by-step sequence, since some stages may be worked on simultaneously. 

marketing strategy   an action plan detailing the marketing mix aimed at a specific target market; how the product, price, distribution, and promotion variables will be used to attract a particular customer group and allow the organization to achieve its objectives. 

markup   a percentage or dollar amount added to the cost of a product to get the  selling price. 

markup chain   the series of markups that occur at each stage in the distribution channel, as the individual channel members charge for services rendered. 

markup charge   an element of advertising agency compensation in which the agency adds a percentage charge, usually 17.65% to services it buys from outside suppliers, e.g., research or production; also called percentage charge or gross-up. See production add-on and 17.65 percent. 

marquee   a billboard on an edifice, such as a movie theater. 

masked identification test   in advertising research, a technique whereby respondents are asked to name the sponsor of a commercial or advertisement, in which the sponsor’s name, brand name, logo, or any other identifying element is bleeped out or blocked out; a test of the memorability of advertising.   

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs   see hierarchy of needs. 

mass communications   reaching a widespread audience of many individuals with any of the promotional media, methods, or tools available to the advertiser for delivering its message; generally, there is no direct and personal interaction between the sender of such a message and the receiver. Sometimes called impersonal communications or non-personal communications. See non-personal communications. 

mass distribution   see intensive distribution. 

mass marketing   using a single basic marketing mix or program to reach the entire market, as opposed to a specific market target, which calls for a separate marketing program for each target segment; also called undifferentiated marketing. See concentrated marketing and differentiated marketing. 

mass media   forms or channels of non-personal communications that allow the advertiser to reach a large widespread audience of many individuals simultaneously with its message, as opposed to forms or media that are specialized as to audience; e.g., television or newspapers. Also called non-personal media. See advertising, personal selling, general-interest magazine, special-interest magazine, and niche media. 

mass medium   the singular of mass media; a communications medium, e.g., television, magazines directed to the broad interests of the general public. 

mass merchandiser   a very large retail store selling an extremely wide and deep assortment of products; typically a self-service store and operating on a low-margin high-turnover philosophy.  

mass publication   a publication edited for the general public; also called a mass magazine. See general-interest magazine. 

mass selling   communicating and promoting a basic message to a large number of potential consumers at the same time.

master agency   see agency of record (AOR).   

master tape   in radio and television advertising production, the final complete recording of the commercial from which duplicates are made and sent to the stations for airing; see dubs and dupes. 

masthead   in a periodical, a short section on a page listing the publication’s owner, publisher, editorial and business staff members, addresses and numbers of offices, and frequency of publication, generally in a portrait format, height greater than width; in newspapers, usually located on the editorial page and, in magazines, on or near the table of contents page. See portrait format. 

mat   a printing plate mold of papier-mache or similar substance that is made by pressing a sheet of the paper into the engraving plate; molten lead is then poured into it, forming a duplicate of the original plate, known as a stereotype. Mainly used by newspapers. Short for matrix. 

matrix   see mat. 

mat service   a company that specializes in producing mats and supplying newspapers with the resulting images for use as advertisements; see mat.  

matchbook advertising   an advertising message on the cover of a book of matches. 

matched samples   in marketing and advertising research, two groups identically alike according to the demographic, lifestyle, or other characteristics desired by the researcher; for testing purposes, a condition or stimulus is varied in one group, and then results are compared to determine the effect of stimulus. For example, one group may be exposed to a hard-sell advertising message, the other to a decidedly softer-sell message, and then results are compared, either by sales levels or by questioning centered around the communications effect of each approach.  

maturity stage   the third stage of the product life cycle, in which sales slow dramatically, still increasing very early in the stage, but at a markedly decreasing rate, followed by a leveling off; only the strong marketers survive through this stage, with a decrease in the number of competitors, but an increase in the intensity of the competition. The always-important relationships with the dealers are especially critical in this stage. Profit levels are relatively steady, though may decline slowly. See product life cycle, introduction stage, growth stage, and decline stage. 

maximil rate   in newspaper advertising, the cost of an agate line of space at the highest milline rate, i.e., without any discounts; see agate line, milline rate, and minimil rate. 

maximum depth requirement   in newspaper advertising, the maximum amount of advertising space allowed per column that also contains non-advertising or editorial material; beyond allotted amount, an advertiser must pay for a full column. See minimum depth requirement. 

maximum profit rule   the highest profit level is achieved with a price where marginal cost equals marginal revenue; i.e., the point at which the extra cost of producing and marketing the last unit is equal to the extra revenue earned from that unit. 

