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EDLP   see everyday low pricing. 

EPA   see Environmental Protection Agency. 

early adopters   the second group of the adopter categories in the diffusion process of new products, services, or ideas, i.e., those individuals who adopt a new product after the innovators; are very often opinion leaders and generally motivated by social acceptance and a desire to be trendy. See adoption process, adopter categories, adoption curve, diffusion process, innovators, early majority, late majority, and laggards. 

early fringe   in the television broadcast day, the time period 3:30pm-7:00pm; see dayparts (television). 

early majority   the third group of the adopter categories in the diffusion process of new products, services, or ideas, i.e., those individuals who adopt a new product after the innovators and early adopters; tend to be somewhat cautious in accepting a new product, preferring to wait until it has proven successful with other people. See adoption process, adopter categories, adoption curve, diffusion process, innovators, early adopters, late majority, and laggards.   

early morning   in the television broadcast day, the time period 6:00am-9:00am; see dayparts (television). 

early news   in the television broadcast day, the time period 5:30pm-7:00pm; see dayparts (television). 

earned rate   the actual rate paid by an advertiser for time and space used, during a contract period, including all discounts for volume and frequency; see card rate, contract rate and short rate. 

e-business   see electronic commerce. 

e-commerce   see electronic commerce.  

economic cost   see opportunity cost. 

economic indicators   various measures, statistics, and indices used to indicate the level and trend of economic activity and the state of business conditions; e.g., Consumer Price Index, employment rate, Dow-Jones Average, housing starts, gross national product. 

economies of scale   the principle that describes lower average costs resulting from “mass” production of a product; as the quantity produced increases, the cost of each unit decreases. Principle can be applied to non-production situations, e.g., marketing economies that result when the cost of advertising is spread across a high level of sales that occur from the advertising. A reason why market share is said to drive profitability. 

editing   most commonly refers to television advertising production and the process of assembling the final version of the commercial from several different camera shots and scenes; may refer to any type of advertising and the modification of the ad’s components to arrive at the final version. 

edition   a copy of a publication that is printed from a single typesetting, though minor changes may be made during the printing run, such as may happen for late-breaking news as a newspaper goes to press; an edition becomes a new edition when major changes are made in the typesetting. See typesetting. 

editorial compatability   the match, suitability, or fit between a company and its product and the editorial content offered by a particular publication or media vehicle; see program compatability. 

editorial environment   the overall character of a publication, including elements such as content, appearance, style, philosophy, and anything else that affects its basic spirit. 

editorial matter   the non-advertising part of a publication; i.e., the text of a magazine, such as news articles.  

effective circulation   see reach and effective reach; also see circulation.  

effective cost-per-thousand  see cost-per-thousand—target audience (CPM-TA).     

effective frequency   the number (or range) of exposures or repetitions needed for advertising to be effective or have impact in communicating to the individuals in a target audience, such as to increase awareness, to change attitude, to generate action, or to stimulate a particular response; i.e., how many exposures are required for the message to achieve the advertiser’s objectives, register with, or “get through” to the audience, or to have a minimum level of impact. See frequency. 

effective reach   the number or percent of the target audience who have been exposed to the message enough times to be aware of it; may be viewed as the quality of exposure. See reach. 

effects   in television advertising, a variety of schemes electronically inserted within the commercial to increase visual attractiveness and impact; see wipe. 

efficiency   refers to the relative costs of media delivery to a specific audience; the balance between audience size and media cost. See cost efficiency. 

efficiency measures   in media planning, the specific tools used to evaluate the relationship between audience size and media cost; allow the media planner to make intermedia and intramedia comparisons. For commonly used tools and methods, see cost-per-point (CPP), cost-per-thousand (CPM), and cost-per-thousand--target audience (CPM-TA). See cost efficiency. 

Effie Awards   annual recognition of the most effective advertising campaigns based on results in terms of achievement of the campaigns’ stated objectives; organized and presented by the New York chapter of the American Marketing Association. 

8-sheet poster   an outdoor advertising panel approximately one-fourth the size of the 30-sheet poster (the standard poster and the most commonly used out-of-home format), with a 6’ high x 12’ wide surface and a 5’ high x 11’ wide live copy area; most frequently used in densely populated urban areas and neighborhoods, plus suburban shopping areas and point-of-purchase locales. Also called a junior panel or junior poster. See outdoor bulletin, out-of-home media, outdoor poster, 24-sheet poster, 30-sheet poster, permanent bulletin, and poster panel. 

