"The genius of managing the marketing communications program is acquired only through its practice, relying on a system of learned skills and experiences."
Anne Onamus  

Objectives of the Project
  "We're lost, but we're makin' good time."  Lawrence Peter Berra    

The general objectives of the project focus on providing an opportunity for students to design a comprehensive integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan, enabling you to achieve a keen awareness and understanding of the decisions, issues, and activities involved in developing such a plan.  Specifically, the project is designed so you will: (1) achieve an understanding of the major elements comprising the marketing communications mix; (2) fully comprehend the meaning and relevance of integrated marketing communications; (3) appreciate the complexity of designing a complete IMC plan; (4) achieve a high proficiency in locating, understanding, and using information sources for marketing communications program design, execution, and measurement; and (5) enhance your ability to communicate logically and persuasively in spoken, written, and visual language.  In short, the fundamental objective of the project is to learn how to create a first-rate integrated marketing communications plan. 

The Promotion Plan  "The guy came here two years ago promising to build a team in his own image. Now we're
                                                 looking for small, white-haired infielders with .212 batting averages."  Albert Ackerman

A promotion plan is a blueprint of the complete marketing communications program for a brand.  It is a formal document that evaluates the background of the brand and presents a set of guidelines and an action program for the brand’s promotion campaign.  The promotion plan for this project will be for the New England market and will cover one calendar year. 

Formation of Agency Teams  "Gettin' the players ain't the tough part, it's getting 'em to play together." 
                                                                                                           Charles Dillon Stengel

You should form your own four-person teams.  Assistance will be provided where requested.  Each team is to take the role of a full-service advertising agency charged with the responsibility of preparing a complete promotion plan for a designated client. (In all cases, Prof. G serves the role of client.)  Each agency should adopt a formal name. 

The Client and the Product  "In the factory we make baseball mitts. In the store we sell dreams."
                                                                                                                                                 A.G. Spalding

The product will be an existing brand with an established track record.  Each agency team should submit a list of five products it would like to work on, and then meet with Prof. G for final selection.  Products for some previous campaign plans are listed at the end of this document.

Establishing the Budget  "A nickel ain't worth a dime anymore."  Lawrence Peter Berra     

Each agency team will submit a budget request in response to the client’s directive to create a new promotion campaign that promises an improved market position in New England.  Once you determine the budget needed to achieve that end, you should submit it according to the status report deadlines established.  Final approval rests with the client.

Status Reports and Meetings  "The doctors X-rayed my head and found nuthin'."  Jay Hanna Dean  

A series of Status Reports will be issued during the campaign planning period.  Each report should be a maximum of five pages in length (not counting exhibits) and should be in bullet form, detailing your findings and/or current thinking on a particular part of the campaign plan.  To guide you in preparation of each report, imagine that the client’s product manager has called and said: “You’ve been working on the competitive analysis [e.g.] for some time now. We wonder what you’ve found and what you make of the findings. Please give us a report.”  The Status Report represents your best thinking at the moment and is subject to change.  At a minimum it should show clearly that you have been working diligently and productively on the campaign and have put a good deal of thought into matters, because this is “the most important promotion plan for your most important client.”  Please keep in mind that issuance of a Status Report does not signal completion of that particular phase of the campaign plan. 

The Status Reports will be read and kept by your instructor.  They will not be graded, but will serve as checkpoints for monitoring your progress on the plan.  Each Status Report will provide an indication of the extent and quality of the work on a particular stage of the plan.  Any questions or concerns about the content of a Status Report will be addressed to the agency team no later than the day after it is submitted.  Should you not be contacted, assume the Status Report is fine.  However, you are welcome to discuss the report with me at any time. 

Status Reports are not substitutes for meetings with Prof. G.  You are encouraged to schedule periodic meetings with me to discuss any aspect of your campaign.  Scheduling such meetings is the responsibility of the agency team, and there is no limit to the number of meetings.  Meeting early and often is advisable.


“Promise them anything.”  Jerry Della Femina

Report #1:       Industry/Company Review 

            A description of the industry in which your product competes, its size, growth, current trends and developments, and any key factors necessary for an understanding of the setting.  Also, a snapshot of your company, including a very brief history, the firm’s development to its present status, product lines, sales history, target markets, current marketing mix, and other factors making the company what it is today. 