McCollum-Spielman Worldwide (MSW)   a premier advertising research organization with capabilities spanning the entire range of pre-testing, concurrent testing, and post-testing studies to help marketers and advertisers develop effective strategies. 

mean   in a series of numbers, the average; determined by the sum of all the numbers divided by the total quantity of separate number entries on the list. Example: 22 for the series 30, 25, 21, 18, 16 (i.e., 110 divided by 5). Also called the average. See median and mode. 

measured media   refers to the closely-estimated advertising expenditures in national consumer media, as monitored by Competitive Media Reporting; includes advertising spending in newspapers, magazines (and Sunday magazines), outdoor, network television, spot television, syndicated television, cable television, network radio, and spot radio. Expenditures are published annually by Advertising Age in its 100 Leading National Advertisers issue, as well as at periodic intervals throughout the year. See unmeasured media.   

measurement   using a variety of methods, determination of the impact of an advertisement, sales promotion activity, public relations effort, direct marketing program, or any other promotion program activity or element; also pertains to determining the impact of the advertising or promotion program in its entirety. See marketing metrics. 

mechanical   the final version of an advertisement in all its precise detail, which will be sent to the printer upon approval by the client, who even at this point in the layout development process can suggest changes; typically computer-generated and sent to the printer electronically. Also called camera-ready artwork and paste-up. See layout development process, thumbnail, rough layout, and comprehensive. 

mechanical requirements   in print advertising, the specifications that must be met by the advertiser or agency when submitting advertising material; specifications are enumerated on the rate card.  

media   the aggregate means, carriers, or channels of communications through which advertisers get their messages to their intended audiences; see media, media class, media subclass, media vehicle, and media unit. 

media association   an organization consisting of the members of individuals and companies involved with a particular advertising medium, such as magazine publishers, billboard companies, transit firms, newspaper publishers, television or radio networks, and virtually every advertising medium; common purpose is to promote the attractiveness of the particular medium as an advertising carrier. Examples: Magazine Publishers Association (MPA), Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA), or Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). 

media bank   a media buying service’s inventory of media available for sale to advertisers and agencies; see space bank and time bank.  

media blitz   an intensive, greater-than-normal use of a variety of media by an advertiser over its entire market or in a particular region; most often used for new-product introductions, to counter competitive moves, to promote a special event or promotion, or in a public relations effort. See heavy-up. 

media broker   an individual or organization that accumulates time and space for sale to advertisers and agencies; also refers to a person or company that arranges for a connection between buyer and seller of media.    

media budget   the amount of money allocated to the combination of communications carriers used to deliver an advertiser’s message to its target audience. 

media buy   the advertising time or space purchased from a media vehicle; often referred to simply as a buy. 

media buyback   in sponsorship marketing, when a property buys television or radio time from the an event’s broadcaster and, in turn, gives the commercial time to a sponsor as part of the total package to make the sponsorship a more attractive deal; may also apply to space or time in other media purchased and used for the same purpose. 

media buyer   an individual who purchases advertising time and space; may work for an advertising agency or for a media buying service. 

media buying   the process of negotiating, ordering, securing, and confirming the purchase of advertising time or space from a media vehicle. 

media buying service   an independent organization that specializes in purchasing large quantities of advertising time and space, and then selling it in blocks to individual advertisers; deal mostly with television and radio. In addition to the buying activity, may also engage in media planning and the actual placement. 

media buy sheet   a formal record sheet containing all key details used by the media buyer; a formal record-keeping sheet containing all relevant details and information about a particular purchase of time or space, i.e., buy, from a media vehicle. Also referred to as a buy detail report. 

media class   any one in a broad category of media such as print, electronic, out-of-home, interactive, or direct mail; sometimes a given class may be referred to as a medium, e.g., the print medium. See media, media subclass, media vehicle, and media unit. 

media commission   compensation paid by a media vehicle to a recognized  advertising agency, usually 15 percent; see advertising agency commission. 

media company   an organization that owns a media vehicle or multiple media. 

media department   the section of the advertising agency that develops media plans and strategies to best convey the advertising message to the target audience; also buys the advertising time and space or works closely with the media buying service in that regard. 

media discount   any of several forms of a reduction in the rate card’s basic advertising cost, based on volume of time or space purchased or prompt payment. 

media distribution   refers to where and when advertising is deployed. 

media environment   the “atmosphere” in which the advertising appears – the image and content of the media vehicle that carries the advertising; in general, the “look” of the media vehicle. 

media equivalency   in sponsorship marketing, a sponsor’s measurement of the amount of time or space generated by coverage and exposure of the sponsor’s name and calculating what that time or space would have cost if the sponsor had purchased it based on the medium’s or media vehicle’s rate card; see in-focus exposure time, Joyce Julius Associates and Sponsors Report. 

