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BAR   see Broadcast Advertising Reports. 

BATF   see Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 

BBB   see Better Business Bureau. 

BDI   see Brand Development Index. 

BEP   see break-even point. 

BMA   see Business Marketing Association. 

BPA   see Business Publication Audit. 

BPI   see Buying Power Index. 

BTA   see best-time-available. 

B County   see ABCD Counties. 

B2B   see business marketing. 

B2C   see consumer marketing. 

baby billboard   see car card. 

back cover   see inside back cover and outside back cover

backgrounder   a document containing basic information about a company, its mission, place in the industry, products, and other information serving as a snapshot of that company. 

back-end display   an advertising sign on the outside rear of a bus or rapid transit vehicle, mounted below the window; also called a tail-light poster. See front-end display and tail-light poster. 

back-end load   in advertising scheduling, allocating the major part of an advertising or promotion budget expenditures to the late segment of a campaign; see front-end load. 

back-end promotion   a sales promotion effort which begins after a particular event occurs; featuring a product at a special event such as a sports event or a concert and following up with a formal sales promotion program in the weeks or months ahead, or placing a product in a movie and then initiating a sales promotion program, such as point-of-purchase advertising and a special deal. 

back-to-back   in radio and television, two commercials or programs broadcast in succession; in television, particularly those commercials aired for two products of the same company. Also called piggyback commercial and double spotting. See piggyback, competitive separation, and commercial protection

backlighted unit   see backlit.

backlit   in outdoor advertising, a structure that is illuminated to throw light through the advertisement for higher visibility, especially at night; the ads must be printed on special translucent surfaces. Also called a backlighted unit. 

backup order   the advertisers “in line” to take a spot on a sold-out program in case an already-committed advertiser backs out; for example, the Academy Awards show typically sells all advertising time well in advance of the television broadcast, with subsequent would-be advertisers falling in line in case an advertiser decides to back out.    

bait advertising   the practice whereby a retail store advertises a product at an unusually low price, making it appear to be an extremely attractive bargain, for the sole purpose of getting traffic to the store, with few, if any, of the item actually in stock and available for sale; see bait-and-switch tactics.  

bait pricing   see bait-and-switch tactics. 

bait-and-switch tactics   a marketing ploy that starts with a retail store’s advertising that features a product offered at a very attractive price to lure customers into the store, at which point a strong attempt is made to sell the consumer a higher-priced or a higher-profit product, to the extreme that sometimes the salesperson even refuses to sell the advertised item; an illegal practice. See bait advertising.   

balance   in advertising design and layout, the principle that the elements of the advertisement should be arranged so as to have a degree of symmetry, proportionality, and compatibility, avoiding an appearance of the elements being unstable or disproportional to one another. Movement through an advertisement should be orderly and comfortable to the person’s eyes. See contrast, emphasis, flow, gaze motion, harmony, and unity, as well as informal balance and formal balance.  

balloon advertising   copy set so it seems to be coming from the mouth of one of the characters illustrated in the advertisement; also called a blurb. 

banded premium   see on-pack premium. 

bandwidth   transmission capacity of a telecommunications link, such as a television line or a computer line, i.e., capacity to carry information. 

bangtail envelope   in direct mail, an additional flap on an envelope that is used as a response when the receiver can tears it off, fills it  out, and mails it back to the marketer. 

banner   a headline in large letters running across the entire page, usually in bold print; see banner ad.  

banner ad   in Internet advertising, an advertisement generally located at the top of a web page and running across the page, with a link to the advertiser’s site by use of a clickthrough; commonly measures 468 pixels wide x 60 pixels high (i.e., a 468 x 60 banner ad). Also referred to as simply a banner. See clickthrough, pixels, skyscraper ad, rectangle ad, square pop-up, pop-up advertising and pop-under advertising. 

bargaining power   the amount of influence a party has in negotiations with another; e.g., the strength of an advertiser in negotiating rates with the media or sponsorship fees with the director of a special event. 

barriers to entry   factors and conditions that make it difficult for a new firm to enter a particular market or industry; e.g., large advertising and promotion budgets of existing companies that serve as an major obstacle for a new firm to enter the market. Some critics claim the result of large budgets is less competition because the large advertisers have competitive advantages such as economies of scale, particularly those associated with media costs. See competitive barriers. 

barter   acquisition of broadcast time or print space by an advertiser or agency in exchange for merchandise, services, or other non-monetary considerations; no cash is involved. Commonly negotiated through a barter agent or other intermediary. Can involve any advertising medium. Essentially, trading one resource for another or exchanging one product or service for another product or service of like value. Can also involve the purchase of media time or space by a media company in exchange for similar time or space. Example: a dentist trading dental work on a baseball team’s player for two season tickets, a rental car company providing automobiles for golf tournament guests in exchange for signage at the event, or a printing firm printing the souvenir program for a football team in exchange for signage at the stadium. 