80-20 rule   the concept that a relatively small portion of customers may account for a larger portion of a product’s sales; e.g., in industrial marketing, the idea that 80 percent of a product’s sales come from 20 percent of the customers. Extended to marketing and advertising: the large majority of market share in a product category is held by a small number of companies or the large majority of advertising is done by a minority of the advertisers. Also called the Pareto rule. 

elastic demand   a situation in which a specific percentage change in price leads to a larger percentage change in the quantity demanded; i.e., consumer demand for the product or service is price-sensitive. Example: a three percent reduction in price results in a five percent jump in the quantity demanded. See inelastic demand, skimming price policy, and penetration price policy. 

electronic advertising   an advertising message delivered via television, radio, or the Internet. 

electronic billboard   an electronic sign that displays information, displays, and messages, including advertising messages, in public places, such as sports stadiums, airline terminals, shopping centers, or at some highway locations; essentially a giant TV screen located at a public place.   

electronic commerce   using the Internet to communicate with target audiences to arrange for buying and selling transactions; i.e., conducting business on-line. 

electronic couponing   computer-generated in-store coupons issued by a machine at the point of purchase, most commonly at the checkout counter; also includes coupons downloaded off the Internet.  

electronic mail   on the Internet, a means of individuals communicating with one another; messages are composed on a computer and sent electronically to a recipient computer user. 

electronic media   general term for television and radio as advertising media, and also refers to the Internet; see broadcast media. 

electronic promotion   any promotion communicated to the target audience by means of a personal computer, and for which the consumer responds online. 

electronic retail promotions   see electronic couponing; term also applies to instant price reductions taken at the time of checkout. 

electronic retailing   see e-tailing. 

electronic shopping   online shopping for products and service by means of a personal computer. 

e-mail   see electronic mail. 

e-mail advertising   the use of the Internet’s electronic mail function for sending advertising messages. 

embedded advertising   see product placement.

embellishment   see cut-out. 

emergency products   goods that are purchased immediately to satisfy an urgent need which, if not filled right away, will cause big problems ; beyond health- or safety-related needs and products, lost or stolen luggage may require an unplanned and immediate purchase of a new suit for a business meeting. 

emotional appeals   in designing and executing advertising messages, a basis used to attract and engage the consumer through feelings and sentiments related to elements such as pleasure, pride, ambition, fear, humor, romance, status, protection of others, love, security, personal comfort, appearance, social approval, achievement, and a host of other links to the sensitivity of the individual’s psychological and social need; see appeals and rational appeals. 

emotional motives   in consumer behavior, the personal or subjective reasons for choosing a particular alternative or course of action; as contrasted with rational motives, which focus on economic or objective bases in making marketplace decisions. See motive and rational motives. 

emphasis   in advertising design and layout, the principle related to making one element of the advertisement, such as the headline or an illustration, more prominent that the other elements as a means to get the reader’s attention to focus on that element. See balance, contrast, flow, gaze motion, harmony, and unity. 

empirical research method   a research method based on the collection of new data from the marketplace; see primary data and secondary data. 

encoding   the manner and process by which an advertiser selects words and visuals to convey a particular message; the stage of the communications model in which the sender (advertiser) puts the message into language (words, symbols, illustrations) that will stimulate the receiver (prospective buyer) to the action desired by the advertiser. Putting the message into language, via words, symbols, tone, and other elements that make up language the advertiser believes will be understood and will influence the prospective buyer to take the particular action desired by the advertiser. Translating an idea into a message that will convey the intended meaning. See decoding  

Encyclopedia of Associations   a comprehensive compilation of detailed information on not-for-profit associations; contains a huge database of descriptions, addresses, contact personnel, research activities, publications, and other key information on industry trade associations, professional societies, and organizations of all types. 

end-of-aisle display   a point-of-purchase display located at the end of a shopping aisle; considered a prime location, commanding the highest fees. Often used for high margin impulse items. Also known as an end, end cap, or just plain end display  

endorsement   a statement indicating approval of the product, service, idea, or other subject of the advertising, made by an individual or by an organization  speaking on behalf of the advertiser; the individual, or spokesperson, may be a celebrity, an expert, an authority figure, or a typical consumer. As opposed to a testimonial, whose statement is based on actual experience, an endorsement may or may not be based on actual use of the product. Federal Trade Commission rules require substantiation or proof of the endorser’s claims. See spokesperson and testimonial. 

endorser   the individual who appears in a commercial or advertisement in support of the advertiser or its product; see endorsement. 

end-user   the individual or company that actually uses the advertiser’s product or service. 

