-- D --

Back to Glossary Index Page            Back to PromoProf Home Page

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


DAR   see day-after recall test. 

DBS   see direct broadcast satellite. 

DMA  see Designated Market Area; also see Direct Marketing Association. 

DTC   see direct-to-consumer marketing. 

DVR   see digital video recorder. 

D county   see ABCD Counties. 

DAGMAR   Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results; a model designed to help establish advertising objectives and to measure the impact of an advertising campaign. Central premise is that communications goals, not sales goals, represent the most equitable test of advertising effectiveness. Proposed in 1961 by Russell Colley, in work done for the Association of National Advertisers (ANA). 

dailies   in television advertising production, the first print or videotape of a day’s work making a commercial, with no corrections yet made; used to determine if all the pieces of the commercial are in place. Often called rushes. Also refers to newspapers published weekdays.   

Daily Effective Circulation (DEC)   in out-of-home advertising, the number of viewers or audience who are exposed to, i.e., have the opportunity to see, an advertising message during a typical 24-hour period; the estimated number of individuals who pass an outdoor location on an average day. 

daily inch rate   see inch rate. 

data collection   the process of using research to gather information relevant to the specific purpose at hand; includes the gathering of both primary data and secondary data. 

data collection instrument   in marketing and advertising research, the specific device used to gather data from respondents; e.g., a questionnaire. 

data collection method   the particular means used to gather information from respondents or about a specific matter of interest to the researcher; e.g., observation, experiment, survey, or “library” research. 

data mining   extracting meaning and drawing implications from databases; going through a large amount of data to gain insight and knowledge for ultimate use in developing marketing programs.   

database   a comprehensive organized file of up-to-date and specific information about individuals in the advertiser’s target audience; e.g., data  pertaining to geographic, demographics, psychographic, and behavioral characteristics, as well as purchase patterns and history, mail-order buying, and other information relevant to the advertiser. Organized and stored for easy access. See database marketing

database marketing   using the information in a database to plan, design, and implement targeted direct marketing efforts and to develop targeted advertising and marketing communications programs, with the intent of facilitating an on-going relationship between those consumers and the marketer. See database. 

day-after-recall test (DAR)   in television advertising research, a method of measuring an audience’s recall of specific commercials to determine a particular commercial’s impact; respondents are telephoned the day after a commercial appeared on a particular program and, once it is determined that the respondent watched that show, he or she is questioned about the program’s advertising and, in particular, about the commercial being researched, to determine if the respondent remembered it and can recall something specific about it. See ASI Recall Test. 

daypart mix   in television and radio advertising, the particular combination of time segments used by an advertiser for its commercials. 

dayparts (radio)   the time segments of the broadcast day for radio; advertising rates vary by daypart. Typical dayparts for radio are: morning drive time (6:00am-10:00am), daytime (10:00am-3:00pm), afternoon-evening drive time (3:00pm-7:00pm), nighttime (7:00pm-12:00am), and all night (12:00am-6:00am).  The times of the dayparts may vary slightly at individual stations, and all times are EST.     

dayparts (television)   the time segments of the broadcast day for television; advertising rates vary by daypart. Typical dayparts for television are: early morning (6:00am-9:00am), daytime (9:00am-3:30pm), early fringe (3:30pm-5:30pm), early news (5:30pm-7:00pm), prime access (7:00pm-8:00pm), prime (8:00pm-11:00pm, except Sunday when it is 7:00pm-11:00pm), late news (11:00pm-11:30pm), late fringe (11:30pm-1:00am), and late night (1:00am-6:00am). The times of the dayparts may vary slightly by markets and by individual stations, and all times are EST.   

daytime   in the radio broadcast day, the time period 10:00am-3:00pm; in the television broadcast day, the time period 9:00am-3:30pm. See dayparts (radio) and dayparts (television).

daytime station   a radio station whose broadcast day is restricted to just before sunrise to just after sunset per the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license. 