barter house   an organization that acts as a wholesaler or broker of television time by maintaining an inventory of broadcast time accumulated through various barter deals, and then selling it to advertisers and agencies; see barter. 

barter syndication   providing first-run or off-network syndication television programs to local stations at a reduced rate or free of charge, but with some of the advertising time already presold to national advertisers by the syndicator, or owner of the program; the remaining commercial time then can be sold to local advertisers by the station. A syndicated television program offered by a syndicator to a station in exchange for some commercial time slots within the program. See cash syndication, cash-barter syndication, first-run syndication, off-network syndication, syndicator, and syndication. 

base rate   in print advertising, the highest rate charged to an advertiser for a single insertion, without the agency commission or other media discounts of any kind, i.e., the full rate; also called card rate, gross rate, one-time rate, open rate, and transient rate. See agency commission, media discounts, card rate, and open rate. 

baseline measures   see benchmark.   

basic bus   in transit advertising, when an advertiser purchases all the inside advertising space, or car cards, on a group of buses, enabling the advertiser to achieve complete domination of the space; also called a total bus. See car card

basic cable   a cable television provider’s basic offering of channels, available at no extra charge, i.e., excluding those channels for which there is a premium charge; carries the lowest monthly fee. 

battle kit   in personal selling, the collection of promotional items used by the sales force in selling its accounts. 

battle of the brands   refers to the competition between manufacturer brands and dealer brands; fighting for shelf space and consumer patronage. See manufacturer brands and dealer brands. 

beauty shot   in print advertising, particularly magazines, an advertisement whose focus is almost entirely on the visual appeal of the product; the attractiveness of the product dominates the advertisement. For example, an especially eye-appealing photo of a box of chocolates in all its splendor or an automobile pictured as so luxurious and elegant. 

behavioristic segmentation   dividing the market (i.e., consumers) into segments or groups based on buyer behavior variables such as benefits sought, user status, usage rate, occasion of use, loyalty status, or buyer-readiness stage; see demographic segmentation, geographic segmentation, geodemographic segmentation, and psychographic segmentation. 

BehaviorScan   a consumer purchasing behavior tracking service across multiple trade channels, including supermarkets, drugstores, mass merchandisers, supercenters, and others, providing comprehensive measurement and evaluation of new-product programs and advertising campaigns. The service can deliver different TV ads to selected homes within the same market, along with the ability to read the impact of the advertising on consumers' actual purchasing behavior and attitudes. The service’s ad testing package includes exclusive testing rights in a given product category, consultation on test market selection and test design, selection of matched test and control groups of households, execution of test and control advertising plans via cable TV cut-ins, and analysis of results. A single-source data system. A product of Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). See Information Resources, Inc. (IRI), InfoScan, and single-source data.    

belief   an individual’s viewpoint or assessment of something, such as a particular brand of product, based on the brand’s features and benefits; stems from the consumer’s knowledge and feelings about, say, a specific product or a specific issue, which have been accumulated, resulting in a particular sentiment or conviction about that product or issue. 

below-the-fold   the bottom half of a broadsheet newspaper; as opposed to above-the-fold. On the web, the term refers to the portion of a given page, such as the homepage, that can be viewed only by scrolling down. An advertisement on a web site is below-the-fold when the entire advertisement can be viewed only by scrolling down for at least a portion of it. See above-the-fold and broadsheet. 

below-the-line costs   advertising production costs incurred doing the work other than creative; e.g., props, equipment, stage sets. Also may refer to “lower-profile” advertising media such as direct mail. See above-the-line costs. 

benchmark   the criteria used to gauge the market (e.g., sales, market share, consumer attitudes, consumer perceptions) just prior to the beginning of a promotion campaign, to serve as a yardstick or reference point against which campaign results can be measured; where things stand immediately before a marketing communications campaign. A vital part of the tracking method of measuring and evaluating campaign progress and results. Can also refer to a firm’s sales before an advertising or promotion campaign. Also called baseline measure. See benchmarking, benchmark study, and tracking. 

benchmarking   a process by which a firm investigates other companies to learn how and why they achieve a particular level of performance, say, in advertising or sales promotion, with the intention of matching or improving the best practices, thereby improving the firm’s performance; see benchmark, benchmark study, and tracking. 