Report #2:            Product Review/Buyer Analysis 

            A description of the product that is the focus of your campaign plan.  Emphasis should be on the product’s sales history, market share, strengths, weaknesses, key benefits, brand image, and other factors important for an understanding of the product’s performance and place among its category competitors.  In addition, there should be identification of the various market segments and the user profile for the product, as well as a description of the consumer decision process for the product and the important factors influencing brand selection. Who buys our product?  Who is the decider?  The influencer?  What are the demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioristic factors that influence the buying decision?  Is buying behavior characterized by extended or limited problem solving?  Is the product/brand a high-involvement or low-involvement purchase?  In short, what are the key factors that influence buyer behavior for this product? 

Report #3:            Competitive Review 

            Identification of the important direct and indirect competitors faced by our product.  For each competitor, focus should be on factors such as sales, market share, growth, key benefits, positioning, advertising and promotion budget, promotion program mix, message and media strategies, and an overall assessment of strengths and weaknesses. 

Report #4:            S-T-O-P & Budget Request     

What are the objectives of our campaign?  Which of the market segments will be the target market for this campaign?  What will be our positioning strategy?  How much money do we need to spend to achieve our campaign objectives?  (The budget number at this point is a single aggregate figure, not broken down by individual promotion program element.)
            Report #5:            Promotion Mix

             Identification of the major elements of the promotion campaign, the relative emphasis to be placed on each (including a tentative allocation of the budget), the specific objectives for each element, and the rationale for the recommended mix.

Report #6:       Media Objectives/Mix 

            Identification of the reach, frequency, and message weight we expect to achieve.  What will be the geographical allocation of the media budget and why?  What media will be used and why?  [At this point, it is not necessary to identify specific media vehicles, just the medium, e.g., you do not have to yet identify the specific television program (6:00pm news) and magazine title (Newsweek) … just that television and magazines will be used.]  What sort of scheduling pattern do we envision and why?  All this should be accompanied by a concise media rationale statement as to the potential efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed media plan. 

Report #7:            Creative Strategy Statement 

            A one-page statement of your copy platform, including the following components making up your message strategy: target audience, objectives, key benefit, support, claims and promises, reassurance, and tone.

The Final Presentation  "I never really said most of the things I said."  Lawrence Peter Berra 

The final presentation, thirty minutes in length, should contain whatever the agency team believes necessary to evoke favorable action on the proposed plan by the client.  The team’s basic mission is to convince the client to accept the campaign proposal.  How you attempt to do that is an important part of the process.  While substance is crucial, style is important, too.  Please keep in mind that you are also selling your agency, its people, and its capabilities.

For each presentation, other members of the class (non-presenters) will be asked to attend in the role of “client” and will prepare a written assessment of the presentation, to be handed in upon completion of the presentation.  This will be done on the Campaign Presentation Evaluation Form provided at the start of each presentation. NEED LINK The filled-out evaluation forms will be collected and then distributed to each team following completion of the full presentation schedule.

The Written Report  "Hey, big mouth, how do you spell triple?"  Joseph Jefferson Jackson    

The written report is Exhibit A and should show beyond question that the promotion plan was prepared by a totally professional agency.  As to the format and content of the written report, please see the section entitled Promotion Campaign Plan later in this document.  BOOKMARK/LINK

Please keep in mind that the final written report becomes the permanent record of your effort.  To that end, it should reflect the care and attention that merit the document bearing your good name.  Both content and style (to include all aspects of grammar and mechanics) are of supreme importance.  The written report, even one that is outstanding content-wise, will be downgraded severely if it fails to show excellent grammar and mechanics.  Opportunities to submit your work for review prior to delivery of the final edition will be discussed in class.                   

Two copies of the final report should be submitted -- the original and a photocopy.  The original should be in the exact form as you would present to the client.  The photocopy should be unbound, and does not have to contain color artwork, pages that are larger than standard size, or the Appendix material that may be in the original.  The photocopy will be used for marking. 

Evaluation of Projects  "I knew the record would stand until it was broken."  Lawrence Peter Berra     

Performance on the campaign project constitutes a significant part of your semester grade in the course.  The report will be evaluated as a single unit, with each team member receiving the same grade.  A good result depends on each team member doing his/her share of the work to the fullest extent.  The project will be evaluated as a three-month effort, which means that an explosive push out of the starting block is essential for a first-rate final product to be a reality. In advertising and promotion campaign planning, you simply cannot make up for lost time. 

