see Federal Communications Commission.
see Food and Drug Administration.
see Fair Packaging and Labeling Act.
see free-standing insert.
see Federal Trade Commission.
the marketing danger of an organization “forgetting what made them successful;”
i.e., when something is working effectively, it is not wise to change simply for
the sake of change. If an organization has successfully used an aggressive
marketing approach and conditions have not changed, stay with it. No different
than a football team successfully employing a particular strategy for three
quarters and then changing its strategy to try to protect its lead, failing to
remember what it was that got them the lead in the first place. Coined by Jack
Trout and Al Ries in Positioning: The
Battle for the Mind.
in out-of-home advertising, the surface area on which advertising copy appears.
the redeemable value of a
coupon, printed on the coupon itself.
in outdoor advertising, a
single billboard; also may refer to the direction of the billboard face relative
to traffic flow, e.g., a billboard panel facing west can be read by traffic
heading east. Term also refers to exposure of a product package in the front row
of a retail shelf, with total exposure of a specific item measured by the number
of facings it has along the front row on a horizontal plane (vertical stacks
count as one facing).
facing editorial page
advertising, a position request or instruction from an advertiser to a
publication to place an advertisement opposite editorial (text) matter; i.e.,
adjacent to a non-advertising page. Also called facing text.
see facing editorial page.
a multiple units of a
product, usually three, six, or twelve, packaged together as one package by the
manufacturer. The term can also refer to a premium attached to or inside a
package, called an on-pack premium or an in-pack premium,
respectively; see premium.
a listing or description of
a product’s features and selling points given to the copywriter for use in
creating an advertisement; supplements the creative brief. Also refers to a page
that usually is part of a company’s press kit, on which is a description of the
firm’ business, its address, telephone number, key contacts, and other basic
information. See creative brief.
live (vs. taped) radio commercial in which the announcer ad-libs the commercial
using a sheet containing only the key selling points of a product or service; as
opposed to a formal and complete script used to read the commercial
word-by-word. See live copy and live-script radio commercial.
a product or idea that is considered fashionable or “in” for a very short time
before it is gone just as quickly as it came on the scene; see fashion
in television advertising,
the slow continuous evolvement of an image on the screen, from black, or from
another image, to a full clear picture (fade-in) or, in reverse, from a
fully visible picture, a gradual disappearance to black, or to another image (fade-out).
a trade promotion agreement
whereby the manufacturer makes a payment as a penalty fee to the retailer when a
product does not achieve an expected or mutually-agreed-upon sales level in the
retailer’s store, usually resulting in the product being dropped from the
retailer’s inventory; see exit fee.
Fair Credit Reporting Act
a law passed in 1970 regulating all aspect of credit reporting. See Consumer
Credit Protection Act.
Fair Packaging and Labeling
Act a 1966
federal law establishing mandatory labeling requirements and promoting voluntary
industry adoption of packaging standards, including number of sizes offered for
sale; enacted to combat false, misleading, and deceptive packaging.
by permission of federal law (Miller-Tydings Act of 1937) and the
individual states that adopted it the law, a formal agreement between a
manufacturer and retailer in which the retailer agreed to a retail price for a
product below which it would not be sold; law was ruled unconstitutional in
1975. Intent was to protect small retailers from the price competition of large
retailers that, by virtue of high-volume buying, could offer unmatched low
prices to the consumer. Also called resale price maintenance. See
Miller-Tydings Act and Consumer Goods Pricing Act.
in television, a now-defunct requirement that a network or station was required
to offer equal time to both sides of especially significant matters or issues;
an order of the Federal Communications Commission (FTC).
see brand familiarity.
see type family.
when a manufacturer’s several products are all marketed under the same brand
name; e.g., Kellogg’s cereals, Campbell’s soups and tomato juice, Pastene pasta
and olive oil. See individual brand.
family decision making
as opposed to
consumer decision making, the process of decision making exhibited by the family
as a unit, including the roles played by individual family members.
family life cycle
a classification scheme
based on changes in families over time; the family goes through various stages,
affected by factors such as marriage, births, aging, and changes in income.