benchmark study   in marketing and advertising research, the initial study against which all subsequent data are compared; see benchmark, benchmarking, and tracking. 

benefit   the reason why a consumer chooses a particular product; the gain or improved state that results from use of a product or service. What the user gets from a product or service beyond the physical features or characteristics. 

benefit headline   a type of headline for an advertisement or commercial that directly promises the audience that use of the product will be rewarding; e.g., “Keeps you warm and dry. No matter what falls out of the sky.” (Gore-Tex fabrics) or “Big Allergies, Big Relief.” (Zyrtec tablets). See headline, as well as command headline, curiosity headline, news-information headline, and question headline. 

benefit positioning   see positioning by benefit. 

benefit segmentation   dividing or breaking the total market into a series of smaller markets, or segments, based on the different benefits sought from the product by consumers. 

best practice   a particular technique or approach considered to be an excellent example of effective performance; sometimes described in the form of a case study. 

best-time-available (BTA)   on an insertion order, an instruction to the television or radio station to run the commercial in the most favorable or best time slot available; also referred to as run-of-schedule (ROS). See run-of-schedule. 

beta testing   in the new-product development process, testing a prototype product by letting a carefully-selected group of consumers use the product and register their reactions; concept may be applied to testing advertising or other promotion tools. See alpha testing and new-product development process. 

Better Business Bureau (BBB)   a not-for-profit self-regulatory organization established and supported by the business community, with local bureaus located in cities throughout the United States; its mission is to control and promote fair and ethical advertising and selling practices. Local bureaus offer a variety of services such as providing reports on firms to consumers before they make purchases, helping to resolve disputes between consumers and firms, and investigating advertising and selling practices when a consumer files a complaint against a firm. Sometimes forwards complaints to the National Advertising Division (NAD) for evaluation. See Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) and National Advertising Division (NAD).    

between-vehicle duplication   see across-vehicle duplication

big-box store   a very large retail store resembling a large box. Store has a lot of floor space (usually more than 50,000 sq. ft.), an extremely large assortment of merchandise (in width and/or depth), and lower-than-usual prices. Most often in a suburban location. Also called a supercenter, hypermarket, or megastore.

Big Idea   The single most compelling and powerful benefit that provides the central theme in an advertisement or a campaign; the major selling point.  

bill   see poster. 

bill enclosure   see statement stuffer. 

bill-back allowance   an incentive, usually monetary, provided by the advertiser to a retailer in return for the retailer featuring the advertiser’s product in the store’s advertising or in a special store display; not to be confused with cooperative advertising. 

billboard   a large flat upright structure with advertising affixed and which is intended for viewing from extended distances, i.e., more than 50 feet; usually erected off to the sides of roads and highways and within easy notice of people in passing vehicles. Includes displays such as 30-sheet poster, 24-sheet poster, 8-sheet poster, bulletin, poster panel, and stadium or arena signage, just to mention some of the types. In television or radio advertising, the term also applies to the brief announcement (10 seconds or less) at the beginning, middle, or end of a broadcast program in the form of “The following portion of this program is brought (has been brought) to you by (sponsor’s name).” See open billboard, middle billboard, and close billboard.  

billboard bag   a flexible wrapping bag for home-delivery newspapers, containing on its surface a promotional message for a product and, often, a trial-size sample affixed to the bag; also called a polybag. 

billings   the total revenue of an advertising agency; comprised largely of the charges made to the advertiser based on media time and space purchased on its behalf, plus other charges and fees incurred by the agency and passed along to the advertiser; commonly used to indicate agency size. 

bingo card   in a magazine, a reader-reply card containing numbers that can be circled by the read to receive information about products and services from an advertiser in that periodical; generally located near the back of the publication. Also called action card

blackout   in television, when a sports event in a local area is not carried by a television station by reason of a formal agreement with the league or owner of the event. 

blanket contract   an agreement by which a media vehicle extends a special rate or discount to an advertiser who advertises more than one of its products in that vehicle through more than one advertising agency; e.g., Procter & Gamble with advertisements in Good Housekeeping for Crest, Cheer, and Bounty, each handled by a different advertising agency. See corporate discounting

blanking   in outdoor advertising, a white paper border surrounding the poster copy area; see bleed-face bulletin. 

blanking out   in outdoor advertising, when white paper is used to cover a poster; usually used to cover an advertisement when the contract has expired and until a new advertisement is posted to the site. 

bleed   in print media advertising, copy that extends to the edge of the advertising surface on all sides, with no margin or border; e.g., as on a poster or a magazine page. 

bleed charge   an extra charge for producing a bleed advertisement; see bleed. 