deadline    the day or hour that advertising material or work is due so the publication or broadcast schedule can be met, and after which the material or work will not be accepted; applies to any material or work associated with any aspect at any stage of a marketing communications campaign. See closing date. 

deal   see consumer deal, trade deal, and dealer allowance.  

deal fulfillment   see fulfillment. 

deal pack   a specially-packaged product that promotes a consumer deal (a premium, price reduction, two-for-the-price-of-one, extra contents, or some other offer) with a preprinted message on the outside of the package. 

deal sheet   a formal description of the important details and conditions of an advertiser’s promotional or merchandising offer given to the participating retailer. 

dealer   a middleman who buys for resale to the ultimate consumer; i.e., a retailer. 

dealer allowance   a general term for a sales promotion activity that involves some form of price reduction offered by the advertiser for a limited time to retailers and other members of the trade as incentives to buy the product, buy more of it, make the product an in-store feature, advertise it, or otherwise give some sort of preference to the advertiser’s product; see advertising allowance, display allowance, and trade sales promotion.

dealer brand   a brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, or other distributor, as opposed to a manufacturer; also called a distributor brand, private brand, or private label

dealer display   see point-of-purchase advertising. 

dealer imprint   a local retailer’s identification (name, address, telephone number) added to an advertisement or commercial, most often a national advertiser- or manufacturer-prepared execution as might be used in a cooperative advertising program; see dealer listing and dealer tie-in. Also see snipe

dealer incentive   see dealer allowance

dealer listing   that part of a manufacturer’s advertisement or commercial (typically the bottom portion) that has a listing of the local retailers that carry the advertised product; also called a dealer tie-in. See dealer imprint

dealer loader   in trade sales promotion, a premium or other offer given by an advertiser to a retailer as an inducement to buy and stock a particular quantity of the advertiser’s goods, usually in an amount that represents an increase in normal buying; see display loader and premium

dealer survey   survey research done on retailers; see consumer survey. 

dealer tie-in   a manufacturer-sponsored sales promotion activity, such as a contest, sweepstakes, or sampling, in which retailers actively participate in some way and are mentioned in the manufacturer’s advertising (which may take the form of cooperative advertising) of the sales promotion; can also refer to any listing or mention of retailers in a manufacturer’s advertising; sometimes referred to as a dealer imprint or dealer listing. See tie-in advertising

deal-prone consumers   individuals who are heavily influenced by price reductions, deals or other sales promotion activity; tend not to be brand loyal, switching brands often, with buying behavior focusing on the brand that at the moment offers the best and most attractive bargain; see non-deal-prone consumers. 

deceptive advertising   by Federal Trade Commission guidelines, advertising that involves a misrepresentation, omission, or practice likely to mislead a reasonable consumer and which results in a purchase decision that would be different were it not for the deception, because of consequences unfavorable to the consumer; also referred to as misleading advertising or misrepresentation. 

decider   in a business or organizational buying center, the individual who has authority to make the buying decision.  

decision   a choice between two or more alternative actions. 

decision rules   see consumer decision rules. 

decision stage   the fourth stage in the consumer decision process, in which the judgment is made to either purchase, not purchase, or postpone the decision subject to further search and evaluation; see consumer decision process

decision-making process   see consumer decision process. 

deck panels   see stacked panels. 

decline stage   the fourth and final stage of the product life cycle, in which sales and profits drop to the point the product is taken off the market, though some marketers act faster than others. See product life cycle, introduction stage, growth stage, and maturity stage. 

decoding   the process of interpreting, or assigning meaning, to an advertising message by the receiver (consumer); see encoding

decoy   use of a phony name or entry on a direct mail list so the list owner can track the list buyer’s use of the list to ensure it is used in accordance with the list rental agreement; see salting. 

defensive marketing   marketing programs, strategies, and tactics used by an organization to protect and maintain its market position and prevent competitors from making inroads to its market share; sometimes called maintenance marketing or status-quo marketing. See offensive  marketing. 

