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FCC   see Federal Communications Commission. 

FDA   see Food and Drug Administration. 

FPLA   see Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 

FSI   see free-standing insert. 

FTC   see Federal Trade Commission. 

FWMTS trap   the marketing danger of an organization “forgetting what made them successful;” i.e., when something is working effectively, it is not wise to change simply for the sake of change. If an organization has successfully used an aggressive marketing approach and conditions have not changed, stay with it. No different than a football team successfully employing a particular strategy for three quarters and then changing its strategy to try to protect its lead, failing to remember what it was that got them the lead in the first place. Coined by Jack Trout and Al Ries in Positioning: The Battle for the Mind.

face   in out-of-home advertising, the surface area on which advertising copy appears. 

face value   the redeemable value of a coupon, printed on the coupon itself. 

facing   in outdoor advertising, a single billboard; also may refer to the direction of the billboard face relative to traffic flow, e.g., a billboard panel facing west can be read by traffic heading east. Term also refers to exposure of a product package in the front row of a retail shelf, with total exposure of a specific item measured by the number of facings it has along the front row on a horizontal plane (vertical stacks count as one facing). 

facing editorial page   in print advertising, a position request or instruction from an advertiser to a publication to place an advertisement opposite editorial (text) matter; i.e., adjacent to a non-advertising page. Also called facing text.     

facing text   see facing editorial page. 

factory pack   a multiple units of a product, usually three, six, or twelve, packaged together as one package by the manufacturer. The term can also refer to a premium attached to or inside a package, called an on-pack premium or an in-pack premium, respectively; see premium. 

fact sheet   a listing or description of a product’s features and selling points given to the copywriter for use in creating an advertisement; supplements the creative brief. Also refers to a page that usually is part of a company’s press kit, on which is a description of the firm’ business, its address, telephone number, key contacts, and other basic information. See creative brief. 

fact-sheet radio commercial   a live (vs. taped) radio commercial in which the announcer ad-libs the commercial using a sheet containing only the key selling points of a product or service; as opposed to a formal and complete  script used to read the commercial word-by-word. See live copy and live-script radio commercial. 

fad   a product or idea that is considered fashionable or “in” for a very short time before it is gone just as quickly as it came on the scene; see fashion and style. 

fade   in television advertising, the slow continuous evolvement of an image on the screen, from black, or from another image, to a full clear picture (fade-in) or, in reverse, from a fully visible picture, a gradual disappearance to black, or to another image (fade-out). 

failure fee   a trade promotion agreement whereby the manufacturer makes a payment as a penalty fee to the retailer when a product does not achieve an expected or mutually-agreed-upon sales level in the retailer’s store, usually resulting in the product being dropped from the retailer’s inventory; see exit fee. 

Fair Credit Reporting Act   a law passed in 1970 regulating all aspect of credit reporting. See Consumer Credit Protection Act. 

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act   a 1966 federal law establishing mandatory labeling requirements and promoting voluntary industry adoption of packaging standards, including number of sizes offered for sale; enacted to combat false, misleading, and deceptive packaging.  

fair trade   by permission of federal law (Miller-Tydings Act of 1937) and the individual states that adopted it the law, a formal agreement between a manufacturer and retailer in which the retailer agreed to a retail price for a product below which it would not be sold; law was ruled unconstitutional in 1975. Intent was to protect small retailers from the price competition of large retailers that, by virtue of high-volume buying, could offer unmatched low prices to the consumer. Also called resale price maintenance. See Miller-Tydings Act and Consumer Goods Pricing Act.       