bleed page   a magazine advertisement that goes to the very edges of the page, with no margin or white space on the borders; bleed ads often carry a premium charge, called a bleed charge

bleed poster   see bleed-face bulletin. 

bleed-face   the outdoor equivalent of a bleed page; see bleed page.       

bleed-face bulletin   in outdoor advertising, a poster that has blanking paper of the same color as the poster background running all the way to the edge of the billboard, and the copy usually goes to the very edge of the panel; the outdoor equivalent of a bleed page in a print advertisement. Also called a bleed poster. See blanking and bleed page

bleed-through   in outdoor advertising, a production flaw that allows the previously posted sign to show through the current message; may result from the type and quality of paper used or from excessive rainwater. See coat-out. 

blind offer   see hidden offer. 

blind outer   in direct-mail marketing, an outside envelope without a logo or any identity of the sender; an attempt to increasing the opening rate by masking the identity of the sender to prevent recipients from dismissing it as junk mail and throwing it away with opening. See opening rate. 

blinking   a media scheduling pattern consisting of many short periods (flights) of advertising alternated with short periods of no advertising at all (hiatuses); e.g., one week on, one week off alternating over a period of time. Also called blinkering. See flight, flighting, hiatus, as well as continuous scheduling, and pulsing

blister pack   a small package that has a cardboard or other stiff material back with a hard transparent plastic bubble attached to it (heat-sealed), with the product housed inside the bubble; also called a bubble card

blitz   a concentrated, intensive, and very noticeable burst of advertising and promotion activity over a relatively short time frame, for the purpose of creating maximum exposure and impact while reducing the perceived presence of competitors’ messages; see bursting and heavy-up scheduling. 

block   in radio and television, two or more consecutive hours or broadcast time periods. 

block programming   in television, scheduling programs back-to-back that are aimed at individuals with common demographics. 

blocking chart   see flowchart. 

blog  a journal posted on the web by persons wanting to air their thoughts, ideas, opinions, and commentary on a variety of subjects and issues; essentially an online publishing tool.

blurb   a short concise statement about a company, a product, an event, or other point of interest placed in the official program of an event; can also refer to a press release. See news release and press release. Also see balloon

board   see poster panel and painted bulletin. 

body copy   in a print advertisement, the main text that tells the full story; does not include headlines, illustrations, or any matter other than the words used to tell the story. See copy

boiler plate   standardized copy ready for use at any time needed; often used when an advertisement must include certain statements or copy, such as warnings, qualifiers, or disclaimers, required by law on alcohol, tobacco, pharmaceutical, and other products. May also be used to eliminate the need for new writing or copy when a specific communication requirement is likely to arise frequently. Ready-to-go copy. 

bonus goods   a trade deal or type of allowance in which the manufacturer provides extra goods at no charge to the retailer; “Buy one, get one free.”  

bonus pack   special packaging that gives the consumer an extra amount of product with no increase in the regular price; see twin pack

bonus spot   in television advertising, when a station provides commercial time to an advertiser free-of-charge, as a  promotional tool to encourage buying additional time; term is sometimes applied to a make-good, or “free” time given to an advertiser when the advertiser’s program does not deliver the promised audience level. See make-good. 

book   a common term for a magazine

booking   the act of making a firm commitment to schedule advertising on radio or television. 

booth   an area consisting of one or more units of exhibit space; typically sold in 10 sq. ft. increments. See trade show. 

booth personnel   the individuals working an exhibitor’s booth at a trade show.  

border   in print advertising, the space surrounding an advertisement; purpose is to prevent the advertisement from running to the edge of another ad or to the edge of editorial matter. 

borrowed interest   in advertising creative strategy, the use of an inherently appealing subject or image to capture the interest of the audience and generate good feelings during exposure to the advertising; e.g., a baby, a puppy, or anything that sparks a warm, tender, and affectionate feeling that can be used for its carryover value for the product being advertised. Principle also applies to the use of celebrity endorsers, who have instant attention-getting power. 

bottom-up approach to budgeting   see build-up approach to budgeting. 

bounceback   an additional offer made to consumers who respond to a previous offer by the same marketer; the new offer is sent with the product delivered in fulfillment of the first promotion. The new offer, or bounceback, may take the form of a coupon or other enclosures that promise a special deal on that product or other products sold by the same company. 

boutique   see creative boutique

brainstorming   a free-wheeling, sky’s-the-limit method of generating ideas for a new product, advertising approach, sales promotion activity, or any other element of the marketing program; purpose is to get ideas on the table and not to judge their worth.  

brand   a name, word, group of words, symbol, design, or other element, or any combination, that identifies a company’s product and sets it apart from the products of  competitors.   

brand association   extent to which a particular brand is thought of within the context of a specific product category; see share of mind and brand awareness. 

brand awareness   the extent to which the consumer recognizes and knows the existence of a particular brand; see brand familiarity. 

brand building   a marketing and promotion strategy aimed at polishing or sharpening a product’s or organization’s image; a strategy designed to push a name rather than simply sell more goods. 

brand consciousness   the level of awareness a consumer has about a particular brand and the extent to which a product’s brand name influences the consumer’s purchase decision. 

