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HDTV   see High Definition Television. 

HUR   see households using radio. 

HUT   see households using television. 

habitual buying behavior   consumer decision making characterized by an individual repeating his or her previous purchases of a specific brand in a  particular product category, with little or no thought given to the purchase; most often involves a low-involvement purchase. 

half run   in car card advertising, placing a card in every other vehicle in the transit system; see car card, full run, and full showing. 

half showing   in outdoor and transit advertising, one-half of a full showing; i.e., a 50 showing. See full run, full showing, half run, and 25 showing. 

half-page double spread   see half-page spread. 

half-page island position   in magazine advertising, a preferred position in which the half-page advertisement has no other ad on the other half of the page; not always sold by the publication. 

half-page spread   magazine or other print advertising, in which the advertisement is spread horizontally across the two facing pages, occupying the entire upper half or lower half of the two pages; sometimes called half-page double spread. See double-page spread, double spread, and double truck. 

halo effect   a phenomenon by which an individual transfers an impression about, say, one product to other products of the same marketer, by association; attributing qualities of one entity to another based on knowledge and opinions about another. For example, positive thoughts about an organization’s previous civic or charitable efforts are transferred, by association, to the current effort. 

hand count   in out-of-home advertising, a traffic count for a particular advertising structure’s location done when there is no official source available or when the existing data are obsolete; usually done by the plant operator. See traffic count, official count, and counting station.  

handbill   an advertising piece distributed by hand to homes, public places, people in the street, and other locations; generally, a single-page advertising message. Also called a flyer. See circular.        

handling allowance   payment by a manufacturer to a retailer for functions performed as part of given promotion activity or program; e.g., coupon redemption, stocking greater quantities of a product being featured in a promotion, or other promotion activities requiring special handling by a manufacturer’s distributor. 

handling house   see fulfillment house. 

handling objections   the stage in the personal selling process where the salesperson deals with a prospective customer’s resistance to buying; focus is on identifying the precise nature of the objections, discussing them, and overcoming the prospect’s resistance in a convincing way. See prospecting, pre-approach, approach, presentation, closing, and follow-up. 

hard goods   see durable goods. 

hard-sell advertising   an advertising style that is very direct, aggressive, and forceful in its attempt to influence the audience; see soft-sell advertising. 

harmony   in advertising design and layout, the principle relating to the compatibility of all the elements comprising an advertisement; e.g., the type face and type size of the copy should be compatible or “fit” with the type face and type size used in the headline. See balance, contrast, emphasis, flow, gaze motion, and unity.

Harris Interactive   a leading marketing and advertising research firm offering advertisers, agencies, media buyers, and the media a broad range of syndicated and custom data, including copytesting, communications testing, concept testing, brand tracking, brand image studies, segmentation studies, product positioning studies, Web site evaluation, Internet advertising assessment, and several other types of research. Partners with USA Today with the Ad Track index, an advertising effectiveness tracking service reported weekly at www.usatoday.com.  

harvesting   at the point in a product’s or service’s sales or profit level where further decline is inevitable and the opportunity costs of trying to rejuvenate it are too high, the practice of significantly reducing, even eliminating, the marketing and advertising expenditures on the product or service and letting it ride as long as the most loyal customer sustain it.  

Hazardous Substances Act   see Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act. 

head   see headline. 

head of household   for marketing purposes, the individual in a family who is responsible for major buying decisions. 

headlight poster   an advertising sign mounted between the headlights of a bus or rapid transit vehicle; measures approximately 21” high x 44” wide. See exterior bus, taillight poster, queen-size poster, and king-size poster. 

headline   the most prominent copy in an advertisement, usually at or near the top of the ad (though sometimes at the bottom) and set in bigger, bolder type than the body copy; intended as an attention-getting device, with its words the first that are seen and read in the ad. See benefit headline, command headline, curiosity headline, news-information headline, and question headline. Also see subhead. 

head-on position   in outdoor advertising, placement of a poster or advertising structure so that it directly faces oncoming traffic. 

health and safety risk   see physical risk. 

heavy users   consumers who purchase and use a product or service in much larger quantities and/or much more frequently than others, in contrast to moderate users, light users, or non-users. 

heavy-copy ad   see copy-heavy ad. 

heavy-up scheduling  in media scheduling, to increase advertising intensity; increased expenditures at any time within a media schedule, i.e., a burst, or blitz, of advertising activity. Can involve higher total expenditures across the entire range of an advertiser’s media schedule or added use of a particular medium or media vehicle. See blitz, bursting and pulsing.  

hedonism   in consumer behavior, placing disproportionate weight on pleasure-seeking in making marketplace decisions; i.e., the pursuit of products that provide the greatest self-gratification or pleasure without regard to more prudent or realistic choices. 

hello money   in sales promotion, a fee paid by a manufacturer for making a sales presentation to a retailer; also called a presentation fee. 