Fairness Doctrine   in television, a now-defunct requirement that a network or station was required to offer equal time to both sides of especially significant matters or issues; an order of the Federal Communications Commission (FTC). 

familiarity   see brand familiarity.  

family   see type family. 

family brand   when a manufacturer’s several products are all marketed under the same brand name; e.g., Kellogg’s cereals, Campbell’s soups and tomato juice, Pastene pasta and olive oil. See individual brand. 

family decision making   as opposed to consumer decision making, the process of decision making exhibited by the family as a unit, including the roles played by individual family members. 

family life cycle   a classification scheme based on changes in families over time; the family goes through various stages, affected by factors such as marriage, births, aging, and changes in income. Examples: Full Nest 1—youngest child under six; Full Nest 2—youngest child over six; Empty Nest 1—older marrieds, household head in workforce, no children at home; Empty Nest 2—older marrieds, household head retired, no children at home. Particularly noteworthy for marketers are the changes in buying behavior and consumption patterns that occur with changes in family size, ages, income, needs, wants, and other factors.  

fantasy format   in advertising, a creative execution format that puts the consumer in another realm or lifestyle, i.e., a “dreamworld”; e.g., a Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines magazine advertisement showing the luxurious accommodations and pampering on a cruise, a commercial fast-forwards a young girl to an Olympics champion on her Rossignol skis, or a commercial showing a weekend duffer outplaying Tiger Woods down the stretch to win the U.S. Open with his new Callaway golf clubs. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

farm advertising   see agricultural advertising. 

farm publication   a  print publication directed to those in the farming industry. 

farmer   a sales representative who grows sales to existing accounts. 

fashion  a currently-popular fashion; see fad and style. 

fast-close advertising   in magazine advertising, the opportunity for an advertiser to submit advertising materials after the closing date specified in the publication’s media kit for publication in a particular issue; typically, there is a premium charge, and not all magazines provide the opportunity. See closing date. 

fear appeals   an advertiser’s attempt to draw consumers to its product by playing on the consumer’s anxiety or uneasiness and the negative consequences that would result by not buying and using that particular brand; using a person’s worries as a basis for connecting him or her to a product. Example: a financial services advertiser who shows a family in dire circumstances because the breadwinner did not have an adequate financial plan before his untimely end. Example: a computer maker’s advertising showing a young student far behind his or her classmates because there is no PC at home, implying there is no chance to catch up unless the advertiser’s computer is bought. 

feature analysis   in the situation analysis stage of the marketing communications planning process, an advertiser’s side-by-side, point-by-point comparison of the features and attributes of its product against the competitive products. See situation analysis. 

features   see product features. 

Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act   a law passed in 1965 requiring all cigarette cartons and packages to include health warnings; periodic amendments strengthened the wording of the warning statement, prohibited cigarette advertising on any medium of electronic communication (e.g., television and radio), extended the warning statement requirement to all advertising, and required smokeless tobacco to adhere to the warning requirements and the prohibition of advertising on television and radio.  

Federal Communications Act   a 1934 law to regulate all phases of broadcast communications; created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). 

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)   the federal government agency that regulates broadcast communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable; its authority extends to all aspects of licensing broadcast stations and encouraging competition, as well as to control over advertising content and what products and services are acceptable to be advertised on radio or television, ensuring that broadcast programs and advertising are in the public interest. Established by the Communications Act of 1934. On matters of advertising regulation, the FCC works closely with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). See Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act   a law passed in 1938 to prohibit harmful practices in the production of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Several later amendments allowed for removal of any drug from the market if it became a public health hazard or if it was shown to be ineffective, established uniform standards for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and required manufacturers to provide more information on drug labels (including the common drug name, ingredients, and side effects). Other amendments included provision relating to medical devices and nutrition labeling and education. The Act established the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be responsible for enforcement. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Medical Device Regulation Act, and Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). Also see Food and Drugs Act.

Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act   a 1960 law governing labeling requirements for all packaged household products that contain hazardous substances.


federal regulation   the entire set of acts, laws, and other measures sponsored, directed, and enforced by the federal government to control the conduct of marketers and marketing activities in the public interest; see state regulation, local regulation, in-house regulation, and self-regulation.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)   the principal federal government agency exercising regulatory authority and control over advertising practices and actions; protects both consumers and businesses from anticompetitive behavior and unfair, fraudulent, misleading, and deceptive practices. Has been empowered to enforce other consumer protection laws and to regulate advertising’s effect on both consumers and businesses since enactment of the Wheeler-Lea Amendment in 1938. See Wheeler-Lea Amendment and Federal Trade Commission Act. 