Brand Development Index (BDI)   a measure of the relative sales strength of a given brand in a specific market area of the United States. To calculate: divide the percent of brand A’s total U.S. sales in market X by the percent of the total U.S. population in market X, then multiply the result by 100 to get the index number. Especially useful, along with the Category Development Index (CDI), in deciding media allocations and how much advertising or other promotion effort to put in different market areas. See Category Development Index (CDI). 

brand equity   a measure of a brand’s value or worth to the company that owns it and to the customers who purchase it; consists of intangible and tangible values.  

brand extension   a brand strategy in which the marketer introduces a product in a new category, using the same brand name from its current offering; e.g., Disney Cruise Lines, Starbucks ice cream, Motorola cellular phones, Coleman vacuum cleaners, Nike golf balls, Reebok sunglasses, exercise bikes and treadmills, and headwear, or Ralph Lauren clothing, fragrance, carpeting, upholstery, and paint. A form of brand leveraging. See brand strategy, line extension, multibranding, and new-brand strategy. 

brand familiarity   the extent to which a consumer recognizes a particular brand, including its features, benefits, and its capacity for providing the degree of satisfaction the consumer is looking for; see brand rejection, brand nonrecognition, brand recognition, brand preference, and brand insistence. 

brand harvesting   see harvesting. 

brand identity   all the cues that collectively provide a particular look or recognition of a brand; colors, distinctive typography, symbols, and other factors that make a brand identifiable as a distinct entity. 

brand image   the complete set of beliefs and perceptions held by consumers toward a particular brand; the particular impression consumers have about a brand. 

brand image strategy   in advertising, a creative approach that attempts to differentiate an advertiser’s brand by focusing on psychological rather than physical differences of the product.  

brand insistence   a level of brand familiarity, in which the consumer will not accept a substitute and, if necessary, is willing to make a special effort to obtain; see brand rejection, brand nonrecognition, brand recognition, brand preference, and brand loyalty. 

brand integration   see product integration. 

brand interest   the degree of consumer curiosity about a particular brand. 

brand leveraging   the marketing practice of using the power and strength of an existing brand name to help a company’s move into a new, usually related product category; e.g., Minute Maid orange juice with its Minute Maid soda, Reese’s candy with its Reese’s peanut butter, or Bic pens with its Bic razors. See brand extension. 

brand licensing   see licensing and licensed brand. 

brand loyalty   a consumer’s continuing repeat purchase of the same brand in a particular product category; a strong, unyielding attachment, patronage, and commitment to a specific brand. See brand loyalty and brand switching. 

brand management   the supervision of and responsibility for all aspects of the marketing program for a particular brand, as opposed to an entire category or line of products; the Doritos brand for Frito-Lay. See category management. 

brand manager   the individual responsible for all aspects of the marketing program for a specific brand; also called a product manager. See brand management. 

brand mark   a symbol, design, or distinctive lettering or coloring that cannot be spoken; Exclusive use by the owner is guaranteed only if it is registered as a trademark

brand name   a word, letter, number, or groups thereof, that can be spoken; i.e., the portion of a brand that can be spoken. Exclusive use by the owner is guaranteed only if it is registered as a trademark

brand nonrecognition   a level of brand familiarity, in which the consumer simply does not know the brand name; for some products, such lack of familiarity may not deter a consumer from purchasing it, e.g., ice melting mix or paper plates. See brand rejection, brand recognition, brand preference, and brand insistence. 

brand personality   see brand image.    

brand placement   see product placement

brand position   see positioning and position. 

brand preference   a level of brand familiarity, in which the consumer is inclined, even strongly so, to choose the particular brand over others based on past experience, but is willing to accept a substitute for a given purchase occasion; see brand rejection, brand nonrecognition, brand recognition, and brand insistence. 

brand proliferation   the increase in the number of new brands that have been introduced to the consumer market; the result of marketers attempting to develop products for specific market segments and specific needs of consumers.  

brand recognition   a level of brand familiarity, in which the consumer knows the brand and, generally, has an idea of its features and what it can do; see brand rejection, brand nonrecognition, brand preference, and brand insistence.  

