Association of Advertising Agencies.
Audit Bureau of Circulations.
see American Business Media.
see American Business Press.
see Advertising Checking Bureau.
see Area of Dominant Influence.
American Federation of Television and Radio Artists.
see American Institute of Graphic Arts.
see Association for Interactive Media.
see American Marketing Association.
see Association of National Advertisers.
see American Newspaper Publishers Association.
see agency of record.
see Advertising Research Foundation.
see ASI Recall Test
and Ipsos-ASI Advertising Research
see average quarter-hour audience.
see ABCD Counties.
a la carte agency
an agency that offers
only part of its services on a particular assignment for an advertiser, or even
for another advertising agency; compensation is determined by a negotiated fee.
a copytesting method by
which the advertiser places different advertisements for the same product in
every other copy of the same issue of a publication, and then measures the
response for each by recording the number of coupons returned, telephone calls
made for further information, or by whatever action was requested; also used in
alternate envelopes in a direct mailing. Often used to test and compare the
effectiveness of alternate advertisements. See split run,
split-run test, demographic split-run, geographic split-run, and
the classification of U.S. counties based on Census Bureau population statistics
and metropolitan proximity; “A” Counties are all counties belonging to
the 21 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., highly urban),
“B” Counties are counties not in the “A” Counties category that have more
than 85,000 households, “C” Counties are counties not defined as “A” or
“B” Counties that have more than 20,000 households or are in Metropolitan
Statistical Areas (MSAs) or Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs)
with more than 20,000 households, while “D” Counties” are all counties
not classified as “A,” “B,” or “C” Counties (i.e., rural). Designations are
those as defined by the A.C. Nielsen Company. See Metropolitan
Statistical Area (MSA) and Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA).
placing an advertising order for time or space at a time there is no time or
space available; the order is held in suspension until time or space becomes
available, if at all. More common in television than other media.
a ground sign formed by two
boards that lean against each other and are joined together by a cross-brace at
the top, forming an “A;” often seen at the curb outside retail locations.
the top half of a broadsheet newspaper; as opposed to below-the-fold. On
the web, the term refers to the portion of a given page, such as the homepage,
that can be viewed without scrolling down. An advertisement on the Internet is
above-the-fold when it is viewable in its entirety as soon as the Web page
arrives, without having to scroll down to see any portion of the advertisement.
costs incurred in doing the creative work; e.g., acting, music, photography,
script writing. Also may refer to “higher-profile” advertising media such as
television and magazines, or the traditional major media. See below-the-line
market research firm and leading provider of a wide range of marketing
information to consumer goods manufacturers and retailers, such as retail-level
product movement, market share, distribution, pricing, merchandising and
promotional activities, and other market-sensitive information; also manages
test marketing programs for new and established products, and provides
customized research services at all stages of product marketing, including
identification of market opportunities, development of product concepts, product
positioning, sales forecasting, advertising testing and tracking.
Operates consumer panel services that provide detailed information on actual
purchases made by household members, as well their retail shopping patterns and
demographic profiles—covering more than 126,000 households worldwide. Especially
useful in helping to understand competitive performance. Part of VNU. See
Nielsen Media Research.
see prime time access.
a direct-mail piece or other
promotional literature consisting of several panels that fold and unfold in the
manner of an accordion.
the advertiser or
organization for whom the agency is doing work; also called the client.
occurs when an
advertising agency handles two different marketers’ brands of directly competing
products; may occur as a result of two agencies merging or when an advertising
agency decides to pitch and try to win a company’s account that includes a brand
that competes directly with a product already advertised by the agency (in which
case, the agency, should it win the new account, would give up the existing
account). Often, already having a competing brand precludes the agency from
going after a new account that has a directly competitive product.
the individual in the advertising agency who is the daily contact between the
agency and the client, and who directs, coordinates, and manages the entire
process and services involved in serving the client, constantly communicating
and interacting with both the agency and client teams; liaison between the
advertising agency and the client. Reports to the account supervisor.
See account supervisor and director of account services.
overseeing the design, implementation, maintenance, review and follow-up of all
activities and programs involved in an organization’s relationship with its
customers or clients; see key account management.
a premium offered to a customer for opening a new account; e.g., a bank’s offer
of a hand-held calculator given to anyone opening a new account with that bank.
the individual in an advertising agency who is responsible for ensuring that the
agency’s strategic and creative focus is on the consumer; the account planner
makes extensive use of both qualitative and qualitative research. See account
the discipline within an advertising agency that makes sure the consumer’s
perspective is fully considered when advertising is developed and that the
marketer forges a strong connection with the consumer; includes the study of how
consumers make use of marketing communications and the design of an action plan
for communicating effectively with consumers. Research, both qualitative and
quantitative, is the primary tool used in account planning. See account
a process by which advertising agencies, at the invitation of a client, compete
for the client’s account by presenting their credentials and advertising and
promotion ideas for the client’s marketing communications program; a full-scale
evaluation of a current advertising agency by an advertiser, either against the
agency’s performance record alone or against competing proposals from
prospective new agencies interested in serving that advertiser. See agency
at an advertising agency, all the activities that go into the design and
development of an advertising and marketing communications plan for a client;
the account executives and account supervisors are the key account
services individuals charged with making sure the agency teams get the right
work done in the right way at the right time. See director of account
services, account executive, and account supervisor.
programs jointly developed by manufacturers and retailers, customized for
individual retail accounts, and which serve to enhance the equity of both the
brand and the store.
the individual at the advertising agency who supervises the account executive;
reports to the director of account services. See account executive
and director of account services.
in cooperative advertising, an advertising fund established for the retailer by
the manufacturer, against which the cooperative advertising costs are charged;
see fixed accrual, percentage accrual, and cooperative
in television and radio, an particular program that is aired at the same time
each day, Monday-Friday; e.g., a soap opera on television or a radio talk show.