Engel’s Laws   the proposition that people shift their spending patterns as income rises; spending on food, housing, transportation, and other goods and services changes as income rises. Put forth by Ernst Engel. 

engineering of consent   a term used to describe the overriding mission of  public relations efforts, which most often involve an attempt to gain agreement or support for an issue or idea; coined by Edward L. Bernays, considered by many to be the “father of public relations.” 

entertainment marketing   promoting and selling a wide range of products such as spectator sports, festivals, fairs, movies, music concert tours, theme parks, and other attractions. 

enthusiast publication   see special-interest magazine. 

entitlement sponsorship  in television, a single advertiser's exclusive sponsorship of a program (often a signature movie). Designed to break through the usual clutter of television advertising. Typically, only four minutes of advertising per hour vs. the normal 12-20 minutes. Such exclusivity or reduced-commercial advertising commands a premium rate per commercial. 

envelope stuffer   promotional material or an item inserted into a direct mail envelope along with what is being sent to fulfill an order or request for information. 

environment analysis   an integral part of the situation analysis or preliminary investigation conducted prior to a promotion campaign; focus is on the social, cultural, economic, technological, and political factors as they affect consumers to whom the advertising and promotion will be aimed. 

environmental marketing   marketing programs and efforts designed with their environmental impact in mind and resulting in strategies and actions that have a beneficial effect on human health and on the natural world in which we reside.  

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)   the federal agency established in 1970 to protect human health and the natural environment (air, water, and land) by overseeing the repair to environmental damage, establishing standards and programs for a cleaner environment, and enforcing regulations pertaining to the environment. Provides leadership and works closely with other federal agencies, as well as with state and local governments on all matters relating to the quality of the environment. 

environmentalism   individuals’ and organizations’ concern, often via coalition or crusade-type drive, the protection and improvement of the environment in which we live; a movement involving citizens who care, businesses of all types, and government at all levels. 

equal opportunity rule   in television, the requirement that a station, if it permits the use of its broadcast facilities for one public office candidate, it must offer the same facilities to other candidates vying for the same public office; a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule as part of the Communications Act. 

equal time   in television, the requirement that when a station sells (or gives) time to a candidate for public office, it must offer equivalent time to other candidates for the same public office; a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule as part of the Communications Act. 

equivalency   see media equivalency. 

e-tailing   conducting retailing activities via the Internet; see electronic commerce.   

ethics   in marketing and marketing communications, the moral standards, principles, and values underlying and surrounding the marketer’s efforts toward the target audience; the realm of right and wrong.    

ethnic advertising   see ethnic marketing.    

ethnic advertising agency   an advertising agency that specializes in planning, creating, executing, and measuring advertising and promotion activities aimed at an ethnic target market(s). 

ethnic marketing   marketing programs, advertising, and other efforts directed specifically toward ethnic consumers and groups among the larger consumer market; also referred to as diversity marketing or minority marketing. 

ethnic media   advertising media such as magazines, newspapers, television, or radio that target specific ethnic groups, such as African-Americans or Hispanics.  

evaluation stage   the third stage of the adoption process, in which the consumer gives the product idea a mental trial, using the information assembled in the interest stage; see adoption process, awareness stage, interest stage, trial stage, and adoption stage

evaluative copy research   in advertising research, copytesting done after the advertising has been executed and run; audience reaction us examined and measured to determine approval or disapproval of the advertising. See developmental copy research and posttesting. 

evaluative criteria   the yardsticks or points of comparison used by consumers in making choices among alternatives; e.g., the product attributes a consumer uses to compare products and in deciding what specific brand to purchase. See consumer decision rules. 

even scheduling   see continuous scheduling. 

event marketing   the advertising, promotion, and other marketing activities aimed at consumers who attend or exposed in some way to a particular event, such as a sports event or festival; often used synonymously with sponsorship, though a sponsorship may be for any of a wide range of activities and may not involve an event. See event sponsorship and sponsorship. 