brand reinvention   remaking or repositioning a particular brand that has grown old in the minds of consumer and in need of a rejuvenation that attempts to project a new mood, tone, or point of view, resulting in a stronger emotional connection with its market; a means to win back customers by revitalizing the brand. See repositioning. 

brand rejection   a level of brand familiarity, in which the consumer knows the brand, but will not purchase it for any reason, perhaps related to past experience, price, poor quality, word-of-mouth, or poor image; see brand nonrecognition, brand recognition, brand preference, and brand insistence. 

brand strategy   in naming and marketing a product, the four options available to the marketer; see line extension, brand extension, multibranding, and new-brand strategy. 

brand switchers   a market segment consisting of consumers who show no loyalty to a particular brand, instead choosing that which they believe offers the best deal; also called variety seekers. See brand switching. 

brand switching   in a particular product category, a purchasing pattern characterized by consumers changing from one brand to another; often motivated by sales promotion deals (the “best” deal at the time), the quest for the “perfect” solution, or simply the idea of change or something different. Getting consumers to change brands may be an advertiser’s goal in a particular campaign. Also known as variety-seeking. See brand loyalty

branded content  see branded entertainment.

branded entertainment  the integration of a brand with an entertainment property (e.g., TV program, movie, video game, sporting event, venue), typically for a fee; aim is to create an association between the brand and the property. also called product integration or branded content. See product placement.

branding   the all-inclusive process whereby a brand and a brand image are developed and differentiated from all other products. 

BrandWeek   a national weekly trade magazine featuring news, insights, opinions, and analysis of marketing and brand issues, with in-depth articles on relevant matters and case histories; see Adweek and Mediaweek. Also see Superbrands. 

BrandWeek Directory   an annual publication that provides profiles of U.S. brands and the companies that market them; see Adweek Directory and Mediaweek Directory.  

breadth of assortment see product line width. 

break   in television and radio media scheduling, the time period between programs or between segments of a single program that is available for commercials, announcements, or news briefs. 

breakdown   in business advertising media, classifying circulation by type of business or industry, geographical location, functions and titles of readers, demographics of recipients, and other factors considered relevant. 

break-even analysis   an evaluation of the relationship between costs and revenues; helps determine whether the firm can cover all its costs with a particular price. Allows the marketer to calculate the effects of several different prices. See break-even point (BEP)

break-even point (BEP)   the precise quantity at which total costs equal total revenues, telling the marketer exactly how many units must be sold at a particular price to just cover costs; in units, the point is calculated by dividing total fixed cost by fixed cost contribution per unit (selling price per unit minus variable cost per unit). See break-even analysis. 

breakthrough opportunity   a marketer’s constant search for a strategy that gives it a true competitive advantage over all others, and which yields an attractive and profitable long-term return for the company. 

bricks-and-mortar   the actual physical-plant businesses, such as a retail store; as opposed to an online marketer; see clicks-and-mortar and on-line marketing. 

bridge buying   see forward buying. 

bridging   in television programming, a ploy to keep audience away from another program by scheduling a program so it is in progress at the time the other show begins.  

brick-and-click   see clicks-and-mortar. 

brief   see creative brief. 

broadband   high-speed cable transmission over the Internet. 

broadcast coverage area   in television or radio, the entire geographic area that receives the originating station’s signal; see coverage, spill-in, and spill-out. 

broadcast media   media that rely on electronic means to operate, i.e., broadcast television, cable television and radio, and which sell commercial time to companies and organizations that have an advertising message to deliver to their target audiences; see print media

broadcast monitoring service   an organization that regularly checks the broadcast media for mention of a company’s name; operates on a contract basis for a advertiser-client. See monitoring service

broadcast network   in television, as defined by Nielsen Media Research, an organization which distributes programming and announcements for simultaneous distribution to contractually-affiliated local stations, has coverage of at least 70 percent of U.S. television households for the majority of its programs, and which telecasts at least 15 hours of programming per week; in situations where less than 15 but at least 10 hours of programming per week are telecast, the organization is considered a “limited network.” See network. 

broadcast production   see production. 

broadcast television   a television delivery system in which the signals are transmitted through the air, rather than via wires, i.e., cable, to subscriber households, as in the case of cable television. 