Agency Team Self-Appraisal  "I couldna done without my players."  Charles Dillon Stengel     

Upon completion of the campaign plan, agency team members will be asked to submit a performance evaluation of each team member, including one’s own self-appraisal.  The evaluation form will be distributed on the final day of class.  Check out The Agency Personnel Evaluation FormNEED LINK

Deadlines  "I got players with bad watches -- they can't tell midnight from noon."  Charles Dillon Stengel     

Assume that late work will not be accepted, so it makes good sense to observe each and every deadline.  Any alternative to this policy is at your instructor’s discretion; however, you should know that if your late work is accepted, it will gain a spot on one of the world's all-time shortest lists.

(all deadlines = at start of class, unless noted otherwise)

Agency Teams Formed
Client/Product Name
Status Reports
    Industry/Company Review
    Product Review/Buyer Analysis
    Competitive Review
    S-T-O-P & Budget Request 
    Promotion Mix
    Media Objectives/Mix
    Creative Strategy Statement
Presentation to Client
Final Report

Previous Reports
  "You can't compare me to my father. Our similarities are different."  Dale Berra

Final reports from previous campaigns are available for inspection in Prof. G’s office. They are in a box atop the file cabinet on the left as you enter the office.  You are urged to review them early and often.  The reports are to be used only in Malloy and should be returned to the box when you are done. 

Videotapes of Presentations  "So I'm ugly. So what? I never saw nobody hit with his face."    
                                                                                                                                        Lawrence Peter Berra

Several videotapes of previous presentations are available for you to take overnight.  They are on a bookshelf behind the office door. 

Reference Material  "You have to get out and work the territory, get out where the feed is fed, ask questions
                                               and listen hard."  Paul Harper

A wide range of reference material is set up for you in Malloy 214 on a bookshelf to the right of the file cabinet holding the previous reports.  The reference material is to be used only in Malloy and should be returned to the same place on the bookshelf when you are done. 

Media Kits, Media Guides, and Directories  "Information-based decisions, not intuition-based
                                                                                                      decisions--that's the key."  David Ogilvy

Over 300 media kits have been assembled for your use in designing the media plan for your campaign.  They are located in Malloy 224.  The collection includes media kits for magazines, newspapers, television, radio, billboard, transit, out-of-home, Internet, and other media types.  In addition, several media guides and directories containing a wealth of information are there for you.  Please use the media materials only in Malloy and return them to their proper place after use.

Executional Guidelines  "When I looked at the third base coach, he turned his back on me."  Bob Uecker  

            Preparation of Materials:  All materials must be created, designed, and executed exclusively by members of the agency team, except when permission is granted by your instructor.  This includes, but is not limited to, materials such as layouts, storyboards, audio or video recordings, sales promotion pieces, store displays, public relations pieces, and direct marketing materials. Professionals may not critique, correct, or make specific suggestions for any portion of the project. 

            Contacting Outside Sources:  Agency teams may (and, in fact, should) contact any firm for information and materials that do not go against the guidelines set forth in the previous paragraph.  For example, for cost estimates, previous advertising, research studies, ratings data, or industry reports, you may want to contact advertising agencies, the media, sales promotion firms, research firms, and other suppliers.  Agency teams may utilize any published and commonly available research materials.  All sources of information and materials should be listed at the end of the written report.

Creative Executions
“The best strategy fails for lack of execution.”
  Mary Wells Lawrence 

Each promotion plan should include the following executions:   

Television 2 storyboards
Radio 2 scripts
Magazine 2 mechanicals
Newspaper 2 mechanicals
Out-of-Home (four types) 4 (one for each medium)
Cooperative Advertising 1 execution
Sales Promotion 2 consumer and 2 trade
Direct Marketing 1 execution
Public Relations
     Corporate Advertising 1 execution
     Event Sponsorship 1 execution
     Cause-related Marketing 1 execution
Internet 1 execution


The 20 executions are a minimum.  You may go beyond that number.  You are also encouraged to present some unexecuted ideas.  Any departure from the list of required executions must be cleared with Prof. G.  On a project-by-project basis, there will likely be very specific requirements for executions at the demand of the client. 

Additional Materials  "I loved doubleheaders. That way I got to keep my uniform on longer."  Thomas Lasorda    

You should check the K: drive (Community on File-Campus1) under “Faculty” and “Govoni” for templates that will help you in preparing various parts of your campaign.  The following templates are available: 

                        In WORD:  companal

Companal is a worksheet organized around several factors that should be part of your competitive analysis.  Copyplat is an outline of the key components in a creative strategy statement. 

                        In EXCEL:  mediaflo 

Mediaflo is a template for your media flowchart. 

