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GRPs   see gross rating points. 

Gallup and Robinson (G & R)   a leading marketing and advertising research organization with a wide range of research capabilities providing marketers, advertisers, and agencies with data and tools to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of advertising; specializes in copytesting, tracking studies, concept testing, media research, claims substantiation, spokesperson testing, and event sponsorship evaluation, plus custom-research projects covering all aspects of marketing communications (television, magazine, newspapers, radio, and the Internet) in both the consumer and business-to-business markets. See InTeleTest, In-View Test, Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS), and Advertising Response Modeling (ARM). 

galvanic skin response   a person’s reaction to a stimulus, as measured by electrical monitoring of minute amounts of skin perspiration upon exposure to the stimulus; a physiological testing technique that aims to determine the level of arousal caused by an advertisement. See galvanometer. 

galvanometer   in advertising research, an instrument that detects galvanic (electrical) skin response to a stimulus such as an advertisement; used to obtain a physiological measure of extremely small changes in perspiration that suggest emotional response or arousal related to some stimulus, such as an advertisement. Used to help indicate advertising effectiveness. Also called psychogalvanomoter. See galvanic skin response and physiological testing measures.       

game   a sales promotion activity that features the offering of prizes based on chance and which requires little skill to play; generally, play continues for a period of time, often involving repeated trips to the store to continue playing for the prizes. See contest and sweepstakes. 

gap analysis   in marketing research, evaluation of data to uncover a market, large or small, that is currently not being served well or, perhaps, not being served at all, thereby representing an opportunity for the marketer. 

gatefold   a magazine page that is larger than the other pages, but which is folded inward so that it fits into the magazine as the same size as the other pages (although it can be less than a page or even two or more pages); when the page is opened and unfolded outward, it swings out like a gate to reveal the full advertisement. In effect, it is a four-page sheet when unfolded, or an extra-wide ad. The space is sold at a premium. Also called a foldout. 

gatekeeper   the individual in an organization or the family member who controls the flow of information to the people who are part of the decision-making unit or are affected by its actions; monitors and evaluates information such as the potential value of a product or service in a way that determines what does and what does not get through to the decision makers and users. Also called a screener.    

gaze motion   the movement of an individual’s eyes in reading an advertisement or viewing a commercial; eye movement can be tracked by an eye camera.  See  balance, contrast, emphasis, flow, and unity.

general advertising   advertising other than local advertising; e.g., national or regional. 

general magazine   see general-interest magazine. 

general rate   in newspaper advertising, the space rate charged to a national or non-local advertiser; a higher rate than the local rate. Also called national rate. See local advertising, local rate, and national rate.  

general-circulation magazine   see general-interest magazine. 

general-interest magazine   a consumer magazine that has popular appeal and is directed to a broad rather than a specific or special interest audience; also called a general-circulation magazine, general magazine, mass magazine, or mass publication. 

generic advertising   see primary demand advertising. 

generic demand   see primary demand. 

geodemographic segmentation   the demographics of people living in a particular geographic area; dividing the market into geographic clusters by combining demographic and geographic segmentation variables; the concept is based on the premise that people residing in similar areas (e.g., the same zip code or the  same neighborhood) are likely to share common demographic and lifestyle characteristics and, thus, the marketer can get a profile of the people in each area. See behavioristic segmentation, demographic segmentation, geographic segmentation, and psychographic segmentation. Also see PRIZM.   

geographic edition   an edition of a magazine targeted toward a particular geographic region or area, and for which a different set of advertising rates apply; e.g., the eastern edition of Sports Illustrated, which has a different set of rates than the southeastern and other SI editions. A type of partial-run edition. See demographic edition, metro edition, regional edition, and state edition. 

geographic segmentation   dividing the total market into different geographical units or segments, such as states, regions, counties, cities, or Designated Market Areas (DMAs); see behavioristic segmentation, demographic segmentation, geodemographic segmentation, and psychographic segmentation. 

geographic split-run   placement of one advertisement in a particular geographic area served by a given publication and a different advertisement in another geographic area covered by the same publication; the split may be between regional editions of a publication or between a particular region and the rest of the country for the same publication. Often used to test and compare the effectiveness of alternate advertisements. See split run, split-run test, demographic split-run, subscription/newsstand split-run, and A/B split. 

geographical weighting   a media scheduling strategy in which particular geographical areas or regions are allocated a higher or lower level of advertising intensity, usually depending on sales potential; see Brand Development Index (BDI) and Category Development Index (CDI). 

geo-targeting   the placement of advertising and marketing force or emphasis in geographic areas or regions that offer the best opportunities for a product or brand to achieve success; concentrating advertising or marketing efforts in selected geographic areas where there is likely to be greater incidence of purchase of a particular brand. 