Federal Trade Commission Act   the 1914 federal law that created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); the act was designed to enforce antitrust laws (e.g., Sherman and Clayton acts) by helping to restrain unfair practices and methods of competition including, in later interpretations, false advertising that resulted in injury to a competitor. Since an “injury-to-a-competitor” ruling does little to protect consumers from the advertising malpractices, the Wheeler-Lea Amendment was passed in 1938 to include protection of consumers. See Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Wheeler-Lea Amendment. 

Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act   See Magnusson-Moss Product Warranty Act. 

Federal Trademark Dilution Act   a 1995 federal statute that expanded the Lanham Act’s provisions, with a purpose to "protect famous trademarks from subsequent uses that blur the distinctiveness of the mark or tarnish or disparage it, even in the absence of a likelihood of confusion."; proving infringement on its “famous” trademark does not require the trademark owner to show proof of economic harm. (Determination of what constitutes a “famous” trademark is done on a case-by-case approach, with a series of determining factors to be used in the judgment, as set forth by the Act.) See Lanham Act, trademark, and Trademark Law Revision Act.   

fee method of agency compensation   an system of advertising agency compensation, in which the advertiser and the agency agree on a fixed sum (usually on an hourly basis, but sometimes on a monthly basis) for services provided by the agency on behalf of the client (as an alternative to the commission form of compensation); amount of compensation is determined by a cost-plus-fixed fee formula. When the commission method is used, a fee may be in place but only for those situations in which a commission is not given by the agency’s supplier. The advertising agency’s total compensation often is a fee-commission combination plan. Sometimes called fixed-fee method, cost-plus method, or retainer method. See commission method, combination method, performance-based method, and cost-plus-fixed fee. Also see agency commission and sliding rate.   

feedback   the reaction of the receiver of an advertiser’s or marketer’s message, which travels back and is made known to the sender or source of the message. 

fighter brand   a brand used by a company that has another brand entry in the same product category to combat competing brands in hope of protecting its other brand; firm uses this brand to respond to competitive tactics such as deals, price reductions, or other sales promotion activities and, in the process, insulates its other brand in that category.  

field marketing   the practice of a manufacturer deploying its sales representatives or other personnel to retail stores to generate greater interest and sales of its products; e.g., provide help with in-store promotions or assisting the retailer is better store layout or use of displays. See missionary selling. 

field of experience   the totality of what a consumer brings to the marketplace and which influences the decision-making process; e.g., past experience, perceptions, attitudes, values, and other factors that affect his or her behavior in the marketplace. 

field test   in marketing and advertising research, any of a variety of attempts to measure consumers’ reactions to advertising or other promotion technique under actual conditions, as opposed to laboratory or artificial settings; see laboratory test. 

field work   in marketing and advertising research, research activities such as surveys conducted at a location other than that of the firm, e.g., in the home or at a shopping mall. 

:15   designation for a fifteen-second television or radio commercial. 

15 percent   see agency commission. 

50 showing   in outdoor advertising, an expression indicating that 50 percent of a given market's population will be reached (i.e., will have the opportunity to see) a particular advertiser's message by virtue of the number and placement of an advertiser's billboard panels in the market, in a 30-day period; see outdoor advertising, showing, 25 showing, 75 showing, and 100 showing.

file copy   generally, a second copy of an advertising execution, document, or any other matter relating to a marketing communications campaign, kept as a record by the client, agency, and media; e.g., see air check. 

file proof   proof of an advertisement filed away for record purposes and safekeeping. 

fill-in   in direct mail, copy that is inserted into a form letter to give it a personal touch; e.g., the recipient’s name, attendance at a recent event, purchase of a particular product or service, or some other copy that has specific meaning to that individual recipient of the direct mail piece. 

financial risk   in consumer decision making, the chance the buyer will pay too much or have to forgo other purchases; See risk-taking, performance risk, physical risk, social risk, and time-loss risk.   

finder’s fee   payment to a party who serves as an intermediary in bringing together two organizations for business dealing; e.g., an individual’s compensation for connecting an advertiser with an advertising agency or for bringing a client into the fold for a sales promotion firm. 

finished art   artwork that is complete in all respects and is ready for reproduction; usually referred to as camera-ready artwork. 

firewall   a specially-designed system that serves as a “wall” between a user’s personal computer and the Internet system; a security measure to monitor Internet traffic and protect the user from unauthorized invasion or tampering. 