                        In POWERPOINT:  storybrd

Storybrd contains two items: a television storyboard template and a radio script sheet.  Billbord is a template for a billboard advertisement. 

Always RememberFollow Directions  

I told some of ‘em to line up alphabetically by height, and the others I told ‘em to pair up in threes then line up in a circle. You shoulda seen the mess they got themselves into. You’d a thought  they’d have to be Norman Einstein to understand what I said. It’s the little things like this you gotta deal with in spring training. These donkeys can’t even follow the simplest directions when they first get down here. I always guess it musta been a tough winter. The thing is, most of this stuff happens in the mornin’, and it gets better at the night practices. Just so they don't get down on each other or down on me for gettin’ so mad at ‘em, I usually tell ‘em at night sumthin’ like this evenin’ is a very different evenin’ from the mornin’ we had this mornin’ an’ nice work an’ stuff like that, an’ that usually helps their psychological mentality.”   
                                                          John McGraw 

Suggested Information Sources for the Promotion Plan
"The kid was a great hitter, but he had a steel glove. An' you could look it up." 
Charles Dillon Stengel     

            Collecting and organizing information for this project requires time and ingenuity.  The following list of suggested references is intended solely as a jump-start. 

            -  Previous Campaign Plan reports
-  Textbooks:  marketing, promotion strategy, advertising,
   sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, direct

-  Periodicals
-  Reports compiled by industry analysts at investment firms
-  Cases
-  Interviews with company people
-  Distributors, wholesalers, retailers

-  Trade associations

-  Advertising agencies
-  Commercial reports
-  Trade publications:   (all = available in Prof. G’s office)

               How to Write a Successful Advertising Plan
   How to Create and Deliver Winning Advertising Presentations
   The Successful Marketing Plan
   Strategic Advertising Campaigns
   The Copywriter's Handbook

   Advertising Copywriting
   Fundamentals of Copy and Layout
   Media Planning:  A Practical Guide
   Strategic Media Planning
   Introduction to Advertising Media

   The Radio and Television Commercial
   Understanding Copy Pretesting
   Sales Promotion Essentials
   Successful Direct Marketing Methods
   The Advertiser's Handbook for Budget Determination
   Marketer’s Guide to Media

   Major Media Directory

Agency Directory

   Client/Brand Directory

   Statistical Abstract of the United States

Reference Guides for Marketing Communications Planning
   available at the library reference desk
   also available online at

-  Babson library references:                           

               SIC Manual
 Reference Desk:  HF 1042 .A55 1987
   Moody's Industrial Manual (also consult Moody's Corporate
 Reference Stacks:  H6 4961 M72

   U.S. Industrial Outlook
 Circulation Desk:  HC 106 .5 .A17
   Value Line Investment Survey
Circulation Desk:  HG 4501 .V26
   Census of Wholesale Trade
Reference Stacks:  HF 5421 .U6 1977
   Census of Retail Trade
Reference Desk:  HF 3007 .A5 1987
   County Business Patterns
Reference Stacks:  HC 101 .A184
   Predicasts Basebook
Reference Stacks:  HD 9724 .P75
   Predicasts Forecasts
Reference Desk:  HD 9724 .P753
   Thomas Register 
Reference Stacks:  HC 102 .T6
   Million Dollar Directory 
Reference Stacks:  HC 102 .D8
   Standard & Poor's Register of Corporations 
Reference Stacks:  HC 102 .S85
   Standard & Poor's Stock Reports 
Investment Collection
   Annual Reports
in the Corporate Records area on Laser Disclosure and
in hardcopy format in filing cabinets

   Form 10-Ks 

in the Corporate Records area on Laser Disclosure and
in microfiche format in fiche cabinets
   ABI Inform (includes Compact SEC)
Reference Alcove
Reference Alcove
   Pro Quest
Reference Alcove
   Compu Stat
Reference Alcove
   Inves Text
Reference Alcove
              The Lifestyle Market Analyst
Reference Desk: HF 5415.33 .66 L54 1992
   The Market Share Reporter
Reference Desk: HF 5410.M35
   Brands and Their Companies (U.S.)
Reference Desk: T 223 .V4 A22 1993
   International Brands and Their Companies
Reference Desk: HD 69 .B7I58 1993
   Standard Directory of Advertisers
Circulation Desk HC 102.S87x
   Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies
Reference Desk HF 5805.S72
   Encyclopedia of Associations
Reference Desk HS17.E6
   Simmons Choices II: Study of Media and Markets
CD available at Reserve Desk
   Scarborough Prime Express