Broadcasting Advertiser Reports (BAR)   in television and radio advertising, an  organization that monitors network and spot television advertising and network radio advertising, and issues reports on its findings; a good source for competitive spending and scheduling patterns. 

broadcasting   television or radio programming with appeal to large general-interest audiences; the broadcast equivalent of general-interest or mass magazine. See narrowcasting. 

broadsheet   a standard-or full-size newspaper, in which a page measures approximately 22 inches deep by 13½ inches wide, and has six columns; as   opposed to a tabloid, which measures about 14 inches deep by 10½ inches wide, and has five columns. For advertising purposes, a full page measures 126 column inches (21 x 6). See tabloid. 

broadside   a direct-mail piece or other promotional literature that unfolds to a large sheet approximately the size of a regular (i.e., broadsheet) newspaper page. 

brochure   a specially-designed booklet used for promoting the advertiser’s product, service, or the organization as a whole; usually published on heavier paper stock and often features color photography, illustrations, and elaborate typography. 

broker   in the distribution of goods, an agent middleman, i.e., does not take title to the goods, who brings buyers and sellers together for a transaction; represents either the buyer or the seller, but not both in the same transaction. 

browser   a software program on a computer that can request, load, and display documents or Web sites residing on the Internet; used by the Internet user to gain access to Web sites. Examples: Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator.   

Bruzzone Market Research   a leader provider of custom and syndicated research data covering a broad range of advertising, including tracking studies, pre-testing, post-testing, copy testing, and other methods. 

bubble card   see blister pack. 

bubble test   see cartoon method. 

buckslip   in direct mail, a small insert contained in the mail package, offering additional information or calling attention to a special deal or incentive for the consumer to respond; so called because the insert is about the size of a dollar bill. 

budget determination   see affordable method, arbitrary method, competitive parity method, objective-and-task method, percentage-of-sales method, and unit-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and top-down approach to budgeting. 

build-up approach to budgeting   a procedure for establishing the marketing communications or individual promotion element budget, such as advertising; involves first setting marketing communications objectives, then identifying the tasks required to accomplish the objectives, and estimating the costs of the tasks, at which time the costs are totaled to arrive at the budget number. See objective-and-task method and top-down approach to budgeting.   

bulk discount   in print advertising, especially newspaper, decreasing rates given to advertisers as they use more space; e.g., a lower rate per column inch (or page) as the advertiser uses more inches (or pages). See bulk plan. 

bulk mailing   a way of sending multiple copies of a publication, direct mail letter, or  other items through the postal system under a permit or pre-canceled stamps; certain requirements and restrictions apply as to number of pieces, weight, and preparation for mailing. 

bulk plan   in radio advertising, when an advertiser, often a retailer, contractually commits to buy a certain number of spots over an extended period, usually one year; same concept applies to television advertising. See bulk discount.

bulk sales   in print publications, large-quantity, reduced-price purchases of magazines or newspapers for redistribution; e.g., those bought and distributed by hotels or airlines. 

bulldog edition   the earliest edition of a newspaper, generally a big-city, large-circulation newspaper; followed by later editions, sometimes up to four total.  

bulletin   the traditional and largest standardized outdoor advertising format available; measures 14’ high x 48’ wide. Copy is done by hand-painting directly on the surface, vinyl lettering, computer techniques, or printing on paper. Two types of bulletins: see permanent bulletin and rotary bulletin. 

bundling   the practice of selling two or more products or services together, but at a single price: e.g., personal computers are typically sold containing several software packages, a home improvement service may combine several renovation services and offer a single price to the homeowner, or two media may join together as an advertising package, such as AOL Time Warner and CBS combining and offering advertising time as a package. See cross-media advertising and multi-media buy.  

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF)   the federal agency that regulates and controls all aspects of alcoholic beverages advertising, including the information that can appear in the advertising and what constitutes false and misleading advertising. 

buried offer   see hidden offer. 

buried position   in magazine or newspaper advertising, an advertisement placed among several others, reducing the likelihood of it being noticed or read. 

Burke Day-After-Recall Test (Burke Test)   see ASI Recall Test. 

Burke, Inc.   a leading marketing research organization, providing a vast array of research and analysis services for marketers and advertisers; work covers virtually all aspects of marketing and promotion, including product testing, pricing research, market segmentation, positioning studies, and many others. Provides both custom and syndicated research. 