Examples: Full Nest 1—youngest child under six; Full Nest 2—youngest
child over six; Empty Nest 1—older marrieds, household head in
workforce, no children at home; Empty Nest 2—older marrieds,
household head retired, no children at home. Particularly noteworthy for
marketers are the changes in buying behavior and consumption patterns that occur
with changes in family size, ages, income, needs, wants, and other factors.
in advertising, a creative
execution format that puts the consumer in another realm or lifestyle,
i.e., a “dreamworld”; e.g., a Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines magazine
advertisement showing the luxurious accommodations and pampering on a cruise, a
commercial fast-forwards a young girl to an Olympics champion on her Rossignol
skis, or a commercial showing a weekend duffer outplaying Tiger Woods down the
stretch to win the U.S. Open with his new Callaway golf clubs. See
news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic
association, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial,
and comparison formats.
see agricultural advertising.
a print publication
directed to those in the farming industry.
a sales representative who grows sales to existing accounts.
a currently-popular fashion; see fad and style.
in magazine advertising, the opportunity for an advertiser to submit advertising
materials after the closing date specified in the publication’s media kit for
publication in a particular issue; typically, there is a premium charge, and not
all magazines provide the opportunity. See closing date.
an advertiser’s attempt to
draw consumers to its product by playing on the consumer’s anxiety or uneasiness
and the negative consequences that would result by not buying and using that
particular brand; using a person’s worries as a basis for connecting him or her
to a product. Example: a financial services advertiser who shows a family in
dire circumstances because the breadwinner did not have an adequate financial
plan before his untimely end. Example: a computer maker’s advertising showing a
young student far behind his or her classmates because there is no PC at home,
implying there is no chance to catch up unless the advertiser’s computer is
in the situation analysis stage of the marketing communications planning
process, an advertiser’s side-by-side, point-by-point comparison of the features
and attributes of its product against the competitive products. See situation
see product features.
Federal Cigarette Labeling
and Advertising Act
a law passed in 1965 requiring all cigarette cartons and packages to include
health warnings; periodic amendments strengthened the wording of the warning
statement, prohibited cigarette advertising on any medium of electronic
communication (e.g., television and radio), extended the warning statement
requirement to all advertising, and required smokeless tobacco to adhere to the
warning requirements and the prohibition of advertising on television and radio.
Federal Communications Act
a 1934 law to regulate all phases of broadcast communications; created the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
the federal government
agency that regulates broadcast communications by radio, television, wire,
satellite, and cable; its authority extends to all aspects of licensing
broadcast stations and encouraging competition, as well as to control over
advertising content and what products and services are acceptable to be
advertised on radio or television, ensuring that broadcast programs and
advertising are in the public interest. Established by the Communications Act of
1934. On matters of advertising regulation, the FCC works closely with the
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). See Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Federal Food, Drug, and
a law passed in 1938 to prohibit harmful practices in the production of foods,
drugs, and cosmetics. Several later amendments allowed for removal of any drug
from the market if it became a public health hazard or if it was shown to be
ineffective, established uniform standards for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and
required manufacturers to provide more information on drug labels (including the
common drug name, ingredients, and side effects). Other amendments included
provision relating to medical devices and nutrition labeling and education. The
Act established the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be responsible for
enforcement. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Medical Device
Regulation Act, and Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). Also
see Food and Drugs Act.
Substances Labeling Act
a 1960 law governing labeling requirements for all packaged household products
that contain hazardous substances.
the entire set of acts, laws, and other measures sponsored, directed, and
enforced by the federal government to control the conduct of marketers and
marketing activities in the public interest; see state regulation, local
regulation, in-house regulation, and self-regulation.
Federal Trade Commission
principal federal government agency exercising regulatory authority and control
over advertising practices and actions; protects both consumers and businesses
from anticompetitive behavior and unfair, fraudulent, misleading, and deceptive
practices. Has been empowered to enforce other consumer protection laws and to
regulate advertising’s effect on both consumers and businesses since enactment
of the Wheeler-Lea Amendment in 1938. See Wheeler-Lea Amendment and
Federal Trade Commission Act.
Federal Trade Commission
Act the 1914
federal law that created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); the act was
designed to enforce antitrust laws (e.g., Sherman and Clayton acts) by helping
to restrain unfair practices and methods of competition including, in later
interpretations, false advertising that resulted in injury to a competitor.
Since an “injury-to-a-competitor” ruling does little to protect consumers from
the advertising malpractices, the Wheeler-Lea Amendment was passed in 1938 to
include protection of consumers. See Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and
Federal Trade Commission
See Magnusson-Moss Product Warranty Act.