gimmick   an unusual or novel tool, idea, or technique designed to capture an audience’s attention in advertising or promotion. 

giveaway   a sales promotion activity in which one of a variety of promotional items is distributed at no cost or obligation to customers or prospective customers; also known as a free offer.  

global advertising   an approach in which a firm uses a single advertising plan or pattern, with a common theme and presentation, in all the countries in which it operates; see international advertising. 

global agency   an advertising agency with worldwide capabilities, including agency offices and operations around the world.  

global campaign   see global advertising and global marketing. 

global  marketer   an organization that markets its products or services worldwide; see global marketing. 

global marketing   an approach in which a product is marketed essentially the same way everywhere in the world, with the marketer using the same marketing plan and marketing strategy across all countries in which it operates, including the same message and execution. 

global markets   see international markets. 

global media   the aggregate means, carriers, or channels of communications through which global advertisers get their messages to their intended audiences in international markets; there is considerable variation from country to country when it come to media availability and effectiveness for advertising purposes.  

globalization   in international advertising, when the advertiser uses a single campaign for all the countries in which it does business; see localization and regionalization. 

going dark   a situation in which an advertiser temporarily discontinues its advertising due to special circumstances; e.g., an airline halting its advertising for a period after a mishap.

goods   tangible, physical products. 

goodwill   the positive attitudes, opinions, and feelings toward a marketer or advertiser, its products, and programs generated by the organization’s efforts and deeds that promote good relations among its several publics; e.g., a firm’s advocacy or interest in supporting charitable causes or community initiatives, resulting in favorable attitudes toward the company.   

government market   the federal, state, county, and local agencies that purchase goods and services needed to perform their public service operations. 

government regulation   see federal regulation, state regulation, and local regulation. 

graphic design   arranging and fitting the visual devices and presentation of an advertising or promotion message; all the efforts devoted to giving the message the right look and feel. See graphics. 

graphics   visual devices employed to enhance the impact of the other elements of an advertisement and to make the total design and effect more eye-catching, interesting, and stimulating; involve shape, dimension, and placement of the various elements in an advertisement, including illustrations, color, typefaces, and other elements; see art. 

grassroots marketing   see stealth marketing and street marketing.

gravure   see rotogravure. 

grazing   see channel grazing. 

green consumers   individuals who are very much concerned about the natural environment and are willing to modify their purchasing and consumption behavior to help protect the environment, e.g., by buying environmentally-safe products. 

green marketing   marketing strategies and practices that are designed with their environmental impact in mind, emphasizing protection of the natural environment; marketing and promotion activities directed to individual and groups who are environmentally conscious. 

grid   a series of horizontal and vertical lines used to assist the copy, art, and layout people in the design of an advertisement; an advertising design planning tool. 

grid card   a system of presenting television and radio station spot advertising rates in which the rate card, usually set in a matrix format, shows the different rates for the various commercial positions, with individual spot charges set according to audience ratings and the demand for the spots by advertisers; see spot advertising rates and rate card. 

gridlocking   a media scheduling strategy that calls for scheduling a television commercial on one network while the same commercial is scheduled immediately before it or after it on the other networks. 

gross amount  the grand total or sum, prior to any reductions or adjustments; see net amount. 

gross audience   see gross impressions. 

gross billings   the total monetary worth of an advertising agency’s purchase of media time and space on behalf of its advertisers-clients, valued at the highest rate, without regard to agency commissions or discounts of any kind. See gross rate.    

gross impressions   an expression of the weight of a media plan; the sum of all target audience exposures to the media vehicles in a media plan, including duplications (each exposure = one impression). Also called gross audience. See advertising weight, message weight, net audience, net impressions, gross rating points, target rating points, and unduplicated audience. 

gross margin   net sales minus cost of goods sold; the money available to pay for marketing and other expenses needed to operate the business. See gross sales, gross profit, net sales, net profit, and cost of goods sold. 

gross message weight   see gross impressions and gross rating points. 

gross profit   sales revenue minus sales costs; see gross margin, gross sales, net sales, net profit, and cost of goods sold. 

gross rate   see open rate. 

gross rating points (GRPs)   a measure of audience size, in which reach  x  average frequency  =  gross rating points; the total duplicated audience that is exposed to all the vehicles in a particular media schedule, typically expressed for a given time period within the schedule, such as a four-week period. One rating point equals one percent of the audience. An expression of the total advertising weight in an advertising schedule. The sum of ratings delivered by all media vehicles in an advertising schedule. Example: 20 commercials each with a 12 rating yield a total of 240 GRPs. See reach, average frequency,  advertising weight, gross impressions, message weight, and target rating points (TRPs). 