CD available at Library Workstation #4
   Ad $ Summary
Available at Reserve Desk
   Class/Brand $
CD available at Library Workstation #5 & #6
   Leading National Advertisers (LNA)
Reference Stacks HF 5802 .L4

   Leading New England Advertisers
Reference Stacks HF 5806.A11 .A327
   Standard Rate & Data Service volumes

Reference Stacks HF 5805.S8

-  Internet 

There are many WorldWideWeb sites that are worth
investigating. Beyond search engines and specific company and
organization web sites, check out the following:
An outstanding resource. The Magazine/NewspaperDatabases, Electronic Resources, and Research Guides links will lead you to some excellent information sources, particularly for the situation analysis part of your campaign plan. To use this resource, the best starting point is to go to, click on Research Guides, then hit By Topic, scroll to Marketing, and choose the appropriate link (e.g., Advertising/Marketing Communications).

This web site accurately bills itself as “The Ultimate Marketing Communications Directory.” It is by far the most extensive collection of advertising and promotion links on the Web. The web site effectively covers all relevant phases of marketing communications campaign planning. A must-use resource. 

Just to get you started, here are some excellent web sites:


Report Format and Outline


TITLE PAGE  "You should enter a ballpark the way you enter a church."  William Lee   

The following information should be included (in no special order): 

Name of client and product
Marketing Communications
            Time period covered by campaign
Babson College
            Name of your agency team
Professor's name
            Names of agency team members

TABLE OF CONTENTS  "Beauty without substance is the hook without bait."  Ralph Waldo Emerson       

List all major headings in your plan, with page numbers. 

AGENCY PHILOSOPHY  "My own little rule was two for one. If one of my teammates got knocked
                                                              down, then I knocked down two on the other team."  Donald Drysdale

A short statement (maximum: one-half page) that presents the basic principles underlying the approach used in attacking this assignment.  The agency philosophy statement should clearly indicate the standards and beliefs that guide the agency in its work. 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  "You can sum up baseball in exactly one word--you never know."
                                                                                                                                                    Joaquin Andujar

cogent summary (maximum: two pages) of exactly what your campaign plan involves.  Among the items to include are:

  • Campaign objectives

  • Major target audiences

  • Time period of the campaign

  • Campaign theme/slogan

  • Overall budget total  

  • Budget breakdown (dollars and percentages) by each major campaign element and each medium

  • Rationale for each major campaign element and each medium  

  • Expected impact

The Executive Summary may be arranged in any fashion, but it has to pack a wallop.  Remember, the basic purpose of the Executive Summary is to tell top officials at the client organization exactly what you are proposing -- in one or two pages.  Be precise.  Be complete.  Organizing the Executive Summary (as well as the other sections of the promotion campaign plan) in a bullet-type format is one effective way to present your material. 

“Most promotion programs fail before they are written.” 
Edward Popowski 

INDUSTRY BACKGROUND  "The important thing is to not stop questioning."  Albert Einstein

  • Size
  • Growth
  • Current Trends/Developments Affecting the Promotion Program
  • Macroenvironment Factors and Issues  
    (e.g., demographic, economic, technological, political, legal, social, cultural, environmental)

COMPANY SNAPSHOT  "This team is absolutely amazin' and I mean amazin'."  Charles Dillon Stengel

  • Brief Sketch
  • Place in the Industry (e.g., size, growth, image)  
  • Mission, Business Philosophy
  • Resources  
  • Organizational Structure  
  • Product Line
  • Sales History  
  • Target Markets
  • Market Shares  
  • Positioning
  • Current Marketing Mix

PRODUCT REVIEW  "Look at him. He don't drink, he don't smoke, he don't chew, he don't cuss,
                                                              he don't even stay out late, and he still can't hit .250."  Charles Dillon Stengel

  • Category Review
    ·        Description  
    Life Cycle Stage
    Sales, Growth

  • Brand Review (the product that = the focus of the campaign)
    ·        Description  
    Market Share, Sales, Growth  
    Strengths and Weaknesses  
    Key Benefits  
    Brand Image  
    Perceptual Map   

  • Product/Brand Performance in Selected Markets
    ·        Category Development Index (CDI)
    ·        Brand Development Index (BDI)    

COMPETITIVE REVIEW  "If we're gonna win the pennant, we gotta start thinking we're not as good
                                                              as we think we are."  Charles Dillon Stengel