event sponsorship   an advertising and promotion strategy (often a part of a firm’s public relations efforts) in which the advertiser forges a relationship by paying a sponsorship fee to have its company or product name associated with a particular sports, cultural, festival, or other public event; the event may be an existing one or one created specifically for purposes of public relations, and the event usually is owned and operated by an organization other than the advertiser-sponsor. See event marketing and sponsorship. 

event survey   audience research conducted at the location of a particular event, for any of a wide range of purposes; also called visitor survey or venue survey. See event sponsorship. 

evergreen   a timeless public relations piece that can be used to good advantage at any time; e.g., an article or advertisement on a particular environmental issue, the need for education, providing opportunities for children, or addressing the health and safety concerns of senior citizens. 

everyday low pricing (EDLP)   a sales promotion tool whereby a company, such as Procter & Gamble, offers its product at a regularly low price in lieu of periodic and ever-changing promotional discounts and allowances to the trade and consumers; with the consistently lower price, the promotional allowances may be reduced or even eliminated. 

evocative power   the ability of a particular message, medium, or media vehicle to communicate emotion. 

evoked set   those brands that a consumer has in his or her memory which are considered acceptable and, therefore, will be seriously considered when that consumer chooses among alternatives in a particular product category; the brands a consumer draws from memory and which he or she will actively consider and evaluate when contemplating a purchase in a particular product category. Also called consideration set. See consumer decision rules. 

exchange   trading something of value for another thing of value, such as the consumer’s payment of money for a product or service; a core concept of marketing, since it is the marketing function that facilitates buyers and sellers  coming together to exchange things of value. 

exchange copy   a complimentary or free copy of a publication sent by the publisher in exchange for a copy of another publisher’s publication; see complimentary copy. 

exclusionary zones   in outdoor advertising, a voluntary agreement by outdoor advertising companies prohibiting billboards, posters, or outdoor signs advertising products illegal for sale to minors and which are near places of worship, schools, and hospitals; a provision of the voluntary Code of Advertising Practice established by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). See Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). 

exclusive cume audience  in radio advertising, the number of different people listening to only one radio station during a particular daypart; see cumulative audience and daypart. 

exclusive distribution   a marketing strategy of severely limiting the number of wholesalers and/or retailers (usually just one) in a given territory who are allowed to sell a manufacturer’s product; done for reasons such as to protect a product’s lofty image, maintain a premium price, or to protect dealers in a particular region. See intensive distribution and selective distribution.

exclusive rights   a marketer's title to being the only company or brand in its category allowed to be directly associated with an event, cause, or entity such as a sports team; e.g., adidas's legally-binding authority to be recognized as the official apparel of the U.S. Olympic team, Gatorade's legal claim to be the official energy drink of NASCAR, or Nike's title to being the official uniform of the University of Michigan Wolverines football team. See rights, rights fees, sponsor, sponsorship, non-exclusive rights, and exclusivity. 

exclusivity   an agreement in which a media vehicle or an event agrees to accept no advertising directly competitive to the advertiser purchasing time or space in the media vehicle or program. 

execution   the process of taking the appeal and fashioning it into a finished advertisement or commercial; often referred to as the finished advertisement or commercial itself. 

execution format   how the advertising appears or is presented; the specific technique or, more often, the combination of techniques used to present an advertising message and the setting in which the advertising is carried out. Examples: straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

exhibit   in sales promotion, a display set up by a marketer to show off its product or service; e.g., a display at a trade show. See trade show. 

exhibit producer   a firm specializing in the design or manufacture of exhibits for trade shows. 

exit fee   a charge to the manufacturer to cover the handling costs for the distributor or retailer to remove a product from distribution; may be likened to a “de-slotting” fee. See failure fee. 

expectation   the customer’s anticipated outcome of a marketplace decision.       

expected response rate   an estimate of the likely number of responses from a promotion tool or a particular research project; e.g., the number of replies to a direct mail piece, the number of entrants in a consumer contest or a sweepstakes, or the number of questionnaires returned in a mail survey. Generally, an estimate of the consumer reaction to a marketing, advertising, or other activity or program in which some specific action is requested. 