Federal Trademark Dilution
Act a 1995
federal statute that expanded the Lanham Act’s provisions, with a purpose to
"protect famous trademarks from subsequent uses that blur the distinctiveness of
the mark or tarnish or disparage it, even in the absence of a likelihood of
confusion."; proving infringement on its “famous” trademark does not require the
trademark owner to show proof of economic harm. (Determination of what
constitutes a “famous” trademark is done on a case-by-case approach, with a
series of determining factors to be used in the judgment, as set forth by the
Act.) See Lanham Act, trademark, and Trademark Law Revision Act.
fee method of agency
system of advertising agency compensation, in which the advertiser and the
agency agree on a fixed sum (usually on an hourly basis, but sometimes on a
monthly basis) for services provided by the agency on behalf of the client (as
an alternative to the commission form of compensation); amount of compensation
is determined by a cost-plus-fixed fee formula. When the commission method is
used, a fee may be in place but only for those situations in which a commission
is not given by the agency’s supplier. The advertising agency’s total
compensation often is a fee-commission combination plan. Sometimes called
fixed-fee method, cost-plus method, or retainer method. See
commission method, combination method, performance-based method, and
cost-plus-fixed fee. Also see agency commission and
the reaction of the receiver
of an advertiser’s or marketer’s message, which travels back and is made known
to the sender or source of the message.
a brand used by a company that has another brand entry in the same product
category to combat competing brands in hope of protecting its other brand; firm
uses this brand to respond to competitive tactics such as deals, price
reductions, or other sales promotion activities and, in the process, insulates
its other brand in that category.
the practice of a manufacturer deploying its sales representatives or other
personnel to retail stores to generate greater interest and sales of its
products; e.g., provide help with in-store promotions or assisting the retailer
is better store layout or use of displays. See missionary selling.
field of experience
the totality of what a consumer brings to the marketplace and which influences
the decision-making process; e.g., past experience, perceptions, attitudes,
values, and other factors that affect his or her behavior in the marketplace.
in marketing and advertising research, any of a variety of attempts to measure
consumers’ reactions to advertising or other promotion technique under actual
conditions, as opposed to laboratory or artificial settings; see laboratory
in marketing and advertising research, research activities such as surveys
conducted at a location other than that of the firm, e.g., in the home or at a
designation for a
fifteen-second television or radio commercial.
see agency commission.
50 showing in outdoor
advertising, an expression indicating that 50 percent of a given market's
population will be reached (i.e., will have the opportunity to see) a particular
advertiser's message by virtue of the number and placement of an advertiser's
billboard panels in the market, in a 30-day period; see outdoor advertising,
showing, 25 showing, 75 showing, and 100 showing.
generally, a second copy of an advertising execution, document, or any other
matter relating to a marketing communications campaign, kept as a record by the
client, agency, and media; e.g., see air check.
proof of an advertisement
filed away for record purposes and safekeeping.
in direct mail, copy that is inserted into a form letter to give it a personal
touch; e.g., the recipient’s name, attendance at a recent event, purchase of a
particular product or service, or some other copy that has specific meaning to
that individual recipient of the direct mail piece.
in consumer decision making,
the chance the buyer will pay too much or have to forgo other purchases; See
risk-taking, performance risk, physical risk, social risk, and time-loss
payment to a party who serves as an intermediary in bringing together two
organizations for business dealing; e.g., an individual’s compensation for
connecting an advertiser with an advertising agency or for bringing a client
into the fold for a sales promotion firm.
finished art artwork
that is complete in all respects and is ready for reproduction; usually referred
to as camera-ready artwork.
a specially-designed system that serves as a “wall” between a user’s personal
computer and the Internet system; a security measure to monitor Internet traffic
and protect the user from unauthorized invasion or tampering.
First Amendment Rights
see commercial speech.
first cover (1C)
the front outside
cover of a magazine; also called the front cover.
first right of refusal
in sponsorship marketing, a formal agreement between a sponsor and a property in
which the sponsor has the right to match another company’s bid to take over the
sponsorship at renewal time.
programs produced specifically for the syndication market and sale to individual
stations; e.g., Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune, Oprah Winfrey Show. See
off-network syndication and syndication.
an approach to establishing a cooperative advertising fund whereby, for the
specified length of the cooperative advertising program, the advertising fund
grows by a fixed amount with each product purchased by the retailer from the
particular manufacturer; e.g., if the amount per digital camera is set at $8 for
a particular model and $10 for another model, the fund accumulates the
appropriate sum for each product the retailer purchases from the manufacturer.