  • Direct and Indirect Competitors
  •   Key Competitors (each considered separately)
    ·        Market Shares, Sales, Growth  
    Target Markets  
    Marketing Objectives  
    Marketing Strategies  
    Current Marketing Mixes/Tactics  
    Current Advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, and Direct
          Marketing Programs  

    Message Strategies  
    Media Strategies  
    Overall Assessment

BUYER ANALYSIS  "He was originally born in Michigan, and that's a real great town."  Mickey Rivers

  • User Profile  
    (demographic, geographic, psychographic, behavioristic factors) 
  • Product Usage Levels
  • Buying Decision Process
  • Who Buys the Product
  • Who Influences the Purchase Decision 
  • Who Makes the Decision
  • Brand Selection Factors

                                                                                        "The future lies behind us."  Ken Burns

  • Detailed Review of Previous and Current Promotion Programs for the Product, including Budgets, Promotion Mix, Share of Voice, Message Strategies, and Media Strategies
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses 
  • Overall Assessment                                                         

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES  "I'm the world's worst fielder, but I can hit."  Dick Stuart
(e.g., Crackerjack Golf Club Company -- new line of golf clubs)

  • Strengths
    ·        Crackerjack is known for innovative products  
    Strong base in professional golf shops  
    Highest consumer satisfaction ratings among major brands  
    Outstanding sales force
  • Weaknesses
    ·        Highest prices in the industry  
    Advertising expenditures are less than half those of major competitors  
    Little trade promotion  
    Weak presence in mass-merchandise and discount stores   

THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES  "Age is a case of mind over matter. If you don't mind, 
(e.g., Crackerjack Golf)                          it don't matter."  Satchel Paige

  • Threats
    ·        Increasing number of golfers are buying equipment in mass-merchandise
          and discount stores  

    Crackerjack’s most-feared rival, Nifty Golf, recently introduced its entire line
           into a major golf discount chain  

    Several major competitors have become more aggressive in trade
          promotion efforts
  • Opportunities
    ·        More people of all ages are playing golf  
    A major sporting goods chain indicated it would carry Crackerjack irons, if
          Crackerjack would increase its trade allowances and introduce a
          cooperative advertising program  

    Some notable professional golfers have recently switched to Crackerjack
          irons, with positive result

MARKETING GOALS  "You got to be careful if you don't know where you're going, because you
                                                                  might not get there."  Lawrence Peter Berra

Marketing goals are what is to be accomplished by the overall marketing program.  The situation analysis is the foundation for the marketing goals.  They are defined in terms of one or some combination of the following:

  • Sales Volume

  • Market Share

  • Sales Revenue

  •   Profit 

  • Return on Investment    

Marketing goals and promotion objectives are not the same.  Marketing goals establish a framework for the determination of promotion objectives.   

TARGET MARKET  "See it and hit it."  Theodore Samuel Williams

  • Primary Target Market
  • Secondary Target Market     

(i.e., what needs to be accomplished in order for Crackerjack to meet marketing goals and how the objectives will be achieved

A statement of what the total marketing communications program will accomplish – the role the program will play in the marketing effort.  Promotion objectives involve a desired audience response, which results from the process of consumer decision making.  Though the particular objectives sought depend heavily on the target audience’s level of involvement with a product category and perceived differentiation among different brands, a useful framework for promotion planners is the hierarchy-of-effects model (Lavidge-Steiner) that shows different buyer-readiness states.   

  • Awareness Objectives: used when most of the target audience is unaware of the company product or brand  

  • Knowledge Objectives: used when the target audience has company or product awareness, but knows little beyond that  

  • Liking Objectives: used when the target audience knows the company and its product, but does not look favorably on it  

  • Preference Objectives: used when the target audience is aware of the product, knows about it, and likes it – but does not prefer it to other brands  

  • Conviction Objectives: used when the target audience may prefer the product but is not convinced that it is the best choice for them

  • Purchase (i.e., Action) Objectives: used when the target audience has conviction but still hasn’t purchased the product
    ·        Campaign Objectives
          (e.g., Crackerjack Golf)
    ·        increase awareness among golfers that Crackerjack irons have the
               highest consumer satisfaction ratings of all major brands
    ·        increase trial of Crackerjack irons among golfers 35-49
    ·        explain the features of Crackerjack’s Big Blaster driver that allows the
               golfer to hit the ball farther with greater accuracy
    ·        Campaign Strategies
          (e.g., Crackerjack Golf)
    ·        emphasize advertising in special interest golf magazines
    ·        provide cooperative advertising support to retail outlets
    ·        make available demonstration sets to key retailers  
    ·        sponsor instructional clinics for golfers of all age

Follow each objective and strategy with a brief rationale. 