First Amendment Rights   see commercial speech. 

first cover (1C)   the front outside cover of a magazine; also called the front cover.  

first right of refusal   in sponsorship marketing, a formal agreement between a sponsor and a property in which the sponsor has the right to match another company’s bid to take over the sponsorship at renewal time. 

first-run syndication   television programs produced specifically for the syndication market and sale to individual stations; e.g., Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune, Oprah Winfrey Show. See off-network syndication and syndication. 

fixed accrual   an approach to establishing a cooperative advertising fund whereby, for the specified length of the cooperative advertising program, the advertising fund grows by a fixed amount with each product purchased by the retailer from the particular manufacturer; e.g., if the amount per digital camera is set at $8 for a particular model and $10 for another model, the fund accumulates the appropriate sum for each product the retailer purchases from the manufacturer. See accrual account, percentage accrual, and cooperative advertising.   

fixed costs   costs that do not vary with the quantity produced or sold; see variable costs. 

fixed location   the same, guaranteed location in a print vehicle taken by an advertiser for several consecutive issues; sold at a premium rate.    

fixed position   the guaranteed location of an advertiser’s television or radio commercial at a specific time on a specific day; sold at a premium rate. 

fixed rate   a broadcast advertising rate that is guaranteed and cannot be taken away or preempted by another advertiser, even though that advertiser is willing to pay a higher rate; generally, the highest advertising rate charged or, at the least, a premium price is paid by the advertiser. See preemptible rate. 

fixed-cost contribution per unit   selling price per unit minus variable cost per unit; see contribution margin. 

fixed-fee method   a method of advertising agency compensation in which the advertiser and the agency, prior to the services being performed, agree on a set amount of money that will be paid to the agency for work done on behalf of the advertiser. See fee method, commission method, combination method, and performance-based method. Also see agency commission and sliding rate.   

fixed-position messages   primarily in sponsorship marketing, the banners, billboards, electronic messages, and other stationary signage often displayed on the site of the sponsored property. 

flagging   in outdoor advertising, a tear in the poster paper that causes it to hand loose from the billboard. 

Flammable Fabrics Act   a 1953 federal law that established flammability safety standards for fabrics. 

flanker brand   a new brand introduced to the market by a company that already has a brand in the same product category; purpose is to attract new customers from different market segments than those already served by the company with its other brand. For example, General Mills, already with its premium quality Gold Medal flour, introducing lower-priced Robin Hood flour. Also called multibranding. See multibranding, brand extension, and line extension. 

flat rate   the standard advertising rate in a print vehicle, with no discounts for volume or frequency or of any kind offered to the advertiser. 

Flesch Reading Ease Score  a technique for assessing the level of difficulty in reading the words in an advertisement, i.e., the ease with which advertising text or body copy matter may be read; computation involves determining the average number of words per sentence and the average number of syllables per word in the advertisement. Scores range from zero to 100, with standard writing averaging a 60-70 score. The higher the score, the more people who can easily read and understand the advertising. Devised by Rudolf Flesch. See Gunning Fog Index.

flight   the period of advertising activity scheduled between periods of inactivity; i.e., each period during which there is advertising in a campaign media schedule that also calls for periods of no advertising. See flighting. 

flighting   an intermittent advertising media scheduling pattern in which there are periods of advertising activity (flights) separated by periods of no advertising at all (hiatuses); for example, heavy advertising for two weeks, followed by a period of no advertising, and then another two weeks of heavy advertising. Sometimes referred to as wave scheduling. See blinking, bursting, continuous scheduling, flight, hiatus, and pulsing. 