defensive spending   advertising and promotion expenditures in response to competitive expenditures; related to the competitive parity method of budgeting, but more of a short-term tactic to combat increased expenditures by competitors. See offensive spending and competitive parity method. 

delayed broadcast   in television or radio broadcasting, when an individual station airs a network program after is scheduled broadcast time. 

delayed effect   in advertising or other promotion activity, the sales of a product or other desired response that occurs after the advertising or promoting activity stops. 

delivery   the number of individuals or households reached by a medium, media vehicle, or media schedule. 

demand   a consumer’s need or want for a product or service coupled with the ability and willingness to pay for it; the various amounts of a product or service a consumer is willing and able to buy at different prices. See supply. 

demand curve   a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded. 

demand elasticity   see price elasticity of demand. 

demand-backward pricing   an approach to pricing in which the producer first determines an acceptable final price to the consumer and then works back to determine what price it can charge for the product as it goes into the distribution channel. 

demo rating   in television and radio, a program's rating for a specific demographic group, such as women 25-44; see rating.

demographic edition   an edition of a magazine targeted toward readers with particular demographic characteristics; e.g., Time Magazine’s Time Women Select, an edition delivered to affluent, professional women, or the magazine’s Time Top Zips, an edition circulated to the highest income postal zip codes in the United States or the Newsweek 50 Plus edition that goes to subscribers who are 50 years or older. A type of partial-run edition. See metro edition, regional edition, and state edition. 

demographic segmentation   dividing consumers into groups based on variables such as age, gender, income, occupation, education, family size, home ownership, stage in the family life cycle, generation, nationality, race or ethnicity, religion, and social class; see behavioristic segmentation, geographic segmentation, geodemographic segmentation, and psychographic segmentation. 

demographic split-run   placement of one advertisement in a particular demographic edition of a given publication and a different advertisement in another demographic edition of the same publication; the split may be between professionals and non-professionals, homeowners and non-homeowners, or other demographic editions of a publication. Often used to test and compare the effectiveness of alternate advertisements. See split run, split-run test, geographic split-run, subscription/newsstand sales split-run, and A/B split.  

demographics   data relating to the basic human characteristics of a market or population; see demographic segmentation. 

demonstration format   in advertising, a creative execution format featuring the product in use; e.g., a television commercial showing an Echo brand leaf blower in action, a commercial showing the Black & Decker Workmate workbench being folded into different shapes for different jobs, or a Wagner power sprayer being used by a house painter. See straightforward factual, news, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

department system of agency organization   a system of organizing an advertising agency in which each agency function, such as account management, planning, creative, media, or research is a separate department; each department works with all the agency’s clients, being called upon when the need arises for its expertise. See advertising agency and group system of agency organization. 

dependent variable   in research to determine a cause-and-effect relationship, the variable that is thought to be affected by some other variable; e.g., sales volume (dependent variable) is thought to be affected by the level of advertising expenditures (independent variable) or a brand’s image (dependent variable) is thought to be affected by a particular message execution format (independent variable). See independent variable and experimental method. 

depth interview   in marketing and advertising research, a method involving quite lengthy and unstructured personal interview sessions, marked by probing to determine consumers’ perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and motivations; see nondirective interview. 

depth of assortment   see product assortment depth. 

derived demand   a condition in which the demand for a particular product is the result of the demand for another product; e.g., the demand for leather stems from the demand for furniture and the demand for sugar emanates from the consumption of jelly beans. Describes the idea that demand for business goods is dependent on the demand for consumer goods. 