See strip advertising and strip programming.
a particular audience’s exposure to the same advertisement or commercial in
different media vehicles; e.g., exposure to the same ad in Cosmopolitan
and Redbook, Golf Digest and Sports Illustrated,
NFL football and ABC news. Also called between-vehicle
duplication. See within-vehicle duplication.
the advertiser’s major objective of using advertising and other forms of
promotion; what the advertiser aims for with its communications to the target
advertising that seeks a quick response and action from its target audience.
see bingo card.
Action for Children’s
an activist group formed in 1968 to lobby the federal government for improved
quality of television programming aimed at children and to press for stringent
restrictions and measures related to the amount and the content of advertising
directed to children; disbanded shortly after passage of the Children’s
Television Act of 1990. See Children’s Television Act of 1990.
action response device
any of a number of tools used to make it easy for an individual to respond to
the advertiser’s call for action; e.g., a reply card in a direct mail package, a
coupon in an advertisement, or an 800-number for a person to call.
activation in sponsorship
marketing, refers to how a sponsor uses the assets it has available under the
terms of the sponsorship, i.e., the specific activities engaged in by the
sponsor to promote its sponsorship, over and above the rights fee paid to the
property. For example, engaging in theme-based advertising that shouts the
sponsor's involvement with a particular event or redesigning a package to
include an event's or a team's logo or staging a sweepstakes with a prize of an
all-expenses-paid trip to a major event. Also called leveraging.
in direct mail, mailing list customers who have made a recent purchase,
generally within the past year.
a detailed breakdown, review, and evaluation of the non-selling work done by a
salesperson; e.g., the time and work devoted to display setups or doing
paperwork. Often involves a breakdown, analysis, and comparison between selling
and non-selling functions.
the tangible, physical object with all its features; see augmented product
and core product.
see banner and banner ad.
in internet advertising, the successful display of an advertisement on the
in internet advertising, the successful delivery of an advertisement to a
browser, as measured by the server that actually delivered the advertisement.
ad hoc network
in television, a temporary group of stations formed for the showing of a
special, one-time program or series.
ad hoc research
in marketing or advertising research, research specifically designed to address
a particular problem or issue on a one-time basis, as opposed to an ongoing
research program on that topic.
see ad view.
ad pod see pod.
ad pod rating
in television advertising, the audience rating during commercial breaks in
television programs; by comparing the average rating during the program content
of a show with the average rating during commercial breaks, a retention rate may
be determined, showing the extent to which commercials are likely being watched.
See commercial retention rate, pod, and rating.
in Internet advertising, the initial request for an advertisement from the
browser, as measured by the server that redirects the browser to the specific
location of the advertisement; see hit. (according to ABC Interactive)
camera-ready product advertisements provided by manufacturers to local
advertisers, such as retailers, for use in print ads that feature the
ads on wheels
see mobile billboard, bus wrap, car wrap, and truckside advertising.
in Internet advertising, the series of advertisements viewed by a user during a
single visit to a particular Web site; also called an impression stream.
Ad Track index
an advertising tracking service that appears as a weekly feature
reporting consumer opinions about the effectiveness of selected current
advertisements and campaigns; the feature includes survey results, detailed
analysis of the advertising in question, and comparisons with other campaigns. A
collaboration between USA Today and Harris Interactive.
see tracking study.
in Internet advertising, a single advertisement that appears in full view,
usually without scrolling, on a web page when the page arrives at the viewer’s
display; also referred to as an ad impression or view.
see advertising promotional products.
see value added.
address on the Internet, the e-mail
address of a computer user or a Web site’s URL.
ADDY awards recognition for excellence
in advertising creativity; sponsored by the American Advertising Federation (AAF).
in print media, the number
of advertising pages relative to editorial pages; e.g., 65/35 indicates that 65
percent of all pages in that particular vehicle are advertising.
television or radio broadcast commercial time immediately preceding or following
a network program, or during a station break, when the network releases time to
its local affiliates for them to place a spot television commercial; i.e., the
availability of commercial time for local sales by local television stations
before or after a network program. In print advertising, may refer to the
editorial content that appears next to an advertisement. Also called a break position. See
in-program placement and spot.
a vertical marketing
system (VMS) in which the distribution channel members agree to informally
cooperate with each other, as opposed to being bound together by corporate
ownership or by contractual agreement; the leadership role is determined by the
size and power of the various production and distribution members in the
marketing system. See vertical marketing system (VMS), corporate VMS,
contractual VMS, conventional marketing system, horizontal marketing system,
and hybrid marketing system.
a deliberately-set price, rather than one dictated solely by market forces, such
statistics compiled by Starch to show average readership of advertisements
broken down by publication, size, color, and type of product being advertised;
see Starch Readership Studies.
a classification of consumers based on how early or how late an individual
accepts a new product, service, or idea relative to other adopters; based on the
time it takes an individual to make the initial purchase of a new product, the
classification scheme includes innovators, early adopter, early majority,
late majority, and laggards. See adoption process, adoption curve,
diffusion process, innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority,
a graphic depiction of how consumers go about adopting a new product, service,
or idea, showing when people accept a new entry; see
adoption process, adopter
categories, diffusion process, innovators, early adopters, early majority, late
a series of stages
through which an individual goes in deciding on whether to accept a product idea
and become a regular user of a particular product, or to reject it; see
awareness stage, interest stage, evaluation stage, trial stage, and
adoption stage; Also see diffusion process.