See accrual account, percentage accrual, and cooperative
costs that do not vary with the quantity produced or sold; see variable
the same, guaranteed
location in a print vehicle taken by an advertiser for several consecutive
issues; sold at a premium rate.
the guaranteed location of
an advertiser’s television or radio commercial at a specific time on a specific
day; sold at a premium rate.
a broadcast advertising rate
that is guaranteed and cannot be taken away or preempted by another advertiser,
even though that advertiser is willing to pay a higher rate; generally, the
highest advertising rate charged or, at the least, a premium price is paid by
the advertiser. See preemptible rate.
fixed-cost contribution per
price per unit minus variable cost per unit; see contribution margin.
a method of advertising agency compensation in which the advertiser and the
agency, prior to the services being performed, agree on a set amount of money
that will be paid to the agency for work done on behalf of the advertiser. See
fee method, commission method, combination method, and
performance-based method. Also see agency commission and
sponsorship marketing, the banners, billboards, electronic messages, and other
stationary signage often displayed on the site of the sponsored property.
in outdoor advertising, a tear in the poster paper that causes it to hand loose
from the billboard.
Flammable Fabrics Act
a 1953 federal law that established flammability safety standards for fabrics.
a new brand introduced to the market by a company that already has a brand in
the same product category; purpose is to attract new customers from different
market segments than those already served by the company with its other brand.
For example, General Mills, already with its premium quality Gold Medal flour,
introducing lower-priced Robin Hood flour. Also called multibranding. See
multibranding, brand extension, and line extension.
the standard advertising
rate in a print vehicle, with no discounts for volume or frequency or of any
kind offered to the advertiser.
Flesch Reading Ease Score
a technique for
assessing the level of difficulty in reading the words in an advertisement,
i.e., the ease with which advertising text or body copy matter may be read;
computation involves determining the average number of words per sentence and
the average number of syllables per word in the advertisement. Scores range from
zero to 100, with standard writing averaging a 60-70 score. The higher the
score, the more people who can easily read and understand the advertising.
Devised by Rudolf Flesch. See Gunning Fog Index.
the period of advertising
activity scheduled between periods of inactivity; i.e., each period during which
there is advertising in a campaign media schedule that also calls for periods of
no advertising. See flighting.
an intermittent advertising
media scheduling pattern in which there are periods of advertising activity
(flights) separated by periods of no advertising at all (hiatuses); for example,
heavy advertising for two weeks, followed by a period of no advertising, and
then another two weeks of heavy advertising. Sometimes referred to as wave
scheduling. See blinking, bursting, continuous scheduling, flight,
hiatus, and pulsing.
see run-of-schedule (ROS).
floor planning help
assistance provided by the manufacturer to a retailer on the store’s floor plan
and layout to help the retailer do the best job of presenting the goods for
sale; assistance is provided by a combination of a sales representative’s
efforts and formal blueprints and guidelines for the retailer to follow.
a point-of-purchase display
that is placed on the store floor.
in advertising design and layout, the principle whereby the arrangement of each
element of an advertisement should be orderly to allow the reader to move easily
and effortlessly through the entire ad; the ad’s elements should be arranged to
capture the reader’s attention and, once having done that, guide the reader from
one element to the next as the advertiser wants to happen. See
balance, contrast, emphasis,
gaze motion, harmony,
a diagram charting the
arrangement and schedule sequence over time of the key elements of an
advertising or promotion campaign; see campaign flowchart, media
flowchart, and work flowchart.
in print advertising,
printed matter (i.e., copy) that is perfectly aligned on the left side (flush
left), the right side (flush right), or on both sides (flush
left and right, or justified); see ragged.
a qualitative research
technique in which eight to twelve people participate in an unstructured group
session akin to brainstorming, with the dialogue guided by a moderator; commonly
used to identify and explore consumer attitudes and viewpoints on issues related
to products, advertising, and promotion programs. Participants are encouraged to
express their opinions and to react to those of the other participants. See
moderator and one-on-one interview.
focus group moderator
the individual who leads and facilitates a focus group research session; see
focus of sale
the basic claim made in the
advertising, around which the creative strategy and the message itself are
built; see Big Idea, key benefit, and unique selling
see Gunning Fox Index.
see market follower.
following reading matter
the stage in the personal selling process that follows the close, and in which
the salesperson must attend to all details relating to the order and influencing
customer satisfaction. Especially important to maintain contact and to do
account maintenance, as after-sale efforts are critical to the development of
long-term customer relationships. See prospecting, pre-approach, approach,
presentation, handling objections, and closing. Also see
see type font.