media flowchart   a grid format or bar chart that shows the media schedule over the duration of the advertising campaign; i.e., the timing of each media vehicle’s use in the campaign. On the vertical axis is a list of the media vehicles and on the horizontal axis are the months of the campaign broken into weeks, with a bar running from left to right indicating which vehicles will be used in each week of the campaign. An at-a-glance picture or summary of the media schedule. See campaign flowchart,work flowchart, and media schedule. 

media impact   the impact or memorability created by an advertising medium, media vehicle, or any combination of media carrying an advertiser’s message; the impression created by the media mix in an advertiser’s media schedule. 

media imperative   an expression of the extent to which one advertising medium commands more attention than another from different groups or audiences; e.g., in a comparison between magazines and radio, a magazine imperative indicates that the particular audience has a higher level of magazine reading than it does radio listening. A measure of the Study of Media & Markets done by Simmons Market Research Bureau. 

media insertion schedule   see insertion schedule. 

media kit   a media vehicle’s package of materials, prepared for advertisers, containing information about the demographics, lifestyles, and buying behavior of the vehicle’s audience, as well as information about the vehicle’s circulation, geographical coverage, reach, frequency of publication, advertising rates, specifications, cost efficiency, comparisons with competing media or vehicles, deadlines, editorial calendar, special features, and other material relevant to the advertiser’s media selection decision; not to be confused with a press kit. See press kit. 

Media Market Guide   see SQAD (Service Quality Analytics Data). 

media mix   the combination or blend of media (classes, subclasses, and specific vehicles) used together, i.e., in the media schedule to reach the target audience in a particular advertising campaign and meet the objectives of a media plan. 

media menu   the totality of all communications methods and vehicles that are available for use by the marketer or to the consumer. 

media objectives   the specific goals for the media portion of the advertising program; usually stated in terms of reach and frequency levels. 

media pack   see media kit. 

media plan   a formal blueprint outlining the media objectives, strategy, mix, schedule, vehicles, weight, cost efficiency, and other media issues involved in an advertising or communications campaign, including, for example, specifications of the media in which the advertising messages are to be placed to reach the intended target audience; an outline of the entire media component of an advertising or communications campaign. 

media planner   the individual who produces the media plan for how best to convey the advertising message to the target audience; among other things, decides the objectives to seek with the media, the strategy that will work best, how to allocate the media budget, which media vehicles will be the most effective and cost-efficient given the objectives, and how to schedule the media for maximum impact. See media plan. 

media planning   working to make sure that that the advertising message is delivered to the target audience through the right channels at the right time; the process of making sure that all details relating to the media portion of the campaign are given proper attention. The process of developing media objectives, strategies, and tactics to employ in an advertising or communications campaign. 

media quintiles   in advertising media research, putting a sample of respondents into five groups of equal size to show the different exposure levels to a medium or media vehicle; e.g., ranges from heavy exposure or readership to light exposure or readership. See quintile and quintile analysis. 

media reach   see reach. 

media regulation   self-regulatory programs and efforts by the television, radio, magazine, newspaper, and other media industries that are aimed at monitoring and regulating advertising by screening ads and accepting only those that are truthful, fair, and in good taste, rejecting all others; criteria and standards are established by individual media vehicles, as well as by media associations for the entire membership. Ultimately, each media vehicle makes the decision to accept or reject an advertising message. See self-regulation. 

media relations   the dealings between an organization and the communications channels its uses in its advertising or promotion efforts; often refers specifically to the efforts by the public relations function to make an effective connection with the media. 

media release   see news release and press release. 

media representative   an individual who works for or on behalf of an advertising medium or media vehicle, typically selling the medium or vehicle as an advertising channel; often called a media rep or simply a rep. See rep firm. 

media research   gathering and interpreting data related to the reach and effectiveness of advertising media and media vehicles to facilitate information-based media decisions on budget allocations, selection of media vehicles to reach the target audience, scheduling, and other decisions. 

media schedule   the chronology of a media plan showing what media vehicles will carry the advertising and exactly when the commercials and advertisements will appear in those vehicles; a media calendar; also called schedule.  

media scheduling   the process of determining a media schedule; also called scheduling. See continuous scheduling, flighting, and pulsing.  

media share   see share. 

media spillover   occurs when a media vehicle’s signal or circulation goes beyond the geographical boundaries of one market area into another; see spill-in and spill-out. 

media strategy statement   a formal statement of the specific course of action that will be used to achieve media objectives; includes which media and media vehicles will be used, how the advertising budget will be allocated, how the media will be scheduled over the duration of the campaign, the reach and frequency that will be achieved, and other issues important to attaining the advertising goals established for the campaign. Also includes the rationale for each strategy element.  