the fifth and final stage of the adoption process, in which the consumer decides
whether to adopt or reject the new idea; see adoption process,
awareness stage, interest stage, evaluation stage, and trial stage.
a leading online adertising measurement service; part of Nielsen/Net Ratings.
in television, the ratings estimates for local audiences that are available to
advertisers and agencies prior to distribution of ratings reports containing
actual ratings numbers.
a sponsor-paid advertising
message that appears in a print publication such as a magazine or newspaper; the
print equivalent of a broadcast commercial. See commercial.
any individual, organization
or other entity that uses advertising in an attempt to sell its product (broadly
defined) or influence people in some way; see client.
see checking copy, affidavit of performance, and tearsheet.
television and radio networks and stations whose primary source of revenues
comes from the broadcast of commercials sponsored by advertisers, making the
programming free to viewers and listeners; noncommercial networks and stations,
and pay television, seek funds from viewers, listeners, foundations, government,
and other sources. See cable television (CATV), noncommercial broadcasting,
and public broadcasting.
the use of paid media by an identified sponsor to communicate information about
products (including objects, services, ideas, causes, and organizations) to
influence people’s thoughts and behavior, or otherwise stimulate some action.
key weekly publication featuring complete, up-to-date marketing and advertising
news and information for practitioners and non-practitioners alike.
an independent service
organization that specializes in planning, creation, developing, preparing, and
placing advertising and promotion programs for its clients, i.e., advertisers;
also arranges for or contracts for purchase of media space and time, as well as
appraisal of the advertising and promotion efforts. Also called a shop.
See full-service advertising agency, limited-service advertising agency,
creative boutique, and non-traditional advertising agency.
advertising agency review
see agency review.
money paid by a
manufacturer to a retailer for advertising and other promotion the retailer does
for the manufacturer’s product at the local level; instead of an outright
payment, the allowance may take the form of a price reduction on the goods the
retailer buys from the manufacturer. See promotional allowance.
the amount of money allocated for advertising expenditures during a particular
accounting period; see budgeting methods.
see budgeting methods.
a series of individual, but coordinated, advertisements and other promotional
messages for a product or service placed in a variety of media under a single
common theme that serves as the unifying force of the campaign, and running for
a specified period of time; multiple messages under a single theme.
Advertising Checking Bureau
organization devoted to managing trade allowance programs of all types for
companies involved in cooperative advertising and other partnerships with
retailers; services include verification, auditing, complete research services
and, generally, efforts to foster better, more profitable relationships between
the formal and binding agreement between the advertiser and the media,
specifying all details surrounding the placement of advertising, including the
obligations of each party.
organization that creates free public service advertising and campaigns in the
general interest, promoting issues and causes, and stimulating awareness of and
action against significant social problems in the United States; totally
supported by advertisers, advertising agencies, and the media.
advertising decay see
the particular arrangement, motif, pattern, and style of the visual elements in
balance, contrast, emphasis, flow, gaze motion, harmony,
and unity, and also
the extent to which an advertising campaign or an individual advertisement or
commercial achieves its objectives.
the sensitivity of sales to advertising expenditures; i.e.,
the extent to which a change in the advertising budget affects a product’s or
the level of advertising during an advertising campaign or particular period
within a campaign.
the individual who runs the advertising department at the client organization.
see advertising research.
the primary idea contained in an advertiser’s communication with its target
audience; see message.
results that the advertising efforts are expected to achieve; usually framed in
terms of awareness, attitude, liking, or preference. A well-stated advertising
objective identifies a specific communications task to be accomplished
with a specific target audience during a specific time period to
achieve a particular degree of change as evaluated by a specific
the blueprint for the design and implementation of an advertising program;
identifies all tasks and rationales for every stage of an advertising effort. An
outgrowth of the marketing plan. See campaign plan and
see copy platform.
see production stage.
promotional giveaway items used for goodwill and typically imprinted with the
advertiser’s name, address, telephone number, logo, or even a short message;
e.g., caps, T-shirts, pens, coffee mugs, calendars, key tags. Also called
advertising specialties, giveaways, adcentives, or promotional products, and
often referred to as specialty advertising. See promotional products
audit any of
several techniques for measuring the return on the advertising investment;
return-on-investment approach (ROI).
Advertising Red Books
see Standard Directory of Advertisers, Standard Directory of Advertising
Agencies, and Standard Directory of International Advertisers & Agencies.
the systematic gathering, analyzing, and evaluating of information relevant to
an advertising program, such as that relating to advertising message and media
strategies; see, for example, message research, media research,
readership studies, copytesting, pre-testing, post-testing, aided recall,
unaided recall, theater test, split-run test.
a professional association
of advertisers, advertising agencies, research firms, media companies, and
educators; dedicated to the pursuit of effective advertising and marketing
communications through the practice of objective advertising, media, and
marketing research; conducts research and stages conferences. Publisher of the
Journal of Advertising Research.