floating time   see run-of-schedule (ROS). 

floor planning help    assistance provided by the manufacturer to a retailer on the store’s floor plan and layout to help the retailer do the best job of presenting the goods for sale; assistance is provided by a combination of a sales representative’s efforts and formal blueprints and guidelines for the retailer to follow. 

floorstand   a point-of-purchase display that is placed on the store floor. 

flow   in advertising design and layout, the principle whereby the arrangement of each element of an advertisement should be orderly to allow the reader to move easily and effortlessly through the entire ad; the ad’s elements should be arranged to capture the reader’s attention and, once having done that, guide the reader from one element to the next as the advertiser wants to happen. See balance, contrast, emphasis, gaze motion, harmony, and unity. 

flowchart   a diagram charting the arrangement and schedule sequence over time of the key elements of an advertising or promotion campaign; see campaign flowchart, media flowchart, and work flowchart. 

flush   in print advertising, printed matter (i.e., copy) that is perfectly aligned on the left side (flush left), the right side (flush right), or on both sides (flush left and right, or justified); see ragged. 

flyer   see handbill. 

focus group   a qualitative research technique in which eight to twelve people participate in an unstructured group session akin to brainstorming, with the dialogue guided by a moderator; commonly used to identify and explore consumer attitudes and viewpoints on issues related to products, advertising, and promotion programs. Participants are encouraged to express their opinions and to react to those of the other participants. See moderator and one-on-one interview. 

focus group moderator   the individual who leads and facilitates a focus group research session; see focus group. 

focus of sale   the basic claim made in the advertising, around which the creative strategy and the message itself are built; see Big Idea, key benefit, and unique selling proposition (USP). 

Fog Index   see Gunning Fox Index. 

foldout   see gatefold. 

follower   see market follower. 

following reading matter   see full position. 

follow-up   the stage in the personal selling process that follows the close, and in which the salesperson must attend to all details relating to the order and influencing customer satisfaction. Especially important to maintain contact and to do account maintenance, as after-sale efforts are critical to the development of long-term customer relationships. See prospecting, pre-approach, approach, presentation, handling objections, and closing. Also see relationship marketing. 

font   see type font. 

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)   the U.S. agency that oversees and has authority over all aspects of labeling, packaging, branding, ingredient listing, and advertising of packaged foods, drug products (both prescription and over-the-counter), cosmetics, medical devices, and hearing aids; created in 1938 by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, though its real beginnings can be traced to the 1906 Food and Drugs Act. 

Food and Drugs Act   the original legislation, passed into law in 1906, creating the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the predecessor to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938); gave the FDA the responsibility of testing all food and drugs destined for human consumption, and charged the FDA with the task of overseeing label warnings for certain classes of products, such as habit-forming drugs. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act   see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.    

forecast  see sales forecast. 

forced exposure   in advertising research, a research setting in which respondents are shown an advertisement or commercial in a testing facility (such as a theater or mall storefront facility), as opposed to a “personal-interview” or “on-air” type of exposure.   

forced-ranking question   a type of research question in which respondents are asked to rank a series of factors or items in top-to-bottom first-to-last order to reflect their opinion or belief on some matter; also called a rank-order scale. 

forced-rating scale   in marketing and advertising research, a particular question’s answer scale that does not allow for a neutral or “no opinion” choice.  

forgetting rate   a measure of the extent to which individuals remember an advertisement, especially during the time between exposures. 

formal balance   in print advertising, a very symmetrical layout, in which the ad’s elements, including white space, are presented with equal weight distribution top to bottom and side to side; picturing two imaginary lines through the advertisement, one vertical and one horizontal, splitting the page top to bottom and side to side, the components in each quadrant are approximately equal in size and shape, i.e., weight. Also called symmetric balance. See informal balance. 

formal group   a well-defined, structured, and organized collection of individuals whose association with one another is governed by a charter, a code, or a set of rules; e.g., a community service organization. See informal group, primary group, secondary group, and reference group. 

formal research   the collection and subsequent analysis of primary data for marketing, advertising, and promotion program purposes; see primary data. 

format   see execution format. 

former buyer   a customer who has not made a purchase from a company for a certain period of time, or one who has discontinued the use of a particular product; same as former user. 

form utility   the benefits a consumer receives by virtue of an organization converting raw materials into a finished product or service that has value for the consumer; see utility, possession utility, place utility, and time utility.    