descriptive research   a type of research designed to clearly define a problem; not concerned with the reasons or causes underlying the problem. Example: research into consumers’ attitudes toward an advertiser’s product or consumer’s opinions about the advertising messages for a particular product or consumer opinion about different sales promotion activities. See causal research and exploratory research

design   see advertising design, art, and graphics

Designated Market Area (DMA)   a group of U.S. counties in which the commercial television stations in the metro or central area achieve their largest audience share; exclusive or nonoverlapping geographic areas in which television stations attract most of their viewers and used for purposes of planning, buying, and evaluating television audiences. The major basis for reporting television audience size. There are 210 DMAs in the United States. Every U.S. county is assigned to a DMA. The term was created by and is owned by Nielsen Media Research. 

developmental copy research   in advertising research, copytesting done in the early stages of the advertising copy development process; designed to help copywriters fine-tune their work by providing audience reaction and interpretation of proposed copy; See evaluative copy research and pretesting. 

diagnostics   in marketing and advertising research, a broad range of techniques involving data collection and analysis to acquire feedback from consumers on a variety of marketing, advertising, and promotion issues, for the purpose of gaining insight to aid the development and implementation of future marketing communications programs.    

dialogue copy   advertising copy that presents a product’s or service’s selling points by means of two or more individuals engaged in conversation; see narrative copy. 

diary   the book or log in which an individual’s television viewing or radio listening habits are recorded to determine audience estimates for individual programs; used by Arbitron (radio) and Nielsen (television). See diary method. 

diary method   a way of tracking television viewing or radio listening habits, in which panel members record their experiences over a given period of time; used by research services such as Nielsen (television) and Arbitron (radio) to report program ratings. In television and radio advertising research, a basic method for gathering data on people’s viewing and listening habits and, therefore, measuring audiences. Representative viewers and listeners in each of the television and radio markets throughout the U.S. maintain a formal record of their viewing and listening choices and submit the diaries to the research organizations. The resulting audience estimates for each market serve as a basis for setting advertising rates in each market. For television, Nielsen diaries cover 210 markets, while for radio, Arbitron diaries cover 260 markets. In the case of the Nielsen diary method, the diaries are sent to participating households during the sweeps months of November, February, May, and July. Individuals in the households provide a wide range of demographic date on a questionnaire. Each member of the household, as well as guests, write down the programs they watch, indicating who is watching, for how long, the name of the program, and other information considered key to determining viewing habits. See Arbitron and Nielsen. See also metered markets, overnight ratings, People Meter, set-tuning meter, telephone coincidental, and sweeps. 

diarykeeper   the individual who is declared eligible to receive a Nielsen or Arbitron diary and the person to whom all survey materials are sent; see diary and diary method. 

dichotomous questions   research questions framed so that the respondent has only two choices from which to select an answer; a “yes-no” question or an “agree-disagree” question. 

differential advantage   see competitive advantage. 

differentiated marketing   occurs when the marketer or advertiser targets two or more distinct market segments or customer groups, and then designs separate tailor-made marketing mixes, offers, strategies, or programs for each segment; sometimes referred to as selective marketing and a multiple target market approach. See concentrated marketing, undifferentiated marketing, and single target market approach.  

differentiation   for a marketer, the process of achieving an array of distinct, meaningful, and superior differences between its offering and competitors’ offerings by means of elements such as the product, services provided, company personnel, channel members’ efficiency, or through the marketing communications program; e.g., creating a position of distinctiveness vs. competitors by means of an image or perception that is the result of superior advertising executions, media strategy, cause marketing efforts, or event sponsorships.      

diffusion of innovation   see diffusion process. 

diffusion process   the process by which a new product, service, or idea is communicated, accepted, and spread over time through a population; marketing communications strategy changes as the brand moves through the various stages of diffusion. See adoption process, adopter categories, adoption curve, innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. 

digest unit   see junior unit. 

digital insertion system   see virtual placement process; also called live-video insertion system. 

digital media   any channel or vehicle capable of digital transmission; e.g., a personal computer for Internet advertising or television. See digital transmission. 

digital transmission   sending audio or video messages from one point to another through the use of computer-generated codes.  

digital video recorder (DVR)   see personal video recording device. 