Advertising Research System
advertising response curve
between advertising expenditures and sales; sometimes used to help establish the
advertising budget. See concave response curve, S-shaped response
curve, and advertising-sales ratio.
advertising research, a copytesting technique that measures and analyzes the
cognitive and image value of advertising. A product of Gallup and Robinson
(G&R). See copytesting, Gallup and Robinson (G&R), InTeleTest, In-View
Test, and Magazine Impact Research Service (MIRS).
see media scheduling.
advertising promotional products.
the different stages through which a product’s advertising passes; namely,
pioneering (i.e., informative) advertising, competitive
(i.e., persuasive) advertising, and retentive
(i.e., reminder) advertising. See informative advertising,
persuasive advertising, and reminder advertising.
the direction the
message will take to achieve the advertising objective; what and how the
advertising is to communicate. See creative brief.
see advertising research.
the requirement that an advertiser must provide adequate evidence and support
for all claims about a product’s features and benefits made in its advertising;
documented proof of an advertiser’s claim about its product. Under
purview of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
see media vehicle.
the total amount of
advertising used to support a specific campaign; may be expressed in several
ways, such as media cost, gross impressions, gross rating points, or target
rating points. Also referred to as message weight. See gross
impressions, gross rating points, and target rating points.
ratio in print
advertising, a measure of the relative amount of advertising vs. editorial
content in a magazine or newspaper; i.e., the number of advertising pages
compared with the number of pages with editorial content.
broadcast advertising, a measure of the relative amount of advertising vs.
program content in television or radio; i.e., the amount of time given over to
commercials compared with the amount of time devoted to the program, per thirty
or sixty minutes.
advertising expenditures expressed as percentage of sales revenue; see
advertising response curve.
that presents editorial matter in an attempt to influence public opinion on a
particular issue while, at the same time, though not its primary purpose,
promoting the advertiser’s product(s); usually styled to resemble the editorial
format and type face of the publication in which it appears. Often done in a
“special advertising section” format, consisting of two or more
consecutive pages in a publication. For example, a drug company whose major
purpose in the “advertising” is to focus on key issues in health care for senior
citizens, but also includes promotional copy for its own drug product(s). The
print counterpart to television’s infomercial. See infomercial.
advocacy advertising advertising
that presents an organization’s position or a viewpoint on a public issue, often
a controversial issue, even though the issue may not relate to the
organization’s line of business; used primarily to demonstrate that the
organization takes its social responsibility seriously, and commenting on
important public issues is part of that commitment. Public service advertising
that attempts to influence public opinion on a particular social, political, or
environmental issue the advertiser believes important. Also called issue
a weekly trade publication serving the entire advertising industry, with news,
insights, analysis, research, and editorial content covering all phases of
advertising, and aimed at advertisers, agencies, and the media; the magazine is
published in several regional editions. See Brandweek and Mediaweek.
an annual publication containing comprehensive reports on advertising agencies,
public relations firms, media buying services, and specialty advertising shops;
see Brandweek Directory, Mediaweek Directory, and IQ Directory.
a company name or message displayed on the side of a blimp, on a banner trailing
a small airplane, or that is affixed to another airborne vehicle for the
distinct purpose of advertising; also may refer to skywriting used for
affidavit of performance
a signed and notarized statement from a radio or television station to the
advertising agency that confirms the advertising ran as scheduled; a legal proof
of performance. The broadcast equivalent of tearsheet. See tearsheet.
see network affiliate.
in Internet marketing, a web site that sells products of other web sites; an
agreement between two web sites whereby one web site features an advertisement
aimed at driving traffic to another site. For example,
www.usatoday.com posting an
advertisement selling Foot-Joy golf shoes with a direct link to
www.amazon.com having an advertisement for office
products with a direct link to another web site selling such products or
services. Generally, a revenue-sharing arrangement whereby
two companies agree to link to
one another on the Internet and, when a user clicks from Site A and then buys
something at Site B, Site A receives a commission on the sale.
where a group of customers has interest in a particular area (e.g.
services or sports equipment), sellers of different products and services
together to offer the customers an array of related products; marketing
efforts directed to
individuals having common interests that move them toward a
particular product or
service. Examples: to retain loyal customers, a merchant
offers a credit card with
incentives built in; an organization may issue a
credit card with its name on it to allow the
consumer to emphasize his or her
identification or association with that organization,
such as a Wal-Mart
MasterCard or Harley-Davidson Visa card or maybe a credit card
a college logo.
when an advertiser, in its commercial message, makes known the limitations,
consequences, or conditions associated with and surrounding the use of a
product; e.g., when a pharmaceutical company reveals possible side effects of a
drug or the conditions under which it was tested for effectiveness. A Federal
Trade Commission requirement designed to make sure the consumer has enough
information to make an informed decision. A legal concept of consumer
protection. Also referred to as full disclosure. See Federal Trade
an advertising (or other
promotion element) budgeting method in which the amount allocated to advertising
is determined by what is left over after budgeting for everything else in
marketing; a top-down approach to budgeting. See
competitive parity method, objective-and-task method, percentage-of-sales
unit-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and
top-down approach to budgeting.
time in the
radio broadcast day, the time period 3:00pm-7:00pm; see dayparts (radio).
a unit of newspaper
advertising space that measures one column wide by one-fourteenth of an inch
deep; there are 14 agate lines to one column inch of depth; see column inch,
lineage, and standard advertising unit (SAU).
see advertising agency.
an independent or merged
advertising agency that does not own subsidiary agencies; e.g., Ogilvy & Mather,
Arnold Communications, Hill Holliday, Young & Rubicam, BBDO Worldwide, Goodby,
Silverstein & Partners, DDB Worldwide, or Leo Burnett. See megabrand,
agency megabrand, and agency network.
payment to the
advertising agency from the advertising media vehicle as compensation for the
agency’s placing its client’s advertising with that vehicle; an agency
compensation method based on the amount of media space or time purchased for the
advertiser. Traditionally 15 percent.
agency compensation method
the way in which an advertising agency is paid for its services by its client;
several ways to determine compensation, but whatever specific method or
combination is used, it essentially involves three elements: fee, commission,
results-produced. See fee method, commission method, combination method,
and performance-based method.
agency commission and sliding rate.