POSITIONING AND CAMPAIGN THEME  "Go with the best you got."  Thomas Lasorda
(i.e., the image you want your product to have in the minds of the target market; how you want your product perceived relative to the competition; it is the basis for all your communications)

  • Positioning Strategy 
    (e.g., by product difference, by key attribute or benefit, by usage, against
     a specific competitor(s), by users of the product)
  • Positioning Statement
  • Campaign Theme
    (i.e., the slogan)

CREATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS  "It isn't just what you say, but how you say it."  Harry Caray

  • Target Audience
  • Advertising Objectives  "This year I wanna get 200 or 225 hits whichever comes first."  Paul Waner
    (what the advertising is supposed to do)
    ·        Example:  To increase awareness of the ...
    ·        Example:  To persuade the target audience that ... 
  • Advertising Strategy  "Just take the ball an' throw strikes. Home plate don't move."  Satchel Paige
    (what the advertising is attempting to communicate; i.e., the benefit, problem solution or other advantage that is the value of the product -- physical or psychological)
    ·        Example:  Use of this product will allow you to recover more quickly after
         strenuous exercise.
  • Advertising Execution Format  "It ain't braggin' if you can back it up."  Jay Hanna Dean
    (how the advertising appears)
    ·        Example:  demonstration, problem-solution, comparison
  • Advertising Appeals
    (how the advertising stimulates interest and influences feelings)
    ·        Example:  fear, pleasure, comfort, convenience
  • The Copy Platform  "What's the Big Idea?"  David Ogilvy
  • Rationale for Creative Recommendations
  • Executions
    ·        Storyboards, Scripts, Mechanicals

MEDIA  "I like announcing on the radio better than television, because you can make a mistake on radio
                   and they don't know. You can make up anything on the radio."  Phillip Rizzuto

  • Target Audience
  • Objectives
    ·        Example:  To achieve an 80 reach and a 3 frequency.  
    ·        Example:  To heavy-up geographical areas where BDI is not at pace with
  • Strategy
    ·        Example:  Use magazines primarily targeted toward women 25-49.  
    ·        Example:  Schedule media heavy-up to coincide with sales promotions.  
    ·        Example:  Heavy-up radio in selected markets.
  • The Media Plan  "Only reason I'm coming to the ballpark tomorrow is the schedule says I got to." 
    ·        Media Mix Recommendations and Rationale                        George Anderson 
    ·        Share-of-Voice (SOV)  
    ·        Geographic Scope  "I'll play third, first, left. I'll play anywhere--except Philadelphia."  Dick Allen
    ·        Brand Development Index (BDI)
    ·        Category Development Index (CDI) 
    ·        Scheduling Pattern and Rationale
    ·        Reach and Frequency with Rationale
    ·        Gross Impressions  "He's so ugly my pants wrinkle whenever I go near him."  Mickey Rivers  
    ·        Gross Rating Points (GRPs)  
    ·        Cost-per-Thousand (CPM) 
    ·        Cost-per-Point (CPP)  
    ·        Media Flowchart
          ·        Each medium broken down by vehicle
  • Media Plan Rationale – Summary  
  • Budget Breakdown
    ·      By Media Class (e.g., print)  
    ·      By Medium (e.g., magazines)
    ·      By Media Vehicle (e.g., Business Week)

                                                                   "Ain't no brand loyalty that 75 cents off can't overcome."  Anne Onamus 

  • Target Audience 

  • Objectives

  • Techniques

  • Sales Promotion Plan/Timing

  • Rationale

  • Budget

                                                           "Good pitching always stops good hitting, and vice versa."  Charles Dillon Stengel    

  • Target Audience 

  • Objectives

  • Techniques

  • Sales Promotion Plan/Timing

  • Rationale

  • Budget 

(including Database Marketing)       "When you come to a fork in the road, take it."  Anne Onamus

  • Target Audience

  • Objectives

  • Type
     ·    The Internet/Online
     ·    Direct Mail
     ·    Electronic/Print Media (Direct Response)
      (e.g., infomercials)
     ·    Telemarketing
    (outbound and inbound)
     ·    Catalog
     ·    Kiosk
     ·    Face-to-Face Selling