diminishing demand   see law of diminishing demand. 

diminishing marginal utility   see law of diminishing marginal utility. 

diminishing returns   see law of diminishing returns. 

diorama   a three-dimensional advertising display, often having special-effects lighting and movement; standard size is approximately 42” high x 62” wide. Commonly seen in airports, bus terminals, shopping malls, and sports arenas. See terminal poster. 

direct account   see house account. 

direct broadcast satellite (DBS)   video programming transmitted via satellite directly to the user’s television set; the satellite signal goes directly to a receiver dish (usually on the roof of the house), which immediately transmits the signal to a set-top-box or decoder on the TV set, allowing the consumer to get the satellite broadcast. 

direct channel   see direct distribution. 

direct distribution   a marketing system in which the manufacturer sells to the consumer without using wholesalers, distributors, or retailers; see indirect distribution.  

direct mail   a major method of direct marketing that uses the US postal system to deliver marketing literature and materials; see direct marketing. 

direct mail co-op  see cooperative mailing. 

direct mail package   in direct marketing, the complete set of enclosures and elements in a mailing; also called simply a package. See direct marketing. 

direct marketing   communicating directly with the target audience to obtain a particular response (anywhere from creating awareness to gaining a transaction), rather than using intermediaries, such as retailers and wholesalers; i.e., an interactive marketing approach to the target audience using one or more advertising media to get a measurable response at any location. May employ a wide range of media, such as direct mail, television, radio, magazines, newspapers, or personal computers. Often seeks immediate response via mail, telephone, or personal computer. 

Direct Marketing Association (DMA)   the industry association representing direct marketing firms using print, broadcast, telephone, mail, and other media in their direct marketing programs; also the parent of the Association for Interactive Media (AIM), which is dedicated to the advancement of the Internet and interactive media as effective marketing and advertising tools. See Association for Interactive Media (AIM). 

direct observation   see observation method. 

direct questioning   see non-disguised research.  

direct selling   a means of marketing goods or services to customers face-to-face rather than through a retail location or other non-personal means. 

direct-action advertising   see direct-response advertising. 

directional medium   an advertising medium employed by an advertiser simply to inform potential customers can purchase a product or service once they have make the decision to buy; as opposed to media used to create awareness or demand for the product or service. For example, the Yellow Pages. 

direct-mail advertising   advertising messages delivered to the target audience through the mail system (including private services). 

direct-marketing agency   a company specializing in the development of direct marketing campaigns for clients; typically have large databases from which mailing lists are derived. Generally provide several services in addition to database management and mailing lists, such as creation and production of direct mail efforts and research. Also called a direct-response agency. 

direct-marketing media   the message channels used direct marketing communications programs; e.g., direct mail, telemarketing, television, magazines. See direct marketing, direct mail, and telemarketing. 

director of account services   the individual at the advertising agency, usually at the rank of vice-president, who oversees the entire relationship and functioning between the agency and the client; the person who has the main responsibility for seeing to it that the agency produces an advertising plan that meets the client’s satisfaction. Heavily involved with knowing the client’s business, its marketing goals, advertising objectives, and all other factors that affect the formulation of advertising strategy. See account executive and account supervisor. 

directory advertising   advertising that appears in a directory or buying guide; advertisements in Marketer’s Guide to Media, PROMO Magazine’s Sourcebook, the Thomas Register, Standard Rate and Data Service volumes, or the Yellow Pages. 

direct-response advertising   advertising that seeks to stimulate immediate action or response by individuals in the target audience; often used by, though not limited to, direct marketers. Major media are television, radio, and newspapers. Often involves 800/900 telephone numbers or business reply cards. Also called direct-action advertising  

direct-response agency   see direct-marketing agency. 

direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing   marketing efforts, especially advertising, in which the manufacturer communicates directly with the consumer in an industry where a professional normally is the link between the product and the user; e.g., pharmaceutical companies advertising directly to the consumer, such as Lipitor using advertising to persuade people to ask their doctor about the cholesterol-fighting drug.  