media subclass   a type of media within a media class, such as magazines, newspapers, television, radio, or billboards; the particular type of media may be referred to as a medium, e.g., magazines as a medium. See media, media class, media vehicle, and media unit. 

media translation   with a national or large media plan as the starting point, reducing it proportionally for a local market to test the plan on a smaller scale; a miniature replica of the big market media plan in a small market. Can also mean the reverse – going from the local market to the larger market by increasing the media plan proportionally. See as-it-falls method and little America method. 

media unit   refers to the specific size or length of an advertisement or commercial; e.g., half-page, full-page, 30-second commercial, 60-second commercial, 30-sheet poster, or bulletin. See media, media class, media subclass, and media vehicle. 

media vehicle   the specific individual means by which an advertiser’s message is transmitted to the intended audience; the particular individual publication, program, or delivery mechanism used to carry or deliver an advertising message to the target audience. For example, a specific magazine (Good Housekeeping), newspaper (The Washington Post), or television program (60 Minutes). See media, media class, media subclass, and media unit. 

media waste   see waste audience and waste circulation. 

media weight   the total pressure or force of a media plan, as measured by the collection of elements such as media expenditures, reach, and frequency; essentially, the audience delivered by the media plan.  

Mediamark Research, Inc. (MRI)   a leading supplier of multimedia audience research and information for use by advertisers, advertising agencies, magazine, television, radio and other media; based on more than 26,000 personal interviews throughout the U.S., and provides comprehensive data on demographics, lifestyles, product usage, and exposure to virtually all forms of advertising media from a single sample. Especially useful for media planning.  

median   in a series of numbers, the point at which one-half of the numbers are above and one-half below; e.g., 22 in the series 26, 24, 23, 22, 20,19,17. See mean and mode. 

MediaWatch   a consumer advocacy organization whose goal is challenge what it considers to be abusive stereotypes and biased images found in the media, including advertising; aims to create more informed consumers of the mass media by “challenging racism, sexism and violence in the media through education and action. Very often, advertising is the object of the group’s attention. 

Mediaweek   a weekly trade magazine focusing on all aspects of media, including cost and audience data, news, insights, opinions, analysis, and research results; features both local and national media news and information. See Adweek and Brandweek. 

MediaWeek Directory   an annual publication that provides detailed reports, profiles, data and information on local media in the top 100 markets in the U.S., plus reports on national media; see Adweek Directory and Brandweek Directory. 

Medical Device Regulation Act   a 1976 law banning dangerous medical devices and requiring that all information be made public when a device is approved or banned. 

medium   generally refers to a particular media class (e.g., print), but may refer to a media subclass (e.g., magazines); the singular of media.  

medium rectangle ad   see rectangle ad. 

meeting competition price objective   setting price at the same level as competition; see target return, profit maximization, sales growth, and market share price objectives.

megabrand   the superbrand or umbrella brand name under which there are individual brands; so classified by virtue of a combination of elements such as size, sales volume, market share, profit, advertising dollars, and other factors that make the organization a giant in its field. Concept applies to a company, product, or an advertising agency. See agency megabrand, agency network, agency brand, and product megabrand. 

megabrand strategy   when a company with several brands in a product category streamlines its offering by eliminating the weaker-performing brands and focuses its budget and marketing program efforts only on those brands that have a reasonable shot to reach a top-echelon market share position in its product category.

megastore   see big-box store. 

membership group   a group of people with which an individual regularly interacts on a personal basis. 

memorability   the extent to which a particular advertising execution or campaign registers a lasting impression on the consumer; the extent to which the advertising message is recallable by the consumer. 

Mendelsohn Media Research   see Monroe Mendelsohn Research. 

mention   in any media, a brief acknowledgment of a company, product, or service. 

merchandise pack   a product package with a premium attached to it (on-pack premium) or inside it (in-pack premium); see premium, in-pack premium and on-pack premium. 

merchandising   a general term to describe the variety of in-store promotional activities and materials that complement and support the advertising effort; very often provided free or at a minimal charge. The totality of activities, other than advertising, that work together to make advertising and other promotion more effective at the retail level. For example, a combination of promotion activities for a product at the retail store, involving the use of literature, coupons, and sampling, along with a point-of-purchase display for the product.   

merchandising allowance   free merchandise or payment by the advertiser to the dealer for promotional support other than advertising, such as displays, in-store promotions, and other activities provided by the dealer on behalf of the advertiser; see advertising allowance, dealer allowance, and promotional allowance

merchandising service   a broad range of advice and help made available to advertisers and agencies by the media in which the advertising is to appear; e.g., suggestions for the type of copy, position within the vehicle, use of color, viewer or reader tastes, and other matters related to advertising effectiveness. 