an organization’s review and assessment of the performance of its advertising
agency or other firm providing marketing or promotion services.
see agency network.
the huge parent organization of a group of several individual advertising
agencies, each a large entity in itself, under its ownership; e.g., WPP, with
Ogilvy & Mather, Young & Rubicam, and J. Walter Thompson, Interpublic, with
McCann-Erickson, FCB, and True North, or Omnicom, with BBDO Worldwide, DDB
Worldwide, and Goodby, Silverstein & Partners. See megabrand, agency
network, and agency brand.
a group of advertising
agencies that combine efforts and exchange ideas and services with one another,
or the collection of advertising agency under single ownership, i.e., an
agency megabrand. Also called agency group. See megabrand,
agency megabrand, and agency brand.
agency of record (AOR)
in situations where an advertiser uses more than one advertising agency for the
promotion of its products, the single agency whose responsibility it is to
coordinate the efforts of all the agencies working for the advertiser; also
refers to an independent media buying company officially designated by an
advertiser to purchase media time and space for all the agencies that serve that
advertiser; commonly called lead agency, and also referred to as
captain agency or master agency. See roster.
a videotape (typically about
10 minutes in length) of an advertising agency’s recent television commercials
for its clients; sent to prospective clients as a sample of the creative
concepts and executions produced by the agency. Often used in the screening
process when an advertiser is searching for a new agency.
the process of investigating and evaluating the performance of an advertising
agency by the advertiser-client, typically for the purpose of selecting a new
agency to handle the account; also called an account review. See
account review and agency search consultant.
agency review consultant see
agency search consultant.
the process by which an advertiser-client seeks a specialist firm to handle its
advertising, sales promotion, public relations, or other activities associated
with marketing communications; see account review and agency search
agency search consultant
a firm that specializes in providing counsel for a company seeking an
advertising agency (or any other specialist agency); consultant takes charge of
the search process, offering advice and services relative to the evaluation,
selection, compensation, and management of advertising agencies. Maintains a
current library of work samples and detailed information on agencies to aid the
search. See account review.
in the distribution channel, a wholesaler who does not take title to the
products it sells; see merchant wholesaler.
advertising and promotion programs aimed at farmers and other members and
organizations in the agricultural industry; also called farm advertising.
a way to view the major tasks assigned to advertising and promotion in the
attempt to get consumers to respond; gain attention, spark interest,
stimulate desire, and get action.
in measuring and evaluating
advertising or other promotion element, a research technique in which the
respondent’s memory is helped by the researcher providing clues by showing or
describing something; for example, the respondent may be shown an advertisement
and asked whether he or she has seen it and can remember the ad’s content. A
research technique in which the interviewer provides a verbal or visual cue to
help the respondent remember something prior to or during a response to a
question. The researcher might ask: “What pickup truck commercial do you recall
seeing on TV last night?” or even “What digital camera commercial that had a
high school reunion as the setting do you recall seeing on TV last night?” See
attitudes, interests, and
opinions; the variables that form the psychographic or lifestyle characteristics
of consumers. Often used by researchers to investigate and group consumers. See
recording the broadcast of a television or radio program for the purpose
of keeping the tape as a file copy as evidence of the airing of a commercial.
in television and radio advertising, the broadcast date of the advertiser’s
message; also applies to the date of a program’s broadcast.
in out-of-home advertising media, a display at an airport terminal, such as a
diorama or a poster; see diorama and terminal poster.
a promotional banner or sign suspended across an aisle in a supermarket,
department store, drug store, or other retail store; typically hanging from the
ceiling by wires.
in the radio broadcast day,
the time period 12:00am-6:00am; see dayparts (radio).
generally, any marketing programs and activities in which two or more marketers
join forces for a common effort.
in outdoor advertising, the number and type of outdoor posters that constitute a
showing; the number of units needed to have a desired gross rating point (GRP)
level in a particular market. See gross rating point (GRP) and showing.
a general term for price reductions, payments, or other considerations given by
a manufacturer to distribution channel members such as retailers to encourage
them to do something on behalf of the manufacturer’s product; e.g., see
advertising allowance, display allowance, trade allowance, and
in the new-product development process, testing a prototype product within the
organization; concept may be applied to testing advertising or other promotion
tools. See beta testing and new-product development process.
a television or
radio program that has two sponsors, with each advertiser sponsoring every other
week’s program; see crossplug.
see alternative media.
media other than the so-called “traditional media” (broadcast and print media)
typically used in advertising and promotion campaigns; usually used to
complement the traditional media. Any of a variety of media vehicles aimed at
audiences whose tastes and preferences are not fully satisfied by the
traditional or existing media choices, e.g., radio stations whose format caters
to a young, entertainment-oriented audience. See new media, nontraditional
media, support media, unmeasured media, and traditional media.
see alternative media.
an individual who is a spokesperson or representative for a company or a
product, especially in the role of promoting goodwill; see goodwill,
spokesperson, company ambassador, and product ambassador.
in event marketing, when a non-official sponsor uses marketing and promotion
tactics in an attempt to capitalize on the popularity of the event by giving the
impression it is an official sponsor; the
tactic may involve something such as an official sponsor’s competitor placing
elaborate signage at the outskirts of the event venue or advertising during the
broadcast of the event.
American Academy of
professional organization serving advertising teachers and practitioners,
especially through its efforts of collecting and disseminating information for
the betterment of the art; publisher of the Journal of Advertising.
a professional association
of advertisers, advertising agencies, media owners, local advertising clubs,
suppliers, and academics that promotes truth and fairness in advertising, as
well as supporting educational programs; annually presents the ADDY awards for
excellence in national and local advertising, and also sponsors the Advertising
Hall of Fame.