Forrester Research   the premier independent Internet research organization, with enormous data collection, analysis, and interpretation capabilities, providing great insight into the impact of technological change on marketers, consumers, and society at large. 

forward buying   related to sales promotion activities, the retailer’s practice of buying larger-than-usual quantities to take advantage of a manufacturer’s trade deal; sometimes a retailer will buy enough inventory to carry it to the next anticipated trade deal. Sometimes called bridge buying. 

four-color   in print advertising, an advertisement that uses a full range of colors; i.e., black, as well as red, yellow, and blue which, when combined, yield a full-color advertisement. Also called full-color. 

4CP   a magazine advertising rate card designation for a four-color full-page advertisement; can also be expressed in other ways, such as 1p4c or 4C1Pg. 

4 Ps   the product, price, place (distribution), and promotion components of the marketing mix and the marketing program; see marketing mix  

fourth cover (4C)   the back outside cover of a magazine; generally, the highest advertising rate in the magazine. 

fractional ad   see fractional page. 

fractional page   in print advertising, any advertisement of less-than-full-page size. 

fractional showing   in outdoor advertising, a number of billboards, or a showing, that is less than one-fourth the number needed for a full or 100 showing; i.e., something less than a 25 showing. See full showing and showing. 

fragmentation   refers to the increased number of choices people have regarding media, with their viewing, listening, and readership spread over a greater array of media types and, in particular, special interest broadcast and print vehicles. 

frame   see sample frame. 

franchise position   a specific position in a periodical (e.g., back cover of a magazine) reserved for use by an advertiser through agreement with the publisher, as long as the advertiser continues to use the position; a position may be negotiated for a particular issue or for a minimum frequency level (e.g., 26 of 52 issues). 

franchise-building promotions   sales promotion activities used in an attempt to enhance a brand’s image and to foster long-term relationships with consumers, as opposed to being designed for immediate action with little attention to contributing to the brand’s identity; e.g., an annual contest in conjunction with a charity or cause. See nonfranchise-building promotions.  

franchising   a type of vertical marketing system in which there is a formal contract between an organization (manufacturer or service organization) and an independent party, i.e., franchiser and franchisee, whereby the latter buys ownership and operating rights to a unit(s) in the system. Under terms of agreement, the franchiser grants the franchisee a license to be part of the system, in accordance with certain stipulations. The franchiser provides the marketing strategy and the franchisee implements the strategy in its own unit(s). Examples: Ford automobile dealerships, Coca-Cola bottlers, Hertz auto rental, McDonald’s fast food, or Holiday Inn motels.      

free circulation   see non-paid circulation. 

free circulation publication  a controlled circulation publication distributed to a select audience without charge; also called a free publication. See controlled circulation. 

free goods   a sales promotion activity in which a manufacturer distributes merchandise to retailers or dealers free of charge and without obligation. 

free offer   see giveaway. 

free premium   see premium. 

free publication   see free circulation publication.  

freelance   independent per-job copywriting, artwork, photography, design, layout, or production of advertising, typically done by an individual (“free lancer”) on a specific assignment from an advertiser or an advertising agency; see Rolodex agency. 

free-standing insert (FSI)   a preprinted advertisement or, most often, a coupon sheet(s) placed loose in a newspaper (especially the Sunday edition); can be one page or, more commonly, several pages in a stand-alone “booklet” inserted in the Sunday newspaper. 

freeze frame   in television advertising, when a specific frame, or individual picture, is held still for several seconds on the screen; often-used technique at the close of a commercial. 