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) the U.S.
agency that oversees and has authority over all aspects of labeling, packaging,
branding, ingredient listing, and advertising of packaged foods, drug products
(both prescription and over-the-counter), cosmetics, medical devices, and
hearing aids; created in 1938 by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,
though its real beginnings can be traced to the 1906 Food and Drugs Act.
Food and Drugs Act
the original legislation, passed into law in 1906, creating the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) and the predecessor to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (1938); gave the FDA the responsibility of testing all food and drugs
destined for human consumption, and charged the FDA with the task of overseeing
label warnings for certain classes of products, such as habit-forming drugs. See
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Food, Drug, and
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
see sales forecast.
in advertising research,
a research setting in which respondents are shown an advertisement or commercial
in a testing facility (such as a theater or mall storefront facility), as
opposed to a “personal-interview” or “on-air” type of exposure.
a type of
research question in which respondents are asked to rank a series of factors or
items in top-to-bottom first-to-last order to reflect their opinion or belief on
some matter; also called a rank-order scale.
in marketing and advertising research, a particular question’s answer scale that
does not allow for a neutral or “no opinion” choice.
a measure of the extent
to which individuals remember an advertisement, especially during the time
in print advertising, a very
symmetrical layout, in which the ad’s elements, including white space, are
presented with equal weight distribution top to bottom and side to side;
picturing two imaginary lines through the advertisement, one vertical and one
horizontal, splitting the page top to bottom and side to side, the components in
each quadrant are approximately equal in size and shape, i.e., weight. Also
called symmetric balance. See informal balance.
a well-defined, structured,
and organized collection of individuals whose association with one another is
governed by a charter, a code, or a set of rules; e.g., a community service
organization. See informal group, primary group, secondary group, and
the collection and subsequent analysis of primary data for marketing,
advertising, and promotion program purposes; see primary data.
see execution format.
a customer who has not made a purchase from a company for a certain period of
time, or one who has discontinued the use of a particular product; same as
the benefits a consumer receives by virtue of an organization converting raw
materials into a finished product or service that has value for the consumer;
see utility, possession utility, place utility, and time utility.
the premier independent Internet research organization, with enormous data
collection, analysis, and interpretation capabilities, providing great insight
into the impact of technological change on marketers, consumers, and society at
related to sales promotion activities, the retailer’s practice of buying
larger-than-usual quantities to take advantage of a manufacturer’s trade deal;
sometimes a retailer will buy enough inventory to carry it to the next
anticipated trade deal. Sometimes called bridge buying.
in print advertising, an
advertisement that uses a full range of colors; i.e., black, as well as red,
yellow, and blue which, when combined, yield a full-color advertisement. Also
a magazine advertising rate
card designation for a four-color full-page advertisement; can also be expressed
in other ways, such as 1p4c or 4C1Pg.
the product, price, place (distribution), and promotion
components of the marketing mix and the marketing program; see marketing mix.
fourth cover (4C)
the back outside cover
of a magazine; generally, the highest advertising rate in the magazine.
see fractional page.
in print advertising,
any advertisement of less-than-full-page size.
in outdoor advertising,
a number of billboards, or a showing, that is less than one-fourth the number
needed for a full or 100 showing; i.e., something less than a 25 showing. See
full showing and showing.
refers to the increased
number of choices people have regarding media, with their viewing, listening,
and readership spread over a greater array of media types and, in particular,
special interest broadcast and print vehicles.
see sample frame.
a specific position in a
periodical (e.g., back cover of a magazine) reserved for use by an advertiser
through agreement with the publisher, as long as the advertiser continues to use
the position; a position may be negotiated for a particular issue or for a
minimum frequency level (e.g., 26 of 52 issues).
sales promotion activities used in an attempt to enhance a brand’s image and to
foster long-term relationships with consumers, as opposed to being designed for
immediate action with little attention to contributing to the brand’s identity;
e.g., an annual contest in conjunction with a charity or cause. See
a type of vertical marketing system in which there is a formal contract between
an organization (manufacturer or service organization) and an independent party,
i.e., franchiser and franchisee, whereby the latter buys ownership and operating
rights to a unit(s) in the system. Under terms of agreement, the franchiser
grants the franchisee a license to be part of the system, in accordance with
certain stipulations. The franchiser provides the marketing strategy and the
franchisee implements the strategy in its own unit(s). Examples: Ford automobile
dealerships, Coca-Cola bottlers, Hertz auto rental, McDonald’s fast food, or
Holiday Inn motels.