merchant wholesaler   in the distribution channel, a wholesaler who takes title to the products it sells; see agent middleman. 

merge & purge   the process of taking two or more mailing lists and eliminating duplicate names; for direct marketing or other advertising or promotion efforts that use different mailing lists for the same mailing or for the same purpose.  

message   the communication of information via words, symbols, and tone from the sender to the receiver, i.e., from the advertiser to the target audience; consists of persuasive verbal and nonverbal communications designed to influence the target audience. See encoding.    

message channel   see media, media vehicle, and medium. 

message development   the activities and process by which an advertising message is ultimately created in accordance with the established objectives, from the idea stage to the point of execution. 

message distribution   generally, the pattern by which an advertising message is disseminated to the audience, including geographical, timing, and media dispersion.   

message research   an orderly investigation into the effectiveness of advertising communications, including the gathering and analysis of data relating to the different message variables, the different ways of presenting information, what types of messages influence and persuade the receiver under what conditions, why some message content and formats work better than others, and other matters; the ultimate purpose is to facilitate the design and execution of results-producing advertising. Also called copytesting. Along with media research, constitutes the discipline of advertising research. See advertising research, copytesting, and media research. Also see focus group and depth interview. 

message sidedness   see one-sided message and two-sided message. 

message strategy   in achieving advertising goals and objectives, what the advertising will say and how it will say it; see creative brief. 

message wearout   see wearout. 

message weight   the gross number or sum of advertising messages delivered by all the media vehicles in a complete media schedule; i.e., the size of the combined target audiences reached by all media vehicles in a single media plan. May be expressed as gross impressions or gross rating points. May be determined for individual media vehicles. Also referred to as advertising weight. See gross impressions, and gross rating points (GRP). 

metaphor marketing   in advertising research, a technique that asks respondents to make a collage or select pictures (provided by the researcher) that describe their attitudes toward something such as a brand, or simply asking a question such as “If Nike were a dog, what kind of dog would it be?” “Reebok? adidas? Puma? New Balance? Asics? Converse?” Another example: “If Nokia were a particular style of house, what would it be?” “Nextel? Samsung? Sprint? Ericsson? RadioShack? Sanyo?” An attempt to elicit a comparison of brands by having consumers reference images of other products.  

meter   a device attached to a television set which automatically monitors and records whether the set is on or off, the station to which the set is tuned, and the time.  

metered-market overnights   refers specifically to Nielsen’s local metered-market television ratings from the 55 television markets nationwide that have households with set-tuning meters; these ratings are available the morning after the day or evening of a telecast. See Nielsen Media Research, metered markets, overnight ratings, People Meter, set-tuning meter, diary method, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. Additional television markets are added periodically. 

metered markets   the 55 (and increasing) local markets where Nielsen Media Research uses set-tuning meters (not People Meters) to report household television ratings; the set-tuning meters used in these local markets are supplemented with diary data. See diary method, metered-market overnights, Nielsen Media Research, People Meter, set-tuning meter, overnight ratings, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

methodology   see research methodology. 

me-too marketing   see copycat marketer. 

me-too product   a product very similar to another brand, offering no distinctly different features, except possibly a lower price; often patterned after the market leader. Sometimes referred to as a knockoff, except that a knockoff always has a lower price, whereas the me-too product may not. Also called a parity product. 

metrics   see marketing metrics.    

metro area   see metropolitan area. 

metro edition   an edition of a national magazine that goes only to a particular city in the United States, i.e., Newsweek has editions that go to 40 of the major cities in the U.S.; the advertiser can buy space in the metro edition without having to purchase any larger circulation. A type of partial-run edition. See demographic edition, regional edition, and state edition. 

metro rating   in television and radio advertising, a program’s rating in a metropolitan area; see metropolitan area. 

metro rating area (MRA)   a metropolitan television or radio coverage area for television and radio ratings purposes; see metropolitan area.      

metro survey area   in radio audience research, the primary reporting area for local radio used by Arbitron. 

Metropolitan Area (MA)   a core area containing a large population nucleus (i.e., a central city with a population of 50,000 or more), together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core; a definition of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Often referred to as metro area. See Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA), metro rating, and metro rating area. 