heterogeneous shopping products   shopping products that the consumer regards as different and, therefore, searches the alternatives for quality, style, and overall suitability prior to purchasing; price is a secondary factor. See  homogeneous shopping products, consumer products classification system, convenience products, shopping products, specialty products, and unsought products.    

heuristics   rules of thumb or very simple guidelines used by consumers to simplify and expedite their decisions in choosing among alternatives; e.g., buy the least expensive brand or buy the product that sponsors a favorite baseball team’s telecasts.   

hiatus   in media scheduling, the period of complete advertising inactivity within a flighting schedule that alternates periods of advertising with periods of no advertising; a period of non-activity between advertising flights. See flighting. 

hidden offer   a free offer of some kind “buried” near the end of an advertisement that is mostly text, with no attention called to it beforehand; often used as a test to determine the extent to which the ad was read. Also called a buried offer or blind offer.  

hierarchy of effects   a model of advertising’s effects on consumers; the idea that consumer response to advertising progresses in stages, going along the following path: awareness-knowledge-liking-preference-conviction-purchase; can help in setting advertising objectives. Can be used by the advertiser to define advertising and promotion program goals. Proposed by researchers Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner. See communications objectives and promotion objectives. 

hierarchy of needs   a theory of motivation that suggests a person will satisfy lower-level needs before attempting to satisfy higher-level needs; in sequential stages, a person will satisfy his or her physiological needs first, and then, in order, his or her safety needs, love and belongingness needs, esteem needs and, finally, self-actualization (self-fulfillment) needs. A theory of psychologist Abraham Maslow. 

High Definition Television (HDTV)   a technological system that provides the highest quality television picture and sound. 

high-involvement decision making   marketplace decisions on products and services that have high personal relevance for the consumer and for which the perceived risks and consequences of the decision are significant in the mind of the consumer; consumer engages in extensive information search and evaluation. See consumer decision process and low-involvement decision making. 

high-spot bulletin   in outdoor advertising, placement of an advertising structure at a strategic spot to give it greater exposure and visibility; sometimes larger than other bulletins in the same market. 

Highway Beautification Act of 1965 (HBA)   Federal legislation that mandates state controls related to outdoor media on interstate highways, placing strong controls over the placement of billboards and other outdoor signs. 

hit   a visit to a web site or to an advertisement; also called a click, page view, or request.  

hitchhiker   a television or radio commercial, placed at the end of a program, that features a product not advertised earlier in the program by an advertiser who previously promoted another of its products in the program; usage may denote any local commercial that is inserted in a national program. Often referred to as a drop-in ad. Sometimes refers to promotional material added to a direct mailing sent to consumers for another purpose. See ride-along and statement stuffer.  

holding power   the degree to which a television or radio program keeps its audience throughout the entire program. To calculate: divide average audience by total audience and multiply by 100, to express it as a percentage. 

holdover audience   that portion of a television or radio program’s audience that emanates from the program immediately preceding it on the same station; also known as carryover audience or inherited audience. 

Hollywood model   advertising agency organization and staffing that features low overhead and a reliance on freelancers and contract workers. 

homepage   on the Internet, the first page that appears on the computer screen upon opening and entering a particular organization’s address or website; also can refer to the website itself. See website.  

home shopping networks   see shoppers network/programs.    

homes passed   the number of households in which CATV is in service or can be because the cable provider’s lines are in place for a hookup on request.    

homes using TV (HUT)   see households using television (HUT). 

homeogeneous shopping products   shopping products that the consumer regards as quite similar and, therefore, searches for the best available price;       see heterogeneous shopping products, consumer products classification system, convenience products, shopping products, specialty products, and unsought products. 

hook   a particular feature of a commercial or an advertisement (e.g., a product attribute, a benefit, an emotion, a clever phrase, a jingle, a person) that sparks immediate attention, interest, and desire for action by the consumer; what the consumer grabs on to in the advertising. The specific feature that makes the advertising memorable. 

horizontal buy   buying advertising time or space in several different media classes (i.e., television, magazines, outdoor, et. al.) to achieve maximum reach or exposure; in contrast to a vertical buy, in which the advertiser buys time or space in several different vehicles in the same medium, such as magazines. See vertical buy. 

horizontal cooperative advertising   a joint advertising effort by a group of businesses or organizations related by the products or services they sell (e.g., auto dealers, milk producers, apple growers, fast-food franchisees, realtors) or by the sharing of common interests (e.g., retail stores in a shopping mall or town, local merchants in support of  public education); advertising costs are shared and resources are pooled to run advertising that generates interest and traffic for the benefit of all involved. See cooperative advertising and vertical cooperative advertising. Also see cooperative advertising kit. 

horizontal cume   in television or radio, the total number of people or households tuned to a particular station or network at the same time on different days of the week; can refer to the audience of two programs in the same time slot on successive days; see vertical cume and cumulative audience. 