gross rating point buy   the basic method of buying outdoor advertising; for example, a 100-GRP buy is the number of posters needed to deliver exposure to 100 percent of the market’s population, as quoted on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis; a 75-GRP buy, 50-GRP buy, or 25-GRP buy would deliver exposures accordingly. See gross rating points (GRPs) and showing. 

gross sales   the invoice value of sales before deducting customer discounts, returns, and allowances; i.e., the total amount paid by customers before deductions. See gross profit, gross margin, net sales, net profit, and cost of goods sold. 

gross-up   see markup charge and production add-on. 

group   two or more individuals sharing a set of beliefs, values, and behavioral patterns; see reference group. 

group advertising   advertising undertaken by a number of independent retailers, acting together in a common interest; see horizontal cooperative advertising. 

group discount   in media, a lower advertising rate given to an advertiser that agrees to place advertisements in a particular set of publications owned by a single publisher or which have joined in an effort to attract advertising revenue; e.g., Conde-Nast publications that include, among others Gourmet, Bon Appetit, Vogue, Self, Allure, Bride’s, Glamour, Modern Bride, Vanity Fair and Conde Nast Traveler or, in business media, Fairchild publications, such as Home Furnishings News and InFurniture magazine, both serving members of the home furnishings industry. 

group mailing   see cooperative mailing. 

group promotion   a sales promotion event that features several brands of the same  company joined together under a common theme; as opposed to a tie-in or joint promotion which involves different companies’ brands under a unified theme. See tie-in promotion. 

group system of agency organization   a system of organizing an agency team in an advertising agency to work together on a specific account; each group is managed by an account executive or account supervisor and consists of individuals with account management, planning, creative, media, research, production, sales promotion, direct marketing, interactive marketing expertise – whatever is needed for the group to work together as a unit to effectively serve the clients being handled by the particular group. Each agency team or group may be viewed as a “little agency” in itself. See advertising agency and department system of agency organization. 

growth stage   the second stage of the product life cycle, in which the product’s sales begin to climb quickly, increasing at an increasing rate through much of the stage; industry profits peak toward the end of the stage. New models and product versions for different market segments, and heightened competition, especially from less expensive substitutes. Building selective demand is key. See product life cycle, introduction stage, maturity stage, and decline stage. 

growth strategies   the approaches and methods a firm might pursue to achieve take advantage of opportunities for increasing and strengthening its sales and profits; see market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification.  

guaranteed circulation   the minimum number of copies of a particular issue of a publication stated and guaranteed by the publisher to be delivered; publisher refunds advertiser if this number is not reached. See Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). 

guaranteed rate base   in print media, the circulation number that is the basis for a periodical’s advertising, and which is officially verified by an audit, such as that done by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC); see rate base and Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).  

guerrilla marketing   strategically competing for market share by using creative, unconventional, non-traditional marketing tactics that often go to the edge.  

Guidelines for Children’s Advertising   a set of principles governing advertising directed to children under 12 and applying to all media, including print, broadcast television, cable television, radio, video, point-of-sale, on-line advertising, and packaging; major purpose is to prevent deception and to take into account the level of knowledge, impressionability, and vulnerability of the child audience. A self-regulatory set of guidelines advanced by the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU). See Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU). 

Guidelines for Comparative Advertising   a set of standards for the ethical use of comparative advertising, governing the truthfulness, claim substantiation, and tastefulness of advertising that seeks to make comparisons between and among different products or services; established by the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) for the use and benefit of its members. See American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), Standards of Practice, and Creative Code. 

Gunning Fog Index   a readability index that utilizes a technique for assessing the ease with which advertising writing, i.e., copy can be read; result is the minimum grade level at which the writing can be easily read. Computation involves: determining the average number of words per sentence, determining the percentage of “hard” words (e.g., abstract words or long words), adding the two factors and then multiplying by 0.4. Example: advertising copy consisting of 80 words in 8 sentences, with 16 hard words yields an average sentence length of 10 words, with 20% deemed hard words; therefore, 10 + 20 = 30 x 0.4 = 12.0, or a 12th-grade level of readership. Devised by Robert Gunning. See Flesch Reading Ease Score. 

gutter   in a magazine, the margin where two facing pages come together at the binding on the inside of the page; the inner margin of a magazine page, next to the binding. 

gutter bleed   a magazine advertisement that goes all the way to the inside edge of the page, through the gutter into the binding of the magazine. 

gutter position   an advertising position beside the gutter on a magazine page.