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)   a geographical area that includes a city of  at least 50,000 population or an urbanized area of at least 50,000 with a total metropolitan area population of at least 100,000; a definition of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB).  See Metropolitan Area (MA), Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA). 

microenvironment   the forces in the immediate realm of an organization that greatly influence both its short- and long-term marketing efforts; includes forces such as consumers, trade customers, the distribution channel network, suppliers, competitors, various publics, and the company itself. See macroenvironment. 

micromarketing   custom-designed products, strategies, and marketing programs aimed at satisfying the needs, wants, and tastes of a very specific target market; the focus may be individuals or geographic locations. The opposite of mass marketing.  See mass marketing, differentiation, market segmentation, target marketing, and niche marketing.  

microsite   on the Web, a miniature, stand-alone web site within a web site; e.g., a separate web site for a specific product or brand that exists along with the corporate web site, accessible via its own URL or from the main corporate web site. Can be a good way to reach and tailor a site to key customer segments, especially smaller ones, without subjecting them to the large volumes of information on the company’s main web site. 

middle billboard   a brief announcement somewhere in the middle of a broadcast program in the form of “The following portion of this program is brought to you by (sponsor’s name).” See open billboard and close billboard. 

middle break   in television, a station identification or a commercial at the mid-point of a program. 

middleman   an intermediary or firm between the manufacturer and the customer that facilitates the flow of goods from producer to user by performing a variety of functions; a wholesaler, distributor, broker, agent, dealer, retailer or other intermediary that buys products for the purpose of reselling them. Also called an intermediary or reseller. 

middleman functions   in distribution channels, the several roles played by intermediaries in getting the product from manufacturer to customer; functions involve activities related to: information, promotion, contact, relationships, matching, negotiation, physical distribution, financing, and risk-taking. See middleman, service wholesaler, limited-function wholesaler, and retailer. 

Miller-Tydings Act   a federal fair trade law, enacted in 1937, that allowed manufacturers to dictate the resale price of a product; though price-fixing per se was unlawful under the Sherman Act, this law exempted from the Sherman Act contracts and agreements between manufacturers and resellers that prescribed minimum prices for resale of the manufacturer’s products, thereby allowing manufacturers to establish the price at which retailers were to sell the product to consumers. Declared unconstitutional and repealed in 1975, by passage of the Consumer Goods Pricing Act. See fair trade. 

milline rate   in newspaper advertising, the cost of one agate line reaching one million readers; an expression of the rate for advertising space relative to circulation. To calculate: agate line rate divided by the circulation times 1,000,000. Facilitates cost-efficiency comparisons of newspapers with different circulations. See agate line. 

mini-mall   see strip mall.

minimil rate   in newspaper advertising, the cost of an agate line of space at the lowest milline rate, i.e., after all discounts; see agate line, maximil rate, and milline rate. 

minimum depth requirement   a requirement of some newspapers that calls for an advertisement having certain height-width proportions, such as an ad being at least one inch high for every column it is wide; for example, an ad that is three columns wide must be at least three inches high. See maximum depth requirement. 

minimum frequency   the lowest level of audience exposure needed for the advertising to have effect or achieve its objectives; see Three-hit Theory. 

minimum showing   in outdoor advertising, the smallest-sized showing an advertiser may purchase without being charged on a per-ad basis, which is generally more expensive; see showing. 

minority marketing   marketing programs and efforts directed specifically to minority groups within the total population; also referred to as diversity marketing, ethnic marketing, or special-interest marketing.  

minute-by-minute profile   television program audience data that show viewership during specific minutes of a particular program, and the increases and decreases that occur in each minute or block of minutes of the program; a service of Nielsen Media Research. 

misleading advertising   see deceptive advertising. 

misredemption   reimbursement for a coupon (face value for the consumer or handling charge for the retailer) without sale of the product to which the coupon applied; sometimes a case of consumer or retailer fraud. Examples: use of a coupon whose expiration date has passed, purchasing a size other than that stipulated on the coupon, passing counterfeit coupons, or the retailer amassing coupons and sending them to the manufacturer for reimbursement without having sold the product.  

misrepresentation  an advertising, promotion, or other marketing practice in which a message is misleading to a reasonable consumer and is a factor that confuses the consumer’s decision-making process, perhaps resulting in a purchase decision that would have been different were it not for the improper slanting of the message or presentation. See deceptive advertising. 

missionary selling   a sales position or efforts dedicated primarily to providing support services for the dealer, as opposed to seeking orders; such non-selling activities may include sales training for retail salespeople, help in store layout and merchandising programs, assistance with the retailer’s advertising and promotion efforts on behalf of a particular product. See field marketing and non-selling activities. 

mixed-media approach   the use of a combination of several different media types in the same advertising campaign; see media mix. 