disclaimer copy   copy in an advertisement or a commercial that erases or limits the advertiser’s liability stemming from promotional claims. 

discount   describes any of several types of price reductions offered by a seller to a buyer; e.g., see cash discount and trade discount. 

discounted rate card   a reduction in a media vehicle’s published rate card gained by negotiation, especially where the advertiser has special power. 

discrepancy of assortment   the difference between the variety of products a producer makes and what is wanted by customers; the typical producer makes a relatively limited variety of products (e.g., pencils), while the customer requires many different products to satisfy multiple needs and wants (pencils, paper, notebook, ruler). A job of the distribution channel is to adjust the discrepancies so all parties’ are satisfied. See discrepancy of quantity. 

discrepancy of quantity   the difference between the number of products a producer needs to make to achieve economies of scale and the number of products the customer usually wants; e.g., the producer makes thousands of refrigerators and the consumer wants one. See discrepancy of assortment. 

discretionary income   what remains from an individual’s disposable income after buying necessities; money a person can use in any way or for any purpose he or she elects.    

disguised research   in marketing and advertising research, any form of questioning in which the respondents are unaware of the true purpose of the research; also called indirect questioning. See non-disguised research. 

display   see point-of-purchase advertising. 

display advertising   newspaper and magazine advertising that makes use of illustrations, photos, and other visual elements in addition to headlines and copy, i.e., advertising containing the standard elements of a print advertisement; advertising other than classified advertising. See classified advertising. 

display allowance   a fee paid by the manufacturer to the retailer for making space available for an end-of-aisle or other point-of-purchase display.   

display classified   see classified display advertising. 

display loader   in trade sales promotion, a premium or other offer given by an advertiser to a retailer as an inducement to use a point-of-purchase display featuring the advertiser’ product; see dealer loader and premium. 

display period   the time period during which an outdoor advertising message is on display on an out-of-home structure such as a billboard, i.e., its exposure time; e.g., a poster or billboard whose contract runs for one month. 

disposable income   an individual’s personal income less personal taxes; see discretionary income. 

dissatisfaction   the purchase decision outcome when the consumer perceives his or her choice as falling short of expectations. 

dissolve   in television advertising, when one picture fades out just as another picture simultaneously emerges on the screen. 

dissonance   see cognitive dissonance. 

distribution   one of the major marketing functions, involving all the activities associated with making products and services available to customers in the right quantities, at the right locations, at the right time; often referred to as place which, along with product, price, and promotion, comprise the 4Ps of the marketing mix. Also, in outdoor advertising, the location of the specific advertising structures within a market, or the way they are deployed throughout the market.  

distribution channel   the path traveled by a product from manufacturer to final user, both consumer and industrial; a channel includes all the institutions, individuals, processes, and relationships involved in the flow of goods through the distribution network. Also called a marketing channel. 

distribution channel length   in the distribution channel, the number of levels of intermediaries; e.g., manufacturer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer = two levels, while manufacturer-retailer-consumer = one level and manufacturer-direct-to-consumer = zero level. 

distribution intensity   see intensive distribution, selective distribution, and exclusive distribution. 

distribution management   see channel management. 

distributor   see middleman. 

distributor brand   see dealer brand. 

diversification   an organization’s growth strategy in which the firm tries to increase its sales and profits by entering new markets with new products; e.g., Honda automobile company getting into the business of lawnmowers and generators. See growth strategies, market penetration, market development, and product development. 

diversity marketing   marketing activities and programs aimed at subcultures such as racial groups, national-origin groups, specific geographic regions, and other groups with particular needs that make them distinct from the general population as consumers of goods and services; also referred to as ethnic marketing, minority marketing, or special-interest marketing. 

dog-and-pony show   an elaborate, sometimes dazzling and flamboyant, pitch for an advertising campaign orchestrated by the advertising agency to the client; see pitch. 