  • Direct Marketing Plan/Timing

  • Rationale 

  • Budget  

(including press releases, press conferences, special events, sponsorships, product placements, and cause-related efforts)  "I wish I had an answer to that, 'cause I'm tired of
                                                                                            answering that question."  Lawrence Peter Berra

  • Target Audience
  • Objectives                             
  • Strategy/Execution
  • Scheduling/Plan
  • Rationale                      "His reputation preceded him before he got here."  Andrew Van Slyke
  • Budget

PERSONAL SELLING RECOMMENDATIONS  "I am the greatest."  Muhammad Ali

  • Target Audience 
  • Objectives
  • Strategy 
  • Rationale
  • Budget  

(may be included under previous sections as appropriate)
                                   "We have a good time together, even when we're not together."  Lawrence Peter Berra        

  • Target Audience
  • Objectives 
  • Advertising to Resellers 
  • Sales Promotion to Resellers
  • Direct Marketing to Resellers
  • Public Relations to Resellers
  • Personal Selling to Resellers
  • Rationale
  • Budget

CAMPAIGN FLOWCHART  "Last night I neglected to mention something that bears repeating."
                                                                                                                                                       Gerald Coleman       

A one-page summary diagram showing the timing of the major elements, events, and activities of the campaign.  Similar to a media flowchart, but not as detailed, with focus only on the key components of the campaign.  The campaign flowchart shows at a glance what is to happen when throughout the entire campaign.   

"Half my advertising is wasted, but I don't know which half."  John Wannamaker

Measurement and evaluation activities occur during the course of the campaign, as well as at the end.  This section of the proposal should contain a description of those activities and the specific methods that will be used to appraise the individual components of the campaign, as well as for measuring the overall effectiveness of the campaign.                                        

BUDGET  "Fill in any figure for that fella's contract. Whatever the figure, it's a deal."  Branch Rickey        

This section is a summary of all costs of the campaign (e.g., media, production, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations, sponsorship, endorsements, measurement and evaluation expenditures, and more).  The budget should show both dollar and percent-of-total expenditures. 

TIMETABLE  "The Hall of Fame ceremonies this year are on the 31st and 32nd of July."  Ralph Kiner     

Summary of key dates for various activities (e.g., date for client approval of creative strategy, dates for production materials, dates for tracking studies).  

CONCLUSION  "Any doubt about his career being over was gone when I homered off him."  Gene Mauch

A very brief review of your plan and how well it meets the needs of the client.  One page should be sufficient to summarize the factors that make your plan the one that will best get the job done for the client.                                          

APPENDIX  "If I didn't wake up, I'd still be sleeping."  Lawrence Peter Berra     

In most cases, this is a very important section of the plan.  It will include information and material which have potential value to your client and which have not been fully presented in the text of your plan.  Examples:  industry data, market data, questionnaires, competitors’ advertisements.  This section can be a valuable resource for your client. 

REFERENCES  "Thou shalt not steal. I mean defensively. On offense, thou shall steal and thou must."
                                                                                                                                                                     Branch Rickey

A complete list of secondary sources used for the campaign plan. 

*************************************                                 ********************************************************************
        "It ain't over 'til it's over."                                          "The reward of a thing well done is to have done it." 
                      Lawrence Peter Berra
                                                                                        Ralph Waldo Emerson                   *************************************                         ********************************************************************                                   


Kodak Cameras                                                Cape Cod Potato Chips
Heineken Beer                                                   Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream
Sam Adams Beer                                             Audi Automobiles
Sunkist Soda                                           
Power Bar Energy Bar                                     CVS Pharmacy
Dell Computers                                                 Nokia Mobile Phones
AOL                                                                     Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines
Oakley Sunglasses                                            FedEx
Charles Schwab                                                Gallo Wine
Callaway Golf                                                     Lexus Automobiles
New Balance Running Shoes                          Southwest Airlines
Prince Tennis Rackets                                      Evian Bottled Water
Warner Bros. Television Network                    Harley-Davidson Motorcycles
The Boston Globe                                             Wendy’s
Lands’ End Clothing                                          Kix Cereal
Lindt Chocolates                                                Ocean Spray Juices
Maxfli Golf Balls                                                  NESN Television Network
New England Revolution Soccer Team           Virgin Atlantic Airways
LL Bean                                                               Burton Snowboards
Sony PlayStation                                                 Foxwoods Casino
Gatorade                                                              The Boston Celtics
American Express                                              Tootsie Rolls