mnemonic device   visual devices or other cues in advertising that are intended to facilitate the audience’s memory about a particular product or benefit; an attempt to make the advertising memorable by use of symbols, pictures, rhymes, characters, associations, sounds, and other cues. For example: Aunt Jemima, the Jolly Green Giant, Charlie the tuna for Starkist, Tony the tiger for Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes, or the NBC chimes.  

mobile advertising   an advertising message that is moved from one location to another; see mobile billboard and mobile media. 

mobile billboard   an advertising sign that is transported by a motor vehicle  from one location to another; e.g., a sign painted on or affixed to an automobile that is driven to a particular event and parked at that location or a flatbed truck with a billboard that goes from event to event. The sign may be parked at a specific venue or may be driven around to particular locales or simply back-and-forth on busy roads and highways. Also a popular term, along with rolling billboard, referring to an auto race car with signs and decals affixed to it. See rolling billboard and truckside advertising. 

mobile media   any advertising medium or vehicle capable of moving from one location to another while displaying an advertiser’s message; see mobile billboard. 

mobile sampling   a sales promotion activity in which a sampling program is undertaken with the aid of a vehicle that travels around and dispenses samples, coupons, and other promotions to consumers; the vehicle, usually with the company logo, brand name and colors, campaign slogan, and the like painted on it, visits shopping malls, recreational areas, sports venues, fairgrounds, and other areas where crowds gather.  

mockup   a close representation or simulation of the real thing, such as an advertisement, a package, or a point-of-purchase display; a model produced to scale. 

mode   in a series of numbers, the one number that appears most often; 33 in the series 42, 38, 34, 34, 33, 33, 33, 33, 31, 29, 27. See mean and median.  

modem   an electronic device that can be used to connect computers and terminals over communication lines; permits incoming signals to be read by a computer and outgoing signals to be read by a telephone line for transmission.  

moderate (medium) users   consumers who purchase and use a product or service in much quantities somewhere between heavy usage and light usage, in contrast to heavy users, light users, or non-users. 

moderator   see focus group moderator. 

monadic communications   non-personal and indirect communications between two parties; e.g., the advertiser that places its message in a magazine. See dyadic communications. 

monitoring   constant vigilance of markets and marketing activities to ascertain current conditions, trends, and any relevant change; see tracking. 

monitoring service   an organization that continuously examines magazines, newspapers, and other publications for mention of a company’s name; typically employed by the advertiser on a contract basis. Also called a clipping service. The broadcast media equivalent is called a broadcast monitoring service. See clipping service. 

monopole   in out-of-home advertising, a display mounted on a single pole; also called a unipole. 

monopolistic competition   a market structure characterized by a relatively large number of competitors (the great majority of which have a small market share), reasonably easy entry to the market, differentiated products, limited control over price, heavy emphasis on non-price competition such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, branding, distribution, product, and service; e.g., most apparel, household furniture, virtually the entire retail trade in metropolitan areas. See pure competition, pure monopoly, and oligopolistic competition  

Monroe Mendelsohn Research   a leading provider of a very wide range of custom and syndicated research in all phases of marketing and advertising; among research efforts are studies relating to new and existing products, customer satisfaction, package testing, positioning, market segmentation, concept testing, test market evaluation, advertising and promotion program evaluation, tracking, copy testing, and all types of media research. Known simply as Mendelsohn. 

month preceding   in magazine advertising, a closing date specification meaning one month before the publication date of the magazine; see closing date. 

monthly promotional calendar   a retailer’s month-by-month schedule of sales, special events, and other promotions and event; used as a planning device and to coordinate appropriate media advertising efforts with store promotions. 

morning   in the television broadcast day, the time period 6:00A.M.-9:00A.M.; see dayparts (television). 

morning drive time   in the radio broadcast day, the time period 6:00am-10:00am; see dayparts (radio). 

morphing   a computer-driven technique by which the form or image of an object or person is transformed into another form or image as part of the television commercial; e.g., transforming the face of an ordinary individual to that of an instantly-recognized celebrity, such as a young boy on a golf course transformed into Tiger Woods.  

motive   the particular stimulus or driving force that causes an individual to take action toward a goal; see emotional motives and rational motives. 

motivation   the process by which consumers internally initiate action to satisfy needs, wants, and desires; the individual’s inner drive that moves him or her to goal-directed behavior. 

motivation research   in marketing and advertising research, a qualitative investigation of how and why individuals act as they do in making marketplace decisions; an attempt to determine the inner drive and reasons underlying a consumer’s marketplace behavior and actions.   

moving letter sign   a horizontal panel containing lights which, when illuminated successively, or in a streaming fashion, give the impression they are moving. 