frequency   the number of times individuals in the target audience are exposed to (reached by) a media vehicle during a given period of time, say, one week or one month; see average frequency, effective frequency, reach, and effective reach. 

frequency discount   a price reduction offered to the advertiser by a media vehicle, based on the total amount of advertising space or time bought by the advertiser in a specified period of time, such as one year; the more often the advertiser advertises in the media vehicle in a given time period, the greater the discount. Occasionally referred to as continuity discount. See per-issue rate. 

frequency marketing   see frequency program. 

frequency program   a consumer sales promotion activity in which there is a continuous offer of free merchandise, services, or discounted prices on future purchases, based on volume or frequency of purchases by the consumer; designed for customer retention, getting customers to make repeat purchases. Also called frequent-shopper/reward program, frequent-user program, loyalty program, continuity program, frequency marketing or patronage reward. 

frequent-shopper program  see frequency program. 

fringe   in the television broadcast day, refers to early fringe (4:00P.M.-7:00P.M.) or late fringe (11:30P.M.-1:00A.M); i.e., the periods immediately before prime time and immediately after late news. See dayparts.  

fringe area   the outermost area touched by a television or radio station’s signal or a publication’s distribution; the fringe area for one vehicle normally is overlapped by or in another vehicle’s primary coverage area. 

fringe publication   a periodical of secondary importance to the advertiser in that it does not reach the target audience as efficiently or as effectively as others. 

fringe time   see fringe. 

front cover   the outside cover page of a magazine, i.e., the title page; also called the first cover (1C). 

front-end display   an advertising sign on the outside front of a bus or rapid transit vehicle, mounted between the headlights; also called a headlight poster. See back-end display and headlight poster.  

front-end load   in advertising scheduling, allocating the major part of an advertising or promotion budget expenditures to the early segment of a campaign; see back-end load. 

front-of-store display   a promotional display at the front section of a retail store, in view immediately upon entering the store; a prime location for a store display. 

fulfillment   the process of carrying out all details relative to a marketer’s sales promotion program to make sure qualified consumers receive the offer in full; in sponsorship marketing, the delivery of benefits promised to the sponsors; see fulfillment house.     

fulfillment house (center)   a firm that provides the services needed to make good on or fulfill offers to consumers made by marketers; e.g., verifying, picking, packing, and mailing samples, prizes, coupons, premiums, or rebates to consumers who have met all requirements set by the marketer for the promotion. Also called a handling house. 

full disclosure   see affirmative disclosure.    

full position   in newspaper advertising, a preferred position in which the advertisement follows and is adjacent to text, or is placed near the top of the page and on top of text; usually sold at a premium price. Also called following reading matter. See preferred position, run-of-the-press (ROP) position, and island position. 

full run   insertion of an advertisement in every edition of a publication; also refers to when an advertiser has a car card in every bus or car in a transit system. See full showing. 

full showing   in outdoor advertising, the number of billboards needed to obtain complete coverage of the traffic population (i.e., reach at least once) in a particular market, generally as measured over a 30-day period; in transit advertising, an advertiser’s car card in every vehicle in a transit line’s system. Also called a 100 showing. See outdoor advertising, transit advertising, full run and showing. 

full-color   see four-color. 

full-function wholesaler   see service wholesaler. 

full-program sponsorship   a broadcast program sponsored in its entirety by a single advertiser. 

full-service advertising agency   an agency that offers its advertisers-clients a complete range of advertising services, such as management, planning, creative, media, research, production, and accounting, plus the capabilities to direct or handle the client’s sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing efforts; an agency capable of handling all the promotional needs of its clients. See limited-service advertising agency

full-service wholesaler   see service wholesaler. 

functional audit   an in-depth review and appraisal of all aspects of one part of an organization’s marketing program, such as marketing communications, or  advertising, sales promotion, or public relations. 

functional discount   see trade discount. 

functional risk   see performance risk

functions of intermediaries   see middleman functions. 

fusion marketing   in Internet marketing, mixing banners with electronic mail advertising and other types of promotion.