American Association of
Advertising Agencies (AAAA)
the premier national
association of advertising agencies; dedicated to maintaining the highest
standards of conduct of the advertising agency business and advertising
practice. Particularly concerned wit the responsibilities of advertising
agencies in being a constructive force in business by adhering to the highest
level of ethical practice and the idea that agencies must recognize the
obligation to serve the best interests of their clients, the public, the media,
and each other. See Standards of Practice, Creative Code, and
Guidelines for Comparative Advertising.
American Business Media
(ABM) the major
industry association for business-to-business information providers, including
producers of magazines, CD-ROMS, Web sites, trade shows and other ancillary
products that build upon and enhance print communications.
American Business Press
association of publishers of specialized business publications; a source of
industry information and encourages an exchange of ideas to make business
publications better and more attractive as an advertising medium.
American Federation of
Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA)
a broadcasting industry union for all workers; union membership is required of
all talent who appear in television and radio commercials.
American Institute of
Graphic Arts (AIGA)
a major industry organization whose mission includes
promoting excellence in communication design as a strategic tool for business;
the organization encourages design professionals to exchange ideas and
information, participate in research and critical analysis, and to advance
education and ethical practice of the discipline.
a major professional association for marketing teachers, practitioners, and
anyone interested in studying the marketing discipline; dedicated to advancing
marketing thought and application, playing an active role in the development and
exchange of information between and among those involved in practicing and
teaching marketing, and promoting the highest standards of ethical conduct.
Extremely active in organizing and staging many conferences and programs, as
well as the publisher of several journals helping to advance the thought and
practice of marketing.
Publishers Association (ANPA)
an organization serving the newspaper industry by its programs to advance the
professionalism of the press and its efforts to strengthen public understanding
of the press, all aimed at developing more and better informed newspaper
anchor store a major and
prominent retail store at a shopping mall that acts as a magnet drawing
customers to the mall to the benefit of the many smaller retailers located at
the mall. Usually a department store or part of a retail chain of stores. See
see secondary market.
an outdoor poster that is
placed at an angle to the road, so the advertising message is visible to traffic
in one direction only; see parallel location.
in pre-testing television commercials, a preliminary version (a series of still
drawings) of a commercial, in which a videotape of the sequential frames of a
storyboard are combined with a synchronized audio track; a rough of a television
commercial to give the client an idea of what the advertising execution will
look like without going to the expense of a finished commercial. See
pre-testing, liveamatic, photomatic, ripoamatic, storyboard, and rough.
format in advertising, a creative execution format that utilizes moving
visual elements other than live action in a television commercial; involves a
series of still drawings filmed one at a time to give the illusion they are
moving. Most common form is the cartoon. For example: a lawnmower by itself
mowing grass, a driverless automobile zooming off into the sunset, a single
automobile tire rolling on a rain-slicked road, or a created character, such as
the Jolly Green Giant or the Energizer Bunny. Also may refer to
billboard or other out- of- home media and the use of moving
components, flashing lights, or other special effects. See
news, demonstration, problem-solution, slice-of-life, dramatization, symbolic
association, fantasy, still-life, humor, spokesperson, testimonial,
and comparison formats.
in broadcast media, an
advertising message of any length that occurs within or between programs. Also
called a commercial. Often referred to as a spot.
the final version of a
television commercial presented to the advertiser for final approval prior to
making duplicate copies and sending them to the networks and stations.
Anti-drug Abuse Act
a law passed in 1988 requiring all producers of alcohol to place labels on their
products warning that pregnant women should not consume alcoholic beverages,
plus alcohol consumption impairs an individual’s ability to operate an
automobile or heavy machinery.
the bases of attraction or
core message in advertising meant to stimulate the consumer’s interest and
influence his or her feelings and desire to buy a product, service, or other
subject of the advertising; a means by which the advertiser hopes to forge a
link between the product and the customer’s needs, a link based on emotion
and/or logic. See emotional appeals and rational appeals.
see positioning by use.
the total distance along the line of travel that advertising copy on an outdoor
structure is readable; measured from the point where the advertising structure
and copy first become visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable.
Typically 1500, 1000, or 500 feet. Also, a stage in the personal selling process
in which the salesperson makes the first face-to-face contact with the prospect
and attempts to get the relationship off to a good start. See prospecting,
pre-approach, presentation, handling objections, closing, and follow-up.
a method for determining
the advertising or promotion budget based on the discretion and judgment,
usually unsupported, of the individuals involved in making the budget decisions;
marked by the absence of systematic thinking. A top-down approach to
competitive parity method, objective-and-task method, percentage-of-sales
unit-of-sales method. See also build-up approach to budgeting and
top-down approach to budgeting.
the leading supplier of
radio audience information for radio stations, advertisers, advertising
agencies, media buying services, radio networks, radio syndicators, and others
involved in radio advertising; data on audience size and demographics are
collected in about 260 U.S. markets by means of more than one million personal
seven-day diaries throughout the year. Audience estimates and demographics for
every radio station are published in a series of Arbitron Radio Market
Reports, which are used to plan and execute radio advertising buys, to
assist radio programming decision makers, and to help radio station account
executives sell their stations and the medium of radio to potential advertisers.
Area of Dominant Influence (ADI)
a television market area, as defined by Aribitron,
which no longer does TV
ratings, but the term is still used; an exclusive geographic area
made up of all
counties in which the home-market stations get the majority of the viewing.
Designated Market Area.
see cluster sample.
see stadium signage.