domain name   on the Internet, the unique name that identifies a particular site; e.g., cnn.com. Essentially the same as the URL, though the URL is the full address, as in http://www.cnn.com. See URL.  

donut   see doughnut. 

door-opener   an article, such as an advertising specialty, given to a prospective buyer by a salesperson as an incentive to listen to a sales presentation. 

door-to-door   personal selling or other promotion activity such as sampling that involves going directly to the homes of the individuals in the target market in a specific geographic area. 

dot.com   refers to the Web site address of a company or organization that has a .com suffix on its address; generally, the Internet presence of a firm or organization. 

DoubleClick   a leading company specializing in designing research-based Internet advertising campaigns for advertisers and Web publishers; involved with the planning, execution, and analysis of online, e-mail, and database marketing programs. 

double coupons   in sales promotion, when a retailer offers the consumer twice the face value of a manufacturer’s coupon. 

double spotting   in television advertising, when the same advertiser runs one spot announcement right after the other, for different products; also known as a piggyback commercial. 

double spread   see two-page spread. 

double truck   see two-page spread. 

double-face display   a display with an advertising message on both the front and back. 

double-page spread   see two-page spread. 

doughnut   in radio or television advertising, a blank space within a pre-recorded commercial; purpose is to allow the insertion of live advertising copy at the local station. The beginning and the end are pre-recorded or the same from one execution to another, with the middle portion of the commercial customized or changed from execution to another. 

downscale   a descriptive term for an individual or group located at the lower end of the socio-economic ranking; see upscale. 

dramatization format   in advertising, a creative execution format that essentially tells a short story, attempting to attract the audience through the suspense or excitement of the “mini-drama” setting; e.g., a television commercial that features a short story involving Lo-Jack auto theft detection system whereby a automobile equipped with the device is recovered. See straightforward factual, news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, symbolic association, fantasy, animation, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial, and comparison formats.  

drive time   in the radio broadcast day, the Monday-Friday time periods 6:00am-10:00am and 3:00pm-7:00pm, morning drive time and afternoon-evening drive time, respectively; see dayparts. 

drop-in ad   in television advertising, a local commercial that is inserted during the airing of a nationally-sponsored network telecast; also called a hitchhiker. 

dubs   copies of the master copy of a finished radio commercial that are sent to the individual radio stations for broadcast; see dupes. 

dual branding   see co-branding

dual distribution   a situation in which a manufacturer uses two or more competing channels of distribution to reach the same target market; e.g., a power tool producer that uses a company sales force to sell to select key-account retailers, wholesalers to sell to all the other retailers, and an online store from which consumers can purchase the power tools. See hybrid marketing system.  

dual marketing   see co-marketing. 

dummy   preliminary layout or mock-up of all the elements in a brochure or other promotion material, to give an idea of what the finished product will look like; a replica of the final product just prior to printing. The equivalent of the comprehensive for print ads. 

dummy magazine   in advertising research, a magazine, complete with editorial content and advertisements, invented solely for the purpose of pretesting advertising messages; given to a test audience, whose responses to the advertisements are evaluated.  

dupes   copies of the master copy of a finished television commercial that are sent to the networks or TV stations for broadcasting; see dubs.    

duplicated reach   see audience duplication. 

duplication   see audience duplication. 

durable goods   consumer goods that have a relatively long useful life and are purchased infrequently; e.g., a refrigerator, microwave oven, or personal computer. Sometimes referred to as hard goods. See non-durable goods. 

dyadic communications   personal and direct communications between two parties; e.g., a sales representative and a customer. See monadic communications. 

dynamic ad placement   in Internet advertising, the real-time insertion of a specific advertisement into a web page’s advertising space; the real-time ad insertion is based on the individual user’s demographics, demonstrated interest in a particular product or service category, or time of day. Essentially, a “customization” of the ad space based on the web site visitor’s characteristics. See static ad placement.