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IAA   see International Advertising Association. 

IAB   see Interactive Advertising Bureau.  

IBC   see inside back cover. 

ID   see station identification. 

IFC   see inside front cover. 

IMC   see integrated marketing communications. 

IRI   see Information Resources, Inc. 

ISP   see Internet Service Provider. 

iceberg principle   the idea that the greater part of the problem is often hidden from view, i.e., the more valuable information is that which is not immediately apparent; the major part of a problem or situation is not readily apparent, rather is below the surface. 

idea advertising   non-product advertising, such as that for environmental issues, anti-substance abuse, gun control, or nutrition awareness; see product advertising, non-product advertising, and services advertising. 

idea generation   the first stage of  the new-product development process, in which ideas are elicited from a variety of sources, such as marketing research, customers, competitors, intermediaries, suppliers, research and development, and the sales force; see new-product development process, idea screening, concept testing, market evaluation, product development, marketing plan, market testing, and commercialization. 

idea screening   the second stage of the new-product development process, in which each product idea that has been generated is judged on criteria such as its potential strengths and weaknesses, how well it would fit with the company’s objectives and mission, its compatibility with market trends, and a rough estimate of its potential for an acceptable return-on-investment (ROI); see new-product development process, idea generation, concept testing, market evaluation, product development, marketing plan, market testing, and commercialization.  

ideal self   a person’s idea of what he or she would like to be; see self image. 

ideation   the process of forming and conceptualizing new and improved ideas and approaches to marketing issues and problems. 

identical-store sales   see same-store sales.

identification commercial (ID)   a short (:10) spot television or radio commercial aired during a station break, often with the station’s call letters tagged on at the end (“station break”); the commercial is actually eight seconds in length, with the other two seconds for the station identification. 

identity media   a variety of visual means, other than those associated with the common methods and activities of marketing communications, through which a company calls attention to itself by providing instant recognition of the company or organization name; e.g., company logo, stationery, business cards, uniforms, rolling stock (trucks, delivery vans). 

illuminated panel   an outdoor poster or billboard that is lighted during the evening hours to permit easy visibility of an advertising message; lighting usually operates dusk to midnight. See billboard. 

illustration   in print advertising, any of a number of different drawings, sketches, diagrams, figures, photographs, or other representations that are a component of an advertisement. 

illustrator   the person who makes the pictures used in advertising. 

image   what the consumer thinks, as a result of seeing, hearing about, or otherwise coming into contact with an organization, product, or service; the entire collection of thoughts wrapped into a single mental picture from the consumer’s viewpoint. See brand image, perceived value, and perception. 

image advertising   see corporate advertising. 

image analysis   an appraisal of the various beliefs and impressions held by individuals toward a company, product, service, or any activity. 

I-marketing   see on-line marketing. 

IMC audit   research that completely investigates and appraises all aspects of a marketing communications program. 

immediate-response advertising   see direct-response advertising. 

impact   the effect an advertising message or program has on the target audience; see penetration. 

impact advertising   advertising designed to deliver a particularly forceful message and to register with the audience in an especially powerful way that consumers immediately take notice; a message that packs a wallop by virtue of what is said and how it is said. 

impact plan   see total audience plan (TAP). 

impact scheduling   in television or radio advertising, running the same commercial (or very similar commercials) within a short period of time on a given program, often within the same pod, or group of commercials between segments of a program; see pod. 

impersonal communications   see nonpersonal communications.  

implementation   see marketing implementation. 

impression   one exposure of the advertising message, i.e., any time an individual is exposed to a commercial message. 

impression stream   see ad stream. 

impressions   the total number of audience exposures, including duplication, to all media vehicles in a complete media schedule, with one exposure  =  one impression; in Internet advertising, refers to the number of times an ad banner or other ad is viewed, including duplication (also referred to as an ad view). See gross impressions. 

imprint   see dealer imprint; also, in outdoor advertising, refers to the small sign at the bottom (or top) of an outdoor poster identifying the owner of the billboard. 