ARS Group (Advertising
a premier provider of a broad range of measurements and information on the
persuasiveness of advertising and advertising’s ability to have an impact on
sales change; a
copytesting service for evaluating advertising’s impact on sales, projecting
advertising’s contribution to meeting marketing objectives, gathering consumer
insight, and identifying improvement opportunities.
See ARS Persuasion Measure and ARS Related Recall.
ARS Persuasion Measure
in advertising copy research, a pre-testing measure of the ability of a brand’s
advertising to have a positive impact on sales; see ARS Group (Advertising
ARS Related Recall
in advertising research, a post-testing measure of the memorability of brand’s
advertising and what was communicated; see ARS Group (Advertising Research
refers to the visual
presentation of an advertisement or commercial, including design elements such
as illustrations, photographs, color, size and style of type, symbols, and the
logo; the arrangement or layout of the visual elements in advertising. See
the process of managing the entire visual presentation of an advertisement or
the individual in an
advertising agency who has responsibility for the design and graphics elements,
plus the creative positioning, of advertising produced by the agency; the person
who determines the look and feel of a message. See art and graphics.
an outdoor billboard on a major secondary street of a city or town, where speeds
are somewhat lower than on major highways or freeways; see outdoor bulletin.
a promotion strategy or program that links a company or advertiser to the visual
or performing arts, usually in the form of sponsorship; e.g., a local bank’s
sponsorship of a museum exhibit or a consumer products company such as Gillette
sponsoring a Boston Pops tour. See sponsorship.
ASI Recall Test
in advertising research, a leader in the day-after-recall technique of measuring
advertising effectiveness for television commercials; provide test scores for
unaided recall and aided recall. Select viewers by calling the day after a
commercial appears, until they reach and get cooperation from a specified number
of respondents, in contrast to the Gallup & Robinson day-after-recall approach
that uses pre-recruited respondents. Formerly known as Burke Day-After-Recall
Test. See day-after-recall test, unaided recall, aided recall, and
Gallup & Robinson.
in advertising and media research when conducting a media test market, employing
exact same media weight in the test market as would be employed in a national
plan, purchasing the media locally.
group a group
whose norms, values, and behavior have such a positive attraction and influence
on an individual that he or she uses the group as a guide or role model in the
purchase of specific products and brands; also may refer to a group that a
nonmember would like to join, but is unlikely to do so . See reference group.
a sponsor of an event whose financial and other commitments are not as great as
the primary or title sponsor(s); essentially a designation commensurate with the
organization’s financial commitment to the event and secondary to another
sponsor(s). See primary sponsor and title sponsor.
in magazine readership
studies, the percentage of readers of a specific issue of a magazine who not
only noted a particular advertisement, but also saw or read some part of it
which clearly indicated the brand or the advertiser; see Noted score, Read
Most score, and Read Some score. A measure of The Starch
Association of National
an industry trade
association representing national and regional advertisers; dedicated to
maintaining the highest standards of advertising conduct and to serving the
interests of companies and organizations that market and advertise their
products and services.
Association for Interactive
Media (AIM) an
industry trade association dedicated to the advancement of the interactive media
industries by research and programs focused on the business use of the Internet
and interactive media to efficiently and effectively reach consumers and
markets; an independent subsidiary of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA).
See Direct Marketing Association (DMA).
in advertising research, a type of projective technique in which consumers
express their feelings and thoughts after hearing or seeing a brand name or
after seeing a logo.
in the distribution channel, the process whereby the intermediary (e.g.,
wholesaler or retailer) assembles and puts together the range and variety of
products needed to satisfy the demand requirements of its customers and target
see product assortment, as well as product line and product
see product assortment depth.
see product assortment width.
see informal balance.
an order for goods placed at the booth or location of a trade show; also called
an on-site order.
an individual’s learned and
enduring predisposition or evaluative judgment toward an object, idea, or
subject; based on previous experiences and affects how the individual receives
and looks at something. For example, attitude influences how favorably or
unfavorably a person may view advertising for a particular product.
a type of
advertising research in which consumer attitudes toward a product are studied
both before and after he or she is exposed to advertising for that product; a
type of posttest to measure advertising effectiveness.
positioning by attribute.
the loss of a publication’s subscribers, a mailing list’s names, or a research
panel’s members for any of a variety of reasons; normally expressed as a
auction see online
the total number of
different individuals or households who are exposed to an advertising medium, a
media vehicle, or to a complete media plan; equivalent to reach. The object of a
sender’s message. Also referred to as audience accumulation. See reach
and target audience.
the total number
of different individuals or households exposed to a single media vehicle or
group of vehicles over a particular period of time; see audience.
and other characteristics of the individuals in a medium’s or media vehicle’s
audience; can be measured over time, e.g., at periodic intervals during the
telecast of a football game. See audience profile.
audience delivery data
estimates of the number of individuals or households reached by a medium, media
vehicle, or media schedule.
the number or
percent of individuals or households who are exposed two or more times to the
same message in the same media vehicle or combination of vehicles; may also
apply to audiences of media classes and one medium to another. The extent to
which the audience of one television station or one magazine is also exposed to,
i.e., reached, by another station or magazine. See media vehicle, media
classes, and medium.
in television or radio,
refers to the programs immediately before and after a given program, and the
extent to which the audience stays tuned to a particular station from one
program to the next or changes stations; see audience turnover,
holdover audience, lead-in, and lead-out.
the specific types of people the advertiser attempts to reach; see target
essentially the same as
audience composition, i.e., a description of the audience’s characteristics
(e.g., size, age, sex, income, education, occupation, media habits, and the
like), but particularly as it applies to the audience of a specific media
vehicle, such as a particular magazine or television program; see audience
composition and consumer profile.