Burrelle’s Information Services   primarily consists of a published directory that features a comprehensive database of media information, including national and local print and broadcast data, as well electronic newspapers and magazines; service includes same-day monitoring and delivery of data on daily and non-daily newspapers, consumer and trade magazines, network and local TV, network radio, and the World Wide Web. 

bursting   scheduling the same commercial to run several times in a short period of time on the same television station; e.g., two or even three times during the same program or every thirty minutes in prime time.  

bus wrap   a form of out-of-home advertising in which a bus is wrapped with a high-quality vinyl adhesive product on which is imprinted an advertising message; see rolling billboard and car wrap. 

business advertising   advertising directed at individuals who buy, use, or influence the purchase of goods and services in other businesses or organizations (often referred to as industrial goods and services or organizational goods and services); also known as business-to-business advertising. See trade advertising

business book   see business publication. 

business customers   see organizational buyers. 

business journal   see business publication. 

business magazine   see business publication. 

business market   comprised of the institutional buyers who purchase products and services for making other products and services, or for resale to other businesses; also called organizational market. See business marketing.  

business marketing   all activities involved in marketing goods and services to organizations, groups, or individuals who purchase for reasons other than personal consumption, such as business and organizational customers who require goods and services to produce other goods and services for resale or to support their operations; also known as business-to-business marketing. Commonly called B2B. See business market. 

Business Marketing Association (BMA)   the primary information and resources organization serving the business-to-business marketing industry; promotes best practices, fosters communications, and serves the information and networking needs of business-to-business marketers. 

business media   the wide variety of publications and other media directed to the trade, production, professional, executive or managerial, and institutional audience as opposed to consumers; aimed at specialized business audiences. See business publication.  

business paper   see business publication

business press   see business media. 

business products    products and services bought for use in running a business or an organization, i.e., not for personal consumption. 

business publication   a specialized business publication aimed at manufacturers and intermediaries who buy products and services for use in producing a product and those who buy and sell for resale and other individuals who in some way are involved with the movement of goods through distribution channels; editorial matter (and advertising) is directed toward a specific industry, profession, or occupation. Term sometimes is used to denote a general category of magazines that target business readers, including trade publications, industrial magazines, and professional journals. Also referred to as a trade publication, business or trade book, business or trade journal, business or trade magazine, business or trade paper and industrial magazine. See horizontal publication and vertical publication.  

Business Publication Audit  (BPA)   an independent self-regulated auditing organization that provides verification of circulation, audience, and other data for business magazines (and a limited number of consumer publications), business newspapers, trade shows, Web site traffic, and other advertising-supported information providers; see Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). 

business-to-business advertising   see business advertising. 

business-to-business agency   a firm that specializes in representing and acting on behalf of companies that market their products to other businesses; sometimes referred to as a high-tech agency. See business marketing. 

business-to-business marketing   see business marketing. 

bus-o-rama   a large illuminated sign that sits atop a bus and stretches the entire length of the bus. 

buy   see media buy. 

buy detail report   see media buy sheet. 

buy sheet   see media buy sheet. 

buyback allowance   payment by a manufacturer to a retailer to take its existing product off the retail shelf and replace it with a new product in the same space. 

buyer   any individual or organization that purchases products or services for personal or organizational use or for use by other people or organizations; generally, referred to as the customer.    

buying center   those individuals, usually as a committee, in an organization  who participate in that organization’s purchasing decisions, evaluating products and services and deciding on a course of action; the individuals have roles that include initiators, users, influencers, deciders, approvers, buyers, and gatekeepers.  

buying criteria   the factors and standards used by the prospective purchaser of a product or service in evaluating choices and making a decision; also called purchase criteria. 

buying decision   any of the several judgments and choices a prospective buyer has to make during the consumer decision process; which brand to purchase, what features to buy, how many stores to visit in deciding on what to buy, what store to buy from, or any of the many choices that must be made once the individual has decided to enter the marketplace for a product or service. Also called purchase decision. See buying criteria and buying influences. 

buying function   in business products and markets, the purchasing of goods and services to be used in the operations of the business unit; an important responsibility at each level of the distribution channel and other organizational entities. 

buying influences   all the individuals who have any effect on a person’s decision-making process and selection of a product or service.   

buying loader   see dealer loader. 

Buying Power Index (BPI)   a measurement of the relative buying power of cities, counties, states, and metropolitan areas; based on population, effective buying income, and total retail sales. A statistic reported in the annual Survey of Buying Power, compiled by Sales and Marketing Management magazine. 

buying service   see media buying service

buying signal   any verbal or non-verbal communication from a prospective customer that indicates he or she is strongly considering or is ready to purchase. 

buzz marketing   marketing tactics designed to create a stir or get people talking about a product or brand; see word-of-mouth advertising. 

BWP   a magazine advertising rate card designation for a black-and-white full-page advertisement; can also be expressed in other ways, such as 1pBW or B/WPg. 

by-the-book marketing   a marketing approach that relies on conventional wisdom and traditional proven practices, with the emphasis on tried-and-true, proven-over-time strategies and tactics; see on-the-edge marketing.