multibranding   a brand strategy in which the marketer introduces a new brand in the same product category it currently serves; e.g., Black & Decker power tools with its DeWalt power tool line, Seiko watches with its Pulsar line, Bulova watches with its Accutron line, Procter & Gamble and its many detergent brands, as well as ConAgra with its many meal entrée brands, plus Sara Lee Company with an intimate apparel line that includes Hanes, Wonderbra, Bali, Playtex, Lovable, JustMySize, and Dim, in addition to a packaged meats line that includes a Sara Lee brand along with the Jimmy Dean, Hillshire Farm, Bryan Foods, and Ball Park Foods brands. Also called a flanker brand. See brand strategy, line extension, brand extension, and new-brand strategy. 

multichannel distribution system   a distribution system in which a producer uses two or more marketing channels to get its product to market, either to different or the same target market; see dual distribution and hybrid marketing system. 

multicultural agency   an advertising agency with capabilities for serving two or more distinctly different ethnic markets, national origins, or markets with different social and value systems; e.g., an American agency, also serving the Hispanic market, African-American market, and international markets. 

multimagazine deal   a situation in which two or more publishers give an advertiser the opportunity to buy space in their magazines with one media buy rather than separate transactions; e.g., Conde-Nast and Fairchild publications that appeal to fashion-conscious women. Also called cross-magazine advertising deal. See magazine network. 

multimedia buy   whenever an advertiser uses a variety of different media in its schedule; the purchase of advertising time and/or space in more than one medium or media vehicle owned by a media supplier, e.g., buying television time and magazine space from a media supplier who owns both, or buying space in several magazines owned by the same media supplier. Examples: News Corp’s (Murdoch) cable television stations Fox Movie Channel, Fox Sports World, Fox News Channel, National Geographic Channel, along with The Weekly Standard magazine, and the New York Post newspaper; or Conde Nast’s House & Garden, The New Yorker, GQ, Wired, and Self. On a smaller scale, in a given local market, the same company may own a television station, radio station, and  a local newspaper. Also called cross-media advertising. 

multimedia promotion program   a marketing communications program that uses a broad range of delivery mechanisms for the advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing (including Internet), public relations, and personal selling components of the program; a campaign involving a mix of traditional and non-traditional media, rich media, videos, CDs, displays, Internet, and others. 

multinational advertising   see international advertising. 

multiple buying influence   a situation when more than one individual has input and weight on a purchase decision; generally refers to the purchase decisions involving business products, but also includes consumer product decisions. 

multiple distribution channels system   see multichannel distribution system. 

multiple target market approach   identifying, evaluating, selecting, and then marketing to two or more market segments with a different marketing mix for each target segment; see differentiated marketing and single target market approach. 

multiple-choice questions   structured research questions in which each question has several possible answers provided and the respondent must select the one that he or she thinks best answers the question. 

multiple-facing   in outdoor advertising, one location where there are two or more displays within 25 feet of each other and facing the same direction; may be used by the same advertiser for two different product messages or by two different advertisers. 

multiple-rating list   on a research questionnaire, a format that allows several factors or items to be rated using the same scale; done to save questionnaire space and respondent time. Example: a list of items for which ratings are sought in the far left column and four other columns to the right, with each of the four headed by a different response category (the four columns may be titled strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree) to make it easy and convenient for the respondent to place a checkmark in the appropriate place for each item. 

multiple-response questions   structured research questions in which each question has several possible answers provided and the respondent may select as many of the answers as he or she sees fit or thinks apply.

multiplexing   in cable television, where several channels are transmitted by the same cable network; e.g., Disney, with The Disney Channel, ESPN, ESPN2, Classic Sports Network, A & E Television, The History Channel and Lifetime Television or Discover Communications, with The Discover Channel, The Learning Channel, The Travel Channel, Animal Planet, and Bravo. 

municipal marketing   a company’s advertising and promotion efforts in which it is linked to community activities and services, such as sponsorship of local parks and recreation programs; Pepsi’s or Reebok’s association with an inner city neighborhood summer basketball league or Titleist’s sponsorship of a “Learn to Play Golf” summer program for a city’s teenagers. 

musical commercial   see jingle. 

musical logo   a jingle that immediately identifies a particular company or product in the mind of the consumer; e.g., “Campbell’s soup is ‘mm good, ” the  “In the valley of the, ho-ho-ho, Green Giant” for Jolly Green Giant foods, or the Doublemint gum song. See jingle. 

mystery shopper studies   the practice of professional shoppers making  shopping trips to stores to evaluate the quality of the personal selling effort and other service factors; a research technique used by manufacturers to see how effectively their products (and competing products) are being handled at the retail level, as well as by retailers interested in assessing competing stores’ selling efforts. Also referred to as shadow shopping.