see non-paid circulation.
controlled circulation publication distributed to a select audience without
charge; also called a free publication. See controlled circulation.
a sales promotion activity
in which a manufacturer distributes merchandise to retailers or dealers free of
charge and without obligation.
see free circulation
copywriting, artwork, photography, design, layout, or production of advertising,
typically done by an individual (“free lancer”) on a specific assignment from an
advertiser or an advertising agency; see Rolodex agency.
free-standing insert (FSI)
advertisement or, most often, a coupon sheet(s) placed loose in a newspaper
(especially the Sunday edition); can be one page or, more commonly, several
pages in a stand-alone “booklet” inserted in the Sunday newspaper.
in television advertising,
when a specific frame, or individual picture, is held still for several seconds
on the screen; often-used technique at the close of a commercial.
the number of times
individuals in the target audience are exposed to (reached by) a media vehicle
during a given period of time, say, one week or one month; see average
frequency, effective frequency, reach, and effective reach.
a price reduction
offered to the advertiser by a media vehicle, based on the total amount of
advertising space or time bought by the advertiser in a specified period of
time, such as one year; the more often the advertiser advertises in the media
vehicle in a given time period, the greater the discount. Occasionally referred
to as continuity discount. See per-issue rate.
see frequency program.
a consumer sales
promotion activity in which there is a continuous offer of free merchandise,
services, or discounted prices on future purchases, based on volume or frequency
of purchases by the consumer; designed for customer retention, getting customers
to make repeat purchases. Also called frequent-shopper/reward program,
frequent-user program, loyalty program, continuity program,
frequency marketing or patronage reward.
in the television broadcast
day, refers to early fringe (4:00P.M.-7:00P.M.) or late fringe
(11:30P.M.-1:00A.M); i.e., the periods immediately before prime time and
immediately after late news. See dayparts.
the outermost area touched
by a television or radio station’s signal or a publication’s distribution; the
fringe area for one vehicle normally is overlapped by or in another vehicle’s
primary coverage area.
a periodical of
secondary importance to the advertiser in that it does not reach the target
audience as efficiently or as effectively as others.
the outside cover page of a magazine, i.e., the title page; also called the
first cover (1C).
an advertising sign on
the outside front of a bus or rapid transit vehicle, mounted between the
headlights; also called a headlight poster. See back-end
display and headlight poster.
in advertising scheduling,
allocating the major part of an advertising or promotion budget expenditures to
the early segment of a campaign; see back-end load.
a promotional display at the front section of a retail store, in view
immediately upon entering the store; a prime location for a store display.
the process of carrying out all details relative to a marketer’s sales promotion
program to make sure qualified consumers receive the offer in full; in
sponsorship marketing, the delivery of benefits promised to the sponsors; see
fulfillment house (center)
a firm that provides the services needed to make good on or fulfill offers to
consumers made by marketers; e.g., verifying, picking, packing, and mailing
samples, prizes, coupons, premiums, or rebates to consumers who have met all
requirements set by the marketer for the promotion. Also called a handling
in newspaper advertising, a
preferred position in which the advertisement follows and is adjacent to text,
or is placed near the top of the page and on top of text; usually sold at a
premium price. Also called following reading matter. See preferred
position, run-of-the-press (ROP) position, and island position.
insertion of an
advertisement in every edition of a publication; also refers to when an
advertiser has a car card in every bus or car in a transit system. See full
in outdoor advertising, the
number of billboards needed to obtain complete coverage of the traffic
population (i.e., reach at least once) in a particular market, generally as
measured over a 30-day period; in transit advertising, an advertiser’s car card
in every vehicle in a transit line’s system. Also called a 100 showing.
See outdoor advertising, transit advertising, full run and showing.
see service wholesaler.
program sponsored in its entirety by a single advertiser.
agency that offers its advertisers-clients a complete range of advertising
services, such as management, planning, creative, media, research, production,
and accounting, plus the capabilities to direct or handle the client’s sales
promotion, public relations, and direct marketing efforts; an agency capable of
handling all the promotional needs of its clients. See limited-service
see service wholesaler.
an in-depth review and appraisal of all aspects of one part of an organization’s
marketing program, such as marketing communications, or advertising, sales
promotion, or public relations.
see trade discount.
see performance risk.
functions of intermediaries
see middleman functions.
in Internet marketing, mixing banners with electronic mail advertising and other
types of promotion.