in television and radio advertising, the extent to which viewers or listeners
pay little or no attention to the commercials.
in broadcast media,
similar to audience flow, but may also refer to just one program’s audience, in
which case it is the ratio of the program’s cumulative audience to the average
audience viewing or listening to that program; the part of an audience that
changes over time. Also known as churn. See audience flow.
the name of a paper diary once used by Nielsen Media Research to gather
demographic data from the households in its national sample television
viewership; used as a complement to the electronic measurement of viewership; An
electronic meter (called the Recordimeter) verified the accuracy of the diary
the forerunner to the People
Meter, it was an early electronic device used by Nielsen Media Research to
measure television audiences; the device was hooked up to the television set to
monitor when the set was turned on and to record the channel to which the set
was tuned at any given time. The device measured only the channel to which the
set was tuned, with no provision for who was watching at any time nor their
demographic profile. Essentially the old-time name for the set-tuning meter
in use today. See people meter and set-tuning meter.
the sound portion of a television commercial or program; i.e., voices, music,
sound effects. See video.
Audit Bureau of Circulations
self-regulatory auditing organization for the independent verification and
dissemination of circulation, readership, and audience information; in addition
to auditing print media, services include auditing online traffic and
advertising activity, exhibition attendance and demographics, and
non-traditional media such as school book covers and posters. Created by and
responsible to advertisers, advertising agencies, and the media. See Business
Publication Audit (BPA).
common to many media, the independent accounting and verification of circulation
and audience data; e.g., the work done by the Audit Bureau of Circulations
(ABC) or the Traffic Audit Bureau of Media Measurement (TAB).
Standards and procedures generally established and agreed-to by the parties who
have a stake in the examination of circulation data.
a publication whose
circulation is examined and certified by an independent organization; see
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
the basic tangible product supplemented or enhanced by additional services and
benefits that give it greater value to the consumer; e.g., installation, a
warranty, a repair service contract, a free upgrade option. See actual
product and core product.
television time slots as yet unsold and, therefore, available for purchase by an
advertiser; commonly called avails. Can refer to the inventory of
advertising time and space available for purchase in any media class, subclass,
or media vehicle, such as an outdoor billboard.
average audience (AA)
the number of homes or individuals tuned to a particular television program
for an average minute of that program; a Nielsen statistic. In print, the number
of readers who looked into an average issue of a particular publication, as
measured by readership studies.
average daily traffic (ADT)
in out-of-home advertising, a measurement of the total number of vehicles
passing a specific location, based on complete 24-hour counts done for an entire
year; see traffic count.
the mean number of times
an individual has been exposed to an advertisement or commercial in a specified
time period; see average frequency.
the average number of times individuals or households in the target audience are
exposed to a media vehicle over a specific period of time. To calculate:
divide total exposures by audience reach, i.e., divide gross rating
points (GRPs) by total non-duplicated audience (reach or cume). Term is often
used interchangeably with frequency. See frequency, gross rating points,
reach, and cume.
in television or radio, the average number of hours viewed or listened to per TV
or radio household, per day, per week, or any time period.
average issue audience
the number of individuals who have read an average issue of a publication; see
average net paid circulation
in print vehicles, the mean number of copies distributed and bought per issue of
the publication, over a weekly, monthly, or yearly period; as verified by the
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). Obtained by dividing the total of all paid
copies by the total number of copies issued. Also called average paid
circulation. See net paid circulation and Audit Bureau of Circulations
in direct mail, a way to measure the effectiveness of a program by focusing on
the average value of an order associated with the particular campaign;
calculated as total revenue divided by the number of orders.
average paid circulation
see average net paid circulation.
the average number of persons listening to a specific radio station for at least
5 minutes during a 15-minute period of a particular daypart. An Arbitron
measurement of radio-audience size. Sometimes referred to as average
quarter-hour persons (AQH persons). See Arbitron, daypart, average
quarter-hour share, and average quarter-hour rating.
average quarter-hour audience (AQH) estimate expressed as a percentage of the
area population; i.e., a radio station’s audience during a particular
quarter-hour daypart, expressed as a percentage of the measurement area’s total
population. To calculate: divide the average quarter-hour audience by the area
population (or by the target audience). A measure of Arbitron for the size of
radio audiences. See Arbitron, daypart, average quarter-hour
share, and average quarter-hour audience (AQH).
average quarter-hour share
the percentage of
the people listening to the radio (any station) in a given area who are tuned to
a specific station during a particular quarter-hour in a particular daypart. To
calculate: divide the average quarter-hour audience listening to a specific
station by the average quarter-hour audience listening to all stations. A
measure of Arbitron for radio-audience size. See Arbitron, daypart,
average quarter-hour audience (AQH), and average quarter-hour rating .
average time per visit
in Internet advertising, the total elapsed time a particular web site or
advertisement is in view (all visits) divided by the number of unique visitors;
see unique audience.
see brand awareness.
advertising that seeks to make people familiar with a brand name or a company.
the percentage of individuals who know of the existence of an advertiser’s
product, service, or company.
in a particular product category, all the brands known to the consumer; see
the first stage of the adoption process, in which the consumer becomes alert to
a product but knows little about its features and what it will do for them; see
adoption process, interest stage, evaluation stage, trial stage, and
in radio advertising, an estimate of the number of people listening to the radio
at locations outside the home; e.g., in-car, at-work, or elsewhere.
in print advertising, an imaginary line that runs through an advertisement, from
which the ad’s elements branch off; an aid to aligning visual elements and
relating them to make sure the advertisement’s layout is logical and facilitates
the reader’s eye movement in way intended by the ad’s creator.