horizontal discount   a discount offered by a media vehicle to an advertiser who buys advertising time or space over an extended period of time, generally one year. 

horizontal half-page   an advertisement that occupies the upper half or the lower half of a page in a periodical; see vertical half-page. 

horizontal marketing system   a distribution channel arrangement whereby two or more organizations at the same level join together for marketing purposes to capitalize on a new opportunity; e.g., a bank and a supermarket agree to have the bank’s ATMs located at the supermarket’s locations, two manufacturers combining to achieve economies of scale, otherwise not possible with each acting alone, in meeting the needs and demands of a very large retailer, or two wholesalers joining together to serve a particular region at a certain time of year. See vertical marketing system (VMS), corporate VMS, contractual VMS, administered VMS, conventional marketing system, and hybrid marketing system. 

horizontal publication   a trade magazine or paper editorially designed for individuals holding similar positions or job functions in different industries or types of businesses; e.g., publications aimed at purchasing agents, computer programmers, sales managers, or public relations directors regardless of industry or business. Examples: Purchasing, Auditing, Sales & Marketing Management, Public Relations Quarterly, Advertising Age. See vertical publication.  

horizontal saturation (rotation)   in television or radio advertising scheduling, buying advertising time on the same program or in the same time period on several days each week; see vertical saturation. 

hospitality marketing   activities involved with marketing travel, lodging, food services associated with a wide variety of events such as conventions, sports, festivals, and tours.

hot button   the major point or element in an advertisement that strikes a sensitive chord and motivates the prospective buyer to a response or action desired by the advertiser; what turns on the buyer. See Big Idea, hook, and Unique Selling Proposition (USP). 

house account   an advertising or other promotion client that is handled by the advertising agency’s owner or top management, rather than assigned to an account executive; when done, it is typically for a client who is special by way of size, prestige, or other factor. In addition, refers to a particularly important customer handled by a firm’s home office executives rather than the field sales force or regional office. Also called a direct account. 

house ad   advertising by a media vehicle for itself in its own vehicle; e.g., an advertisement for a particular newspaper that appears in its own newspaper or a commercial for a radio station that airs on its own station. Sometimes refers to a company’s advertising for itself, as opposed to it products or services, i.e., institutional or corporate advertising.  

house agency   see in-house agency. 

house list   an organization’s exclusively-owned list generated from its internal records, and which contains names, addresses, and other information on individuals considered important to the advertiser, such as present customers, past customers, or good prospects; usually for direct marketing purposes. See internal list and external list. 

house organ   see house publication. 

house publication    a controlled-circulation periodical published by an organization, generally for public relations purposes to keep key people informed of matters of central importance to the organization; i.e., a company’s own publication. An internal house publication, or simply internal publication, is published primarily for company personnel, including the sales force, while an external house publication, or external publication, is aimed at the company’s customers, dealers, investors, and other important publics. Also known as a company magazine or house organ. 

household   all individuals who occupy a single housing unit, i.e., a house, apartment, or even a single room occupied as separate living quarters, or those quarters having direct access from the outside or through a common hall and whose occupants do not live and eat with others persons in the structure; according to the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 

household consumers   consumers who are part of a household; see household. 

household ratings   the standard for measuring program tuning; see diary method, people meter, set-tuning meter, and sweeps. 

household tracking report   a report that shows, over an extended period of time, the individual program ratings for the different television networks; a Nielsen Media Research service. 

households using radio (HUR)   the number of households in a given local market or nationally that were listening to a particular radio program or were listening to any station during a certain time period.  

households using television (HUT)   the number of households in a given local market or nationally that were watching a particular television program or were watching any station during a given time period; used as a base for ratings. Also called sets in use. A Nielsen Media Research term. See ratings, persons using television (PUT) and sets-in-use.    

HTML (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)   the computer language used to create pages and content on the Web. 

humor format  in advertising, a creative execution format showing people and situations marked by comedy, silliness, or frivolity; e.g., a commercial showing a house literally falling apart shortly after a do-it-yourself homeowner did some repairs using, of course, the “wrong” products. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

hunter   a sales representative who finds and brings in new business. 

hybrid marketing   the use of a broad range of marketing activities, approaches, and channels in an attempt to make sure the target market is exposed to the marketer’s message and appeals in some way at some point in the decision-making process. 

hybrid marketing system   a distribution system in which one firm establishes two or more separate marketing channels to serve its customers; e.g., a computer company with a sales force selling direct to institutional accounts, while also selling its products to retailers as well as through its own online store. See vertical marketing system (VMS), corporate VMS, contractual VMS, administered VMS, conventional marketing system, and horizontal marketing system. Also see dual distribution. 

hypermarket   see superstore. 

hyping   in television, a station’s or network’s attempt to increase audiences and ratings by means of special programming, such as that involving investigative reporting on a major issue, contests, out-of-the-ordinary movies, and the like; especially common during sweeps periods. See sweeps.