experimental method   in marketing and advertising research, a technique that utilizes a controlled situation, in which one or more factors are manipulated by the marketer or advertiser, for example, allowing subjects’ behavior to be monitored to determine cause and effect; can be useful in helping to determine the impact of an increase in the advertising budget or the use of specific media vehicles. Essentially, the manipulation of an independent variable (e.g., advertising dollars) to observe the effect on a dependent variable of interest (e.g., sales) to the advertiser or researcher. Often used to compare the responses of two or more groups that are alike in all ways except for the variable being tested. Typically involves comparing a “test group” with a “control group,” or the group not receiving the test treatment. See independent variable and dependent variable. 

expertise   one of the characteristics that lends credibility to the source or sender of communications. 

expert opinion   a sales forecasting method that utilizes the judgments of dealers, distributors, suppliers, industry trade association, marketing consultants, or any other person or organization outside the firm with an in-depth knowledge of the product’s market. See sales forecast, composite of sales force opinion, jury of executive opinion, test marketing, market potential, and sales potential. 

exploratory research   a type of research designed to accumulate background information to help define a problem; a prelude to conclusive research that aims to help decision makers choose a course of action in a particular problem or situation. Characterized by the lack of a formal research design. Example: research to gather information on how consumers make decisions on computer purchases, including specific uses of the computer, the criteria used in evaluating alternatives, the number of brands and models considered, the number of stores visited, the importance of advertising in the brand selection process, and the importance of sales help at the retail level. Sometime called informal research. See causal research and descriptive research. 

exposure   an individual’s actual physical contact with an advertising medium or advertising message; placement of an advertisement or commercial in a media vehicle that the target audience is known to or reasonably expected to see, hear, or read.  An expression of the extent to which an advertiser’s message can be seen or read. Common to all media. See opportunity-to-see

expressway bulletin   in outdoor advertising, a billboard located on a limited-access highway, i.e., those normally with a 55-mph limit. 

extensive problem solving   consumer decision making characterized by significant time and effort spent in the search for information and evaluation of alternatives in the brand selection process; lengthy deliberation throughout the buying process to minimize the risk of a poor product decision, since the consumer perceives major consequences resulting from a wrong choice. Usually the case in making important or high-involvement purchase decisions, and when the consumer has very little or no experience in that particular product category. Often called complex problem solving. See limited problem solving and routine problem solving. Also see high-involvement decision making and low-involvement decision making

extension   in outdoor advertising, an area of design or copy that extends beyond the basic rectangular space of an advertising structure such as a bulletin; done for its attention-getting value; see cut-out. 

exterior bus   in transit advertising, advertising poster space on the outside of a bus or rapid transit vehicle; also called outside poster. See headlight poster, taillight poster, queen-size poster, and king-size poster. 

external agency   any organization outside the firm that provides services needed for it to conduct its business. 

external analysis   part of the situation analysis, or preliminary investigation of factors relevant to the development of a promotion plan, those elements relating to the firm’s customers, competitors, and environment in which it operates; e.g., who buys the product, how the purchase decision is made, customer attitudes toward the product, the direct and indirect competitors, competitors’ promotion budgets, positioning, message strategies, media strategies, plus the political, economic, social, technological environment in which the firm finds itself. See internal analysis and situation analysis

external audience   in public relations, the individuals and groups, i.e, publics, who are outside the organization; e.g., the general public. See internal audience and stakeholders. 

external data source   information that comes from a source other than the company or organization doing the research; see primary data and secondary data

external list   in direct marketing, a mailing list purchased from a source outside the company, such as that bought from a list broker or list compiler; see internal list, list broker, and list compiler

external publication   a company’s own house publication aimed at its customers, dealers, investors, or other important publics; also called external house organ. See house publication. 

external search   in the consumer decision-making process, the acquisition of information from marketplace sources; seeking information from sources other than one’s memory. Examples: visiting retail stores, consulting friends, checking product rating services or other authoritative sources. See internal search. 

external secondary data   existing data that have been collected by a source other than the company or organization doing research; see secondary data. 

extrapolation   in marketing and advertising research, taking existing data and projecting it to the future as a guide for planning marketing, advertising, and other promotional programs; predicting expected or probable future conditions to aid long-term marketing planning. 

eyeballs   in Internet advertising, the viewing audience for a Web site.  

eye camera   a physiological measurement of an advertisement’s effectiveness, by which a mechanical device traces and records movement of the eye in response to a visual stimulus; e.g., following an individual’s eye movement as he or she reads a magazine advertisement.  

eye-tracking system   see eye camera

e-zine   on the Internet, an online magazine or newsletter.