impulse purchase   an unplanned, purchase, with the consumer making a spur-of-the-moment, spontaneous in-store decision to buy. 

in period   in a flighting pattern of media scheduling, the time period in which there is advertising activity; see flighting and out period. 

in-and-out promotion   a retail promotion that lasts for a very short time, often one or two days; intended as a store traffic-builder or as a merchandise sell-out. 

in-ad coupon   a manufacturer’s coupon included as part of a retailer’s advertisement and redeemable only at that store or, sometimes, at a select group of stores identified in the advertisement. 

in-aisle display   at the retail level, a point-of-purchase display located in an aisle between shelves. 

inbound telemarketing   in telemarketing, handling the details associated with order-taking; e.g., a consumer makes a selection from a catalog and telephones the order to customer service. See outbound telemarketing and telemarketing. 

incentive   any of a wide variety of sales promotion tools designed to motivate the trade, dealers, or the sales force to an activity, cooperation, or other response desired by the advertiser; used to increase the likelihood of positive action. Can also refer to consumer sales promotion efforts. Also called an inducement. 

incentive-based method of agency compensation   see performance-based method of agency compensation.    

inch rate   in newspaper advertising, the cost of an advertisement based on space that measures one inch deep and one column wide; sometimes called daily inch rate. See column inch and Standard Advertising Unit (SAU).

incoming posters   the outdoor advertising posters seen by the traffic entering a central business district; as opposed to outgoing posters. 

inducement   see incentive. 

incremental cost   see incremental effect. 

incremental effect   the additional or extra sales or other response such as contributions to a cause, volunteer sign-ups, or membership registrations achieved by virtue of a particular activity, such as a burst of advertising, an additional sales representative, a point-of-purchase display, a sampling program, or other promotion effort, in which the sales jump can be attributed directly to that tactic and which would not have occurred without it. Applies in same way to costs incurred as a result of a particular activity or program. 

incremental sales   see incremental effect. 

identification   see station identification (ID) and network identification. 

independent agency   a stand-alone advertising or other promotion services firm, not owned by another firm. 

independent products   goods that are not related to each other; a price change for one has no impact on demand for the other. Examples: peanut butter and paint, fountain pens and tomatoes, lawn fertilizer and bicycles. Also called unrelated products. See substitute products and complementary products.    

independent station   a television or radio station not affiliated with a network; also called an indie. See network. 

independent variable   in research to determine a cause-and-effect relationship, the variable that is considered to affect some other variable; e.g., the level of advertising dollars spent (independent variable) and the effect on sales (dependent variable) or a particular message execution format (independent variable) and its effect on a brand’s image (dependent variable). See dependent variable and experimental method. 

in-depth interview   see depth interview. 

index number   a ratio or number that indicates the potential of a particular market; generally, a percentage above or below the national average. The measure of difference, usually expressed as a percent, between one variable of a specific kind to another variable of the same kind, i.e., a number indicating the relationship between a particular factor and a base (which has a value of 100). For marketing use, the ratio helps to show a market’s potential. Example: with data in hand on “favorite brand” of domestic beer, broken down by age groups, we see an index number of 143 under Budweiser for individuals 25-34, the interpretation is that individuals 25-34 are 43 percent more likely than the rest of the total adult population to have Budweiser at their favorite beer (an index number of 85 would mean they are 15 percent less likely…).  

indies   independent advertising agencies, or agencies that have not merged or consolidated with others, retaining independent ownership; may also refer to an independent television or radio station, i.e., one not affiliated with a network. 

indirect advertising   sometimes used to refer to promotion of a product in a way such as putting the Caterpillar brand name on clothing. 

indirect channel   see indirect distribution. 

indirect distribution   the use of intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, or retailers to get a manufacturer’s product to the target customer; see direct distribution. 

indirect questioning   see disguised research. 

individual brand   when a manufacturer’s products are marketed under separate brand names; e.g., General Mills’ Cheerios and Total cereals, Procter & Gamble’s Crest toothpaste, Bold and Cheer detergents, Ivory soap, and Jif peanut butter.  

individual location   in outdoor advertising, a site at which there is only a single billboard or poster structure in the immediate area. 

individual product   See product item.  

indoor panel   an advertising poster or sign on the inside of a stadium, arena, racetrack, terminal, or other building. 

industrial advertising   an organization’s advertising for its products and services directed to industrial firms, mostly manufacturers, i.e., to companies that need the advertiser’s products and services to produce other products for eventual distribution. 

industrial goods   products used in the production of other products. 

industrial magazine   a magazine for those people involved in manufacturing and services; see business publication. 

industrial market   the market for goods and services that consists of manufacturers, businesses, and other organizations, rather than individual consumers; the totality of individuals and companies that buy or are genuine prospects to buy products for use in the production of other goods. In contrast to the consumer market. See business market and consumer market 

industrial marketing   marketing programs and activities aimed at individuals and organizations who purchase products and services for use in the production of other products for purposes of resale. Commonly called business marketing or B2B. See business marketing and consumer marketing. 

industrial product   a product bought for use in running a business or an organization, i.e., not for personal consumption. 

industry analysis   an investigation and evaluation of the characteristics, practices, and trends in a particular industry that are likely to impact an advertiser’s advertising and promotion plan; an important section of a marketing communications plan. See integrated marketing communications plan. 

Industry Guides and Trade Regulation Rules   a publication of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) that provides up-to-date information about FTC rules and regulations; important source of information for advertisers, agencies, and the media. 

industry self-regulation   see self-regulation. 

inelastic demand   a situation in which a specific percentage change in price results in a smaller percentage change in quantity demanded; i.e., consumer demand for the product or service is not price-sensitive. Example: a three percent increase in price leads to a one percent decrease in the quantity demanded or a situation where a five percent decrease in price leads to a two percent increase in the quantity demanded. Differentiation driven by advertising is thought to make demand more inelastic. See elastic demand, skimming price policy, and penetration price policy.               

inflatables   three-dimensional gas-filled displays, usually at point-of-sale or special event locations; often in the form of a product or trademarked character. 

in-flight advertising   advertising activities directed at airline passengers during the time they are in the air. 

in-flight magazine   see in-flight media. 

in-flight media   advertising media that aim at airline travelers during flight, the most common of which is the airline’s own magazine published for its passengers; also includes, movies and promotional specialties such as playing cards or other items with the airline’s logo (i.e., “identity media”). See in-transit media. 

in-focus exposure time   the amount of time a company or product name is clearly visible on the television screen during the broadcast of an event such as a golf tournament, an auto race, tennis match, or a baseball game; e.g., a golf equipment manufacturer’s name or logo on a golfer’s hat or bag, or a sponsor’s name painted on a race car. Amount of time the name is clearly visible to the viewer is then converted to its advertising value had the advertiser-sponsor purchased an equivalent amount of actual advertising time on that telecast. Comparable value is ultimately derived from combining the exact visual time and sponsor mentions and comparing it to the broadcaster’s non-discounted rate per :30 commercial, i.e., what the combined in-focus exposure time and sponsor mentions would have cost the sponsor to purchase commercial time on the telecast. A service of Joyce Julius & Associates. See media equivalencies, Sponsors Report, NTIV Analysis, and Joyce Julius & Associates. 

infomercial   a promotion for a product set in an entertaining television program format, usually on cable television, featuring information about a product, demonstrations, testimonials, and a sales pitch aimed at direct response from the audience; typically 30 minutes in length or, in some cases, one hour. Essentially, an unconventional form of television commercial for a product. Also called paid programming and program-length commercial. See advertorial. 

informal balance   in print advertising, an advertisement with components of nonequally-weighted size, shape, design, and color placed at varying distances from the optical center of the advertisement, i.e., arranged in an asymmetrical manner; as opposed to formal balance, in which all elements are equally distributed in weight throughout the entire ad, in perfect symmetry. Also called asymmetric balance. See formal balance. 

informal group   a loosely organized collection of individuals whose association with one another is based on friendship and involves considerable face-to-face interaction; e.g., a bowling group or a bridge-playing group. See formal group, primary group, secondary group, and reference group. 

informal research   see exploratory research. 

information evaluation stage   the third stage in the consumer decision process, often done simultaneously with the second state, or information search; alternatives and information are weighed and evaluated according to criteria established by the consumer, such as how brands compare as to suitability, features, price, image, degree of need satisfaction, and other factors. See consumer decision process.  

information highway   the entire collection of channels and means by which marketers communicate with their audiences; the complete set of routes the marketer uses to carry its message to its target audience. Truly a super-highway linked by interconnected paths. 

information processing   the activity by which consumers receive, organize, and interpret information to form judgments from various sources, such as advertising, sales promotion, or friends, in the process of making marketplace decisions and choices; heavily influenced by the importance of the particular decision being made by the consumer, i.e., whether it is a high-involvement or low-involvement purchase decision or whether it is complex or limited problem-solving. Also referred to as cognitive processing. See cognitive learning theory and cognitive responses. 

Information Resources, Inc. (IRI)   a major provider of marketing research information through its store tracking service involving a huge range of consumer packaged goods, with analysis and insights relevant to sales, market share, distribution, pricing, as well as advertising and promotion; also maintains a huge database on individual consumer purchase behavior, because it collects, analyzes, and interprets a wide array of data on all aspects of consumer behavior through tracking the more than 55,000 household consumers who make up a panel. Company brands include InfoScan (store tracking) and BehaviorScan (consumer behavior tracking).  

information search stage   the second stage of the consumer decision process, when the consumer investigates information to aid in making the right decision in satisfying a need or want; information is sought on products, brands, stores, prices, and other factors the consumer believes relevant to a good decision.  See consumer decision process. 

informational appeals   see rational appeals. 

informative advertising   advertising whose basic purpose is to familiarize or educate the target audience about a new or existing product, as opposed to an attempt to persuade or exhort the audience to action; often involves an attempt to build primary demand. Also called pioneering advertising. See persuasive advertising and reminder advertising. 

informative power   generally, the ability of a commercial or advertisement to deliver a cogent message. 

informed decision making   the state in which the consumer makes marketplace decisions based on information collected about a product. 

InfoScan   a store tracking service, using scanner-based marketing and sales information, that provides marketers and advertisers with detailed information on sales, share, distribution, pricing and promotion for hundreds of product categories; the service also includes consumer behavior tracking through a 55,000-member household panel. A single-source data system. A product of Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). See Information Resources, Inc. (IRI), BehaviorScan, and single-source data.    

ingredient branding   when advertising or other promotion identifies a brand name of a product that is a component of another branded product; a variant of co-branding where branded materials are contained within other branded products. Examples: Briggs & Stratton engines in a Toro lawnmower, Beech-Nut baby foods with Chiquita bananas, Aunt Jemima waffles with Quaker oatmeal, Yoplait yogurt with Trix cereal, Post Raisin Bran cereal with Sun-Maid raisins.  

ingredient labeling   information appearing on a consumer product’s package identifying the contents. 

ingredient-sponsored cooperative advertising   advertising jointly sponsored by a raw materials or component manufacturer and the end-product producer whose final product contains said material or component; designed to help promote the fact that the end product uses the company’s materials or components. For example, “Intel Inside” and Compaq computers, “Teflon Non-Stick” and Revere cookware, or “Gore-Tex” and Nike running suits.

inherited audience   see holdover audience. 

in-home audience   exposure to advertising and media in the home, rather than out-of-home; e.g., radio listeners in the home vs. cars or offices, or magazine readers (subscribers and newsstand buyers) in the home vs. waiting rooms or libraries. 

in-house agency   an advertising agency owned or controlled by the advertiser; the agency is organized and staffed to operate in the manner of an independent full-service agency, equipped to plan and execute all or some of the company’s advertising and promotion program. Sometimes called a house agency. 

in-house regulation   a form of self-regulation involving internal efforts by an individual organization to establish standards of acceptability for operating in the best interests of consumers and in a competitively-responsible way and, within that framework, to review all advertising and marketing practices prior to launch; see federal regulation, state regulation, local regulation, and self-regulation.  

ink   refers to the press coverage given to an event, advertising campaign, product, individual, or any other marketing-related element; often called PR or publicity. 

in-kind sponsorship deal   in sponsorship, a company’s payment of the sponsorship fee in goods or services instead of cash; e.g., an automobile company that provides transportation for participants and volunteers in a golf tournament in lieu of a cash payment, a power tool company that provides the power tools and one of its expert personnel to assist the host for a television station’s “do-it-yourself” carpentry program, a wireless communications products company providing the communications equipment for an event, or an airline that provides transportation for the announcers and technicians for a football contest, all in lieu of a cash payment. See sponsorship. 

inline ad   in internet advertising, an advertiser’s online advertorial positioned within a web site. 

in-magazine test   in magazine advertising testing, a technique by which respondents are asked to go through a particular magazine and point out those advertisements he or she remembers seeing; see recognition method. 

in-market assessment   in advertising research, studying and measuring on-going advertising plans and strategies; see tracking study. 

innovation   new product, services, or ideas; see adoption process, adopter categories, and diffusion process. 

innovators   the first group of the adopter categories in the diffusion process of new products, services, or ideas, i.e., the earliest purchasers of a new product; those individuals most willing to accept the risks associated with trying a new product. See adoption process, adopter categories, adoption curve, diffusion process, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. 

in-out display   see temporary display. 

in-pack coupon   a coupon inserted into a product’s package and available only when the buyer opens the package; see coupon. 

in-pack premium   an item or other offer inserted into a product’s package and available only when the buyer open the package; see premium. 

in-program placement   in television advertising, commercial time that is scheduled within the particular program, as opposed to immediately preceding or following the program during the break; see adjacency. 

inquiry   a response direct from the message recipient to the advertiser, normally in response to an advertisement or commercial, or public relations piece; response may be by telephone, mail-in, or in person, and usually involves a request for more information about a promotional offer or other subject of the message. 

inquiry test   a method of testing the effectiveness of a promotional program, especially advertising and public relations efforts, by tabulating the number of responses made by the audience, such as a request for information. 

insert   an ad, card, brochure, or other promotional piece, usually on heavier paper stock, placed inside a magazine, newspaper, or direct mail envelope. 

insertion   an advertisement in a newspaper or magazine. 

insertion order   formal written instructions, specifications, and authorization from the advertiser or its agency to the print media vehicle to run an advertisement of a certain size on a particular date at an agreed-upon price and, if applicable, in a preferred position; the advertising copy may accompany the insertion order or follow soon thereafter. See media schedule and media scheduling. 

insertion schedule   see media schedule. 

inset   a graphics or artwork element, including a photo, placed inside another graphics or art element (often in a little box) or which is surrounded by type, giving it a boxy appearance. 

inside back cover (IBC)   the inside of a magazine’s back cover, an advertising position that commands a premium rate; also called the third cover. See inside front cover and outside back cover. 

inside card   advertising placed on the interior of a bus, train, or transit car; see car card. 

inside front cover (IFC)   the inside of the front cover of a magazine, an advertising position that commands a premium rate; also known as the second cover. See inside back cover and outside back cover. 

inside panel   in a multi-poster showing at a given location, any billboard in the group except the one closest to traffic; see outside panel. 

instant coupon   a coupon attached to the outside of a product’s package and easily removable and redeemable at the checkout counter for the current purchase; can also refer to coupons distributed to the consumer by other means inside the store. See in-store couponing. 

Instantaneous Audimeter   see Audimeter. 

Institute of Outdoor Advertising   see Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). 

institutional advertising   an advertising message that promotes the image, reputation, and ideas of the company or organization as opposed to the firm’s products and services; typically is the focus of the entire advertisement or commercial, though such copy may be woven into the firm’s product advertising to provide reassurance and to gain the confidence and trust of the target audience. See corporate advertising. 

institutional copy   a form of body copy that focuses on the advertiser’s organization rather than the merits of its product; may be used in combination with selling copy for the product or as the entire focus of the message in institutional advertising. See body copy and institutional advertising. 

institutional market   consists of organizations such as schools and hospitals, or organizations whose mission is to care for and to serve people on its premises.     

in-store couponing   the distribution of coupons to customers inside the store, by means of shelf dispensers, electronic dispensers at check-out, handouts, and other ways. 

in-store media   the range of advertising and promotion vehicles that are deployed inside a store to reach the consumer while shopping; e.g., point-of-purchase displays, shopping carts, window, wall, and ceiling banners, loudspeakers, coupon dispensers, shelf signs, and in-store radio advertising. 

in-store promotions   a catch-all term for the wide variety of sales promotion and advertising efforts that occur at the point of purchase; includes activities such as in-store sampling, displays, features, and electronic promotions. See out-of-store promotions. 

in-store sampling   a sales promotion activity that involves distributing free trial portions or sizes of a product to customers inside the store; e.g., food products or cosmetics. 

in-tab sample   in radio audience research, the number of usable diaries actually tabulated to produce an Arbitron Radio Market Report. See Arbitron. 

integrated marketing communications   a cohesive combination of marketing communications activities, techniques, and media designed to deliver a coordinated message to a target market with a powerful and synergistic effect while achieving a common objective or set of objectives; see integrated marketing communications plan and marketing communications campaign.   

integrated marketing communications plan   a comprehensive blueprint that coordinates the activities and tools of marketing communications – advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling – to deliver a consistent and persuasive message to the target audience; i.e., coordination of the promotion mix elements, within the context of the marketing mix, to convey a consistent and unified message, all designed to achieve a common objective(s). 

InTeleTest   in advertising research, a television commercial copytesting service that yields validated, evaluative, and full-sample diagnostic information in one system; television commercials are exposed using an at-home, in-program context via VCR cassettes among widely dispersed samples. A product of Gallup and Robinson (G&R). See copytesting, Gallup and Robinson (G&R), In-View Test, Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS), and Advertising Response Modeling (ARM). 

intelligence   see marketing intelligence. 

IntelliQuest   a leading research company providing data for the high-tech, Internet, and wireless communications industries; uses consumer panels and tracking to serve a broad range of research and information needs.  

intensity   in outdoor advertising, the extent to which the poster locations provide coverage of a particular market; a 100 showing  =  100 intensity. Also refers to the amount of advertising effort in a given period of time. 

intensive distribution   a marketing strategy whereby a manufacturer sells its product in most every possible location to virtually any retailer who is willing to carry it, given quite minimum standards that must be met by the available retailers; also called mass distribution. See exclusive distribution and selective distribution. 

intention to purchase   the consumer’s expected future action regarding a particular product or service. 

interactive advertising   advertising that allows two-way communications between the advertiser and the consumer via a computer connection. 

Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB)   an association dedicated to serving as the primary advocate for the interactive marketing and advertising industry, serving the needs and interests of interactive marketers and advertisers by establishing guidelines and standards to help make interactive a more attractive advertising choice, and to promote the qualities and effectiveness of interactive advertising to marketers, advertisers, agencies and the press; see interactive advertising.  

interactive agency   advertising and marketing firms specializing in the design and implementation of marketing communications programs that utilize the Internet, interactive kiosks, CD-ROMs, interactive television, and other such media; see interactive marketing and new media. 

interactive display   see interactive media

interactive kiosk   see interactive media and kiosk. 

interactive marketing   a method of promotion or marketing in which the firm or organization customizes its marketing communications to stimulate a traceable and measurable response from individual receivers of a particular message. 

interactive media   a variety of media, including free-standing units such as special displays and kiosks, plus the Internet, through which the consumer can connect with and have a dialogue with the advertiser through a computer hookup, receiving product or other information, asking questions, and even ordering products and services, all on a path and at a pace controlled by the consumer. 

interactive television   describes the ability of a TV viewer to interact with the television set beyond channel selection and videotaping; basically combines traditional TV viewing with communicating via a network (e.g., the Internet). includes playing games, banking and shopping from home, video-on-demand, e-mail, distance learning, videoconferencing, participating in polls and surveys, interacting wagering, instant ordering of pizza from a commercial, and many other applications. 

intercept survey   in marketing or advertising research, a procedure by which respondents are stopped at a given venue such as a shopping mall or an event, and asked to respond to a questionnaire or other research method.    

interconnect   a group of cable systems and cable providers that have joined forces for advertising purposes, selling advertising time on any combination of the linked systems; advertiser gets more economical rates than buying time from the individual cable system or provider. Also called cable interconnect or regional interconnect. 

interest stage   the second stage of the adoption process, in which the consumer gathers information about the product, its features and attributes; see adoption process, awareness stage, evaluation stage, trial stage, and adoption stage

intermedia comparison  comparison of media vehicles, e.g., Time vs. Newsweek. 

intermediary   see middleman. 

intermediary functions   see middleman functions. 

internal agency   see in-house agency. 

internal analysis   as part of the situation analysis, or preliminary investigation of factors relevant to the development of a promotion plan, those elements that involve the company itself and its product and services; e.g., organizational capabilities and resources, previous promotion programs, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the product. See external analysis and situation analysis. 

internal audience   in public relations, the individuals or groups who are inside or have very close relationships with the organization; e.g., employees or the company’s distributors. See external audience. 

internal secondary data   information that comes from inside the company or organization doing the research; see secondary data. 

internal list   in direct marketing, a mailing list compiled from company records, such as those relating to customers, subscribers, donors, or inquirers; see external list. 

internal marketing   programs designed to gain support for an organization through activities and communications directed to the organization’s employees; a marketing program whose intended audience is the firm’s employees. 

internal publication   a company’s house publication published primarily for its own personnel, such as an employee newsletter; also called internal house organ. See house publication. 

internal search   in the consumer decision-making process, the retrieval of information from one’s memory; see external search. 

International Advertising Association (IAA)   a global industry association consisting of advertisers, agencies, the media and related services; major purpose is to promote the critical role and benefits of advertising as an important force behind all healthy economies, and to advance the notion of the significance of diverse, independent, and affordable media. 

international advertising   advertising directed to individuals in foreign countries or markets; preparing and placing advertising in different markets across throughout the world. See global advertising.  

international agency   an advertising agency with offices in foreign countries, capable of delivering the full range of advertising services needed by clients operating in a particular country or foreign market. Also referred to as a global agency.  

international marketing   the marketing of goods and services in markets outside a company’s home country; see global marketing.  

international markets   the different markets, or customers and potential customers, located in foreign countries; e.g., consumer market or business market. Also called global markets. 

international media   media capable of delivering large or relevant audiences in various foreign countries; e.g., a television network or a magazine that goes into several foreign countries.  Also called global media. 

Internet   a vast worldwide system of interconnected government, education, business, and other computer networks that permits a computer user (with a modem) to have instantaneous communications with other people, organizations, or information sources, as well as to engage in a wide variety of applications; a worldwide network of computers linked together so they can communicate with each other. See World Wide Web. 

Internet advertising   commercial messages that appear on websites. 

Internet marketing   see on-line marketing. 

Internet promotions   promotions on the Internet that appear on manufacturer-, retailer-, or other marketer-sponsored Web sites.  

Internet Service Provider (ISP)   a service that provides access to and use of the Internet; e.g., AmericaOnline (AOL). 

interpersonal communications   the two-way face-to-face exchange of information between individuals; may be formal or informal.    

interpersonal influences   any of a variety of social influences on consumers in their marketplace decision making; e.g., the family or social groups. 

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)   now-defunct (1995) independent federal agency, created in 1887, that regulated the economics and services of companies and carriers that engaged in transportation between states, such as railroads, truckers, bus lines, pipelines, freight forwarders, water carriers, and others; with deregulation and the transfer of its functions to other agencies such as the Department of Transportation, the commission was folded. First regulatory agency in U.S. history. 

interstitial   in Internet advertising, flashes of an advertiser’s brand information or imagery that appears between pages of a web site while the new page is loading; a preliminary page that precedes the regular home page of a web site, usually promoting a particular site feature or providing advertising. Also referred to as a splash page. 

interstitial programming   in television, placing short programs between regular full-length programs; e.g., a cable television movie station having a short program between movies. 

interviewer bias   in marketing research, the researcher’s influence on the respondent that affects the response and, therefore, the results of the survey; e.g., the tone of voice or facial expression used in asking a question, helping the respondent answer a question, coaxing a particular slant to an answer. May be intentional or unintentional. 

intramedia comparison  comparison across media types; e.g., magazines vs. television or newspapers vs. radio. 

intranet   within a particular organization, a private network that permits shared applications and which is intended solely for internal company use; essentially, a company-specific Internet. 

in-transit media   a variety of publications, videotapes, and audio cassettes for the use of passengers on airlines, trains, buses, and other transportation modes; e.g., in-flight magazines. See in-flight media.     

introduction stage   the first stage of the product life cycle, in which the product is first made available to the market; characterized by slowly rising sales and negative profit in the early period due to the high costs associated with distribution and promotion. Generally, only one or very limited number of models. Building primary demand is key. See product life cycle, growth stage, maturity stage, decline stage, and primary demand. 

introductory offer   a sales promotion tool aimed at consumers to stimulate interest in and encourage trial of new products, or established products entering a new market; also refers to offers designed to encourage initial orders from dealers. 

introductory price dealing   a temporary low initial price offered by a manufacturer to a dealer when introducing a new product, as an incentive for the dealer to accept the product and to speed its move to the market; after the agreed-upon price-deal period, the product’s price is raised to its normal level. Unlike the penetration price policy, it is a low price for only a relatively short time. See skimming price policy and penetration price policy.

intrusiveness   the extent to which a commercial, advertisement, or campaign annoys the consumer to the point of a negative reaction toward the advertiser, extreme irritability or, perhaps, avoidance of the advertiser’s products; may result from the advertising content, its frequency of appearance, or any other factor that unsettles the consumer.


inventory   the total number of advertisements (or amount of space) or commercials (or amount of time) a medium has available for sale over a given period of time.    

In-View Test   in advertising research, a copytesting technique that utilizes invited viewing for obtaining on-air performance (recall and persuasion); respondents can be invited to view the show in which the commercial is airing or in which it has been placed for testing. A product of Gallup and Robinson (G&R). See copytesting, Gallup and Robinson (G&R), InTeleTest, Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS), and Advertising Response Modeling (ARM). 

involvement   the importance or degree of personal relevance of a particular product and the related decision process for that product, as perceived by the consumer; see high-involvement decision making and low-involvement decision making. 

Ipsos-ASI Advertising Research   one of the largest providers of advertising research data; performs wide range of research activities relating to creative development, pre-testing, post-testing, in-market assessment, ad tracking, and brand equity evaluation. 

IQ Directory   an annual directory that contains detailed data on companies involved in Internet marketing. 

island ad   see island position. 

island display   a point-of-purchase display or a display at another location that stands alone and can be approached from all sides. 

island half   in print advertising, a half page advertisement, at least two sides of which are next to editorial matter; usually sold at a premium rate. See island position. 

island position   a print advertisement that is surrounded on all sides by non-advertising or editorial matter on the same page; usually sold at an extra charge. For example, an advertisement placed in the middle of a magazine page, with the words of a feature article surrounding the ad on all four sides. Can refer to any print advertisement that is not adjacent to any other advertising, or to a broadcast commercial aired away from any other commercial, with program content immediately before and after. See junior unit. 

isolated commercial   a television or radio commercial that runs alone with no other commercial just before it or just after it; typically referred to as an isolated :30 or an isolated :60. 

isolated :30   see isolated commercial.   

isolated :60   see isolated commercial. 

issue   all copies of a particular publication that are published on the same date. 

issue advertising   see advocacy advertising. 

issue life   the period during which a specific issue of a magazine is kept and read at least occasionally by the average reader of that magazine; normally considered to be five weeks for a weekly publication